Proper cultivation and care of arugula outdoors
Any person's diet should include at least 70% vegetables. Fresh herbs are a good addition, the chemical composition of which is rich in valuable vitamins and minerals. Arugula is considered one of the popular salad components, but when grown in summer cottages, it is rarely possible to get a product with an exquisite spicy nutty taste. The whole secret lies in agricultural technology, the rules of planting and care, which will be discussed in this article.
What is arugula and what does it look like
The plant is a kind of salad, belongs to the Indau genus of the cabbage family. Initially, greens were considered a weed, but later they added to the lists of vegetable crops grown in our country. The demand for the product began to grow after the popularization of Mediterranean cuisine.
The culture has a short growing season, which allows you to grow greens in the open field throughout the warm period. When cultivated in a greenhouse or on a windowsill, the crop grows year-round, in spring and winter.
Arugula contains rich vitamin composition, which includes:
- ascorbic acid;
- vitamins B, E, PP, K;
- essential oils;
- vegetable acids (erucic, oleic, linoleic, etc.);
- steroids and other substances.
Regular consumption of greens has the following effect on the body:
- strengthens the protective function of the body;
- normalizes metabolic processes;
- calms the nervous system;
- lowers blood cholesterol levels;
- increases hemoglobin.
And this is an incomplete list of the merits of arugula, so it is often include in dietary and medical food.
Timing for sowing rucola in the open field
You can sow arugula several times per season, starting from April to August... It is important that the earth has time to warm up to 9-14 degrees. If planted in cold soil, the process of germination and seedling development is inhibited.
In the south and in the middle lane, you can sow from April 15. In northern regions it is recommended to use greenhouse or seedling cultivation method.
Grains for seedlings need to be planted from late March to early April... No preliminary preparation for the seeds is required, they already have good germination. The seedlings are grown in pots, boxes or cups.
Seedlings appear 4-6 days after sowing. When 2 true leaves are formed on the sprouts, you need dive seedlings into separate containers (plastic cups or peat pots). The grown shoots are transferred to an open bed together with an earthen clod so as not to damage the root system.
After germination of seedlings, it is necessary to thin out the planting, leaving at first 5 cm between the shoots, and then, increasing the distance to 10 cm. The thickening has a negative effect on the taste of the salad.
The most suitable varieties for growing in the country or in the garden
The assortment of varieties complicates the choice when determining the variety to grow on your site. When buying, you should familiarize yourself with a brief description of the plants and the features of their agricultural technology.
Arrows of Cupid
Plant with average ripening period, the growing season lasts 36-38 days... The bush reaches a height of 20-30 cm, forming a raised rosette of narrow long leaves. During flowering, light yellow inflorescences of small sizes appear.
Features of the variety: consistently gives a high yield, the external similarity of the culture with dandelion.
The variety ripens in about a month (vegetation 28-30 days). The height of the bush reaches 20 cm, the stem is erect with a small edge. The plant blooms in small cream-colored inflorescences.
Taste qualities of the leaves are distinguished by a sweetish aftertaste and lack of bitterness.
Plant early ripening period, the growing season lasts only 21-25 days... Intensely green leaves of large size, in one outlet there are about 20-26 pieces. The height of the bush is about 20 cm.
The arugula is sweetish to taste with a mustard hint. The seed remains germinating for 4 years.
Plant early ripening period, the growing season lasts only 20-25 days... The height of the bush does not exceed 16-20 cm. The leaves are lyre-shaped, slightly rounded. The variety is perennial.
The advantages of the plant: high yield, good transportability, high taste, which are distinguished by a pronounced nutty note and a slight bitterness.
Rules for planting a vegetable in the garden
In order for the arugula to fill with a rich green color and acquire a pleasant nutty flavor, it is necessary to strictly follow the rules of agricultural technology, in particular, planting in open ground.
Seed preparation before sowing
Arugula seeds should be purchased from specialized stores. When buying from hand, you need to hold seed disinfection... For this, the grains are immersed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes. After the procedure, rinse them thoroughly under running water and dry them on a towel.
Other treatments to stimulate growth are not carried out, as the arugula seed grows well enough.
Preparing the soil for arugula
When choosing a place for a garden bed for arugula, it should be borne in mind that the plant does not like shade or direct sunlight... Therefore, it is worth choosing a site that is in the shade for one half of the day, and in the sun for the second. Ideally, if the plants are in partial shade at midday.
The soil for the salad will do fertile, loose with a neutral medium or slightly acidic... The following predecessors are welcome: carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkin. Sowing arugula after: cabbage, turnips, daikon, radish and other cruciferous crops is not recommended.
Before planting, the soil can be enriched with calcium by introducing dolomite flour, chalk or other means into it.
What scheme to choose for planting in open ground
Sowing is carried out in prepared holes with a depth of 2 cm.The spacing between rows during transplantation is observed in 30-40 cm, between the holes - 5 cm... 2-3 seeds are embedded in each hole. A week later, it is necessary to thin out the beds, increasing the interval between plants to 10-15 cm.
Leaving after disembarkation
The air temperature is considered optimal for the growing season. 14-18 degrees... With a reduced indicator, plant development is inhibited.
The culture will survive a sharp drop in temperature to minus 7 degrees, but provided that the cold is short-lived. If frost occurs after sowing, then it is necessary to build a shelter made of plastic wrap.
Watering the plant
The soil should always be moist in the arugula beds, so irrigation is carried out regularly. Watering mode: 3-4 times a week.
With the prevailing heat, you need to moisten the soil daily. Due to the lack of moisture, the leaves acquire a bitter taste, and the plant itself releases color.
Arugula loves moisture, but watering should be controlled. Water stagnation in the upper layers of the soil must not be allowed.
Weeding and loosening
For normal vegetation, the plant requires loose soil, therefore, after each watering or every other time, you should push the ground with a hoe or horn.
Weeding is performed simultaneously with this procedure. Weeds thicken the planting, which provokes the development of fungal diseases, attracting pests. In addition, the proximity to weeds can negatively affect the taste of arugula.
The soil for sowing lettuce should be well fertilized. Then for the entire growing season you will need only 1-2 feeding.
Complex mineral compositions should not be introduced, because in a short time the toxins accumulated in the leaves will not have time to decompose. It is better to use a solution of chicken manure or rotted manure along with irrigation water. Nitrogen fertilizers are also suitable.
Pests and prevention
Arugula leaves contain a large amount of essential oils, their aroma repels many pests... However, this does not protect against fungal infectionsthat grow well in a humid environment - soil.
When the root system is damaged, the stem begins to fade gradually. On the roots with a fungal disease, small brown bubbles are formed. When the first signs of the disease are detected, it is necessary to remove the bush from the garden, and treat the soil with antifungal drugs.
Arugula leaves can only be damaged cruciferous fleas, lovers of radishes and different types of salad. If you cover the seedlings with lutrasil, then the pest will go looking for food in another place.
Also, for prevention purposes, it is recommended to sprinkle the beds with wood ash.
Those who have already had experience in growing arugula know that when the plant is overexposed in the garden, the leaves become hard and bitter in taste. Therefore, you need to harvest on time, should not be postponed.
One of the signs of ripeness is the length of the leaf, it should reach not less than 10 cm... After the ejection of the peduncle, the taste of the salad deteriorates.
Large rosettes are cut off completely, other bushes are cut off partially. It is better to use the leaves fresh for cooking. The harvest, wrapped in cling film, can lie in the refrigerator for only a few days.
To summarize, it is worth noting that growing arugula is fun and easy. Adhering to the general rules for caring for a plant, you can enrich the body with useful microelements, strengthen immunity and even rejuvenate the skin.
You can plant and grow arugula not only in the country or in the garden, but also at home - on the windowsill or balcony. The main thing is to familiarize yourself with compatibility with other plants, plant seeds according to the rules and maintain the required temperature at home.