Jacobinia or Justitia is an indoor flowering plant from the Acanthus family. The most common flower in the tropics of Latin America. There are about 50 species in the genus. It is an evergreen perennial that can grow to the size of a small shrub 1.5 m high.
Basically, the flower grows in its natural environment. At home, only three types of Jacobinia are grown: Fields, bright red and meat-red. It should be noted that all species are remarkably beautiful, but for some inexplicable reason, these three species have become the most popular among flower growers.
Jacobinia is one of those domestic plants that have won the attention of amateurs, both flowering species and deciduous ones. She is equally beautiful with flowers and during their absence. And if we take into account that Jacobinia is not at all capricious and does not require special care, then you can without hesitation add it to the list of those plants with which a young florist should start.
By the way, an interesting detail - Jacobinia is almost impossible to buy in a flower shop. But at the fair there will certainly be more than one species of this plant. You can also turn to people who grow flowers in greenhouses.
Description of the Jacobinia plant
The stem of the plant usually stretches upward, but may branch slightly, lignifies over time. Leaves are bright green, glossy, oval. During flowering, large, candle-shaped inflorescences can be seen. The flowers consist of a huge number of pink, red, orange or white drooping petals. Inflorescences can be located both on the shoots and on the top of the plant. Flowering lasts for 2 weeks.
Jacobinia care at home
Location and lighting
For active flowering and good development, the plant needs bright, not direct light, but in the cold season, on the contrary, it needs about 3-4 hours of direct sun. If the Jacobinia grows at home, in the summer it must be protected from the scorching sun. If possible, you can take out into fresh air. It is only necessary to cover the flower from the heat of the day. Getting used to the sun should be gradual. Especially if the flower is home and the sun in the room did not receive very much. Also, do not place immediately after purchase in direct sunlight.
Jacobinia prefers moderate indoor temperatures. But taking into account the recommended removal to fresh air in summer, it is clear that she easily adapts to the summer heat. The ideal temperature in summer is 20-25 degrees, in winter at least 16 degrees. True, there are Jacobinia with single inflorescences. Winter temperatures of 6-10 degrees are suitable for them. If it gets hotter, these species are likely not to bloom. This, of course, is problematic for breeding, so cold-loving species are not very common. It's hard enough to keep them cool.
Here Jacobinia does not differ in originality. Like the bulk of plants, in summer it requires abundant watering. As soon as the topsoil dries up, add water. But be sure to make sure that there are no surpluses, otherwise the earth will turn sour and the roots will begin to rot. If the water runs out into the plate under the pot, be sure to drain it. In winter, watering is reduced, but you need to look at the situation. Watering primarily depends on the room temperature. If the flower is in a room with central heating, especially on the windowsills, you need to water a little more and more abundantly.
Jacobinia does not tolerate dry air well. The plant should be sprayed regularly. Wipe the leaves with a damp sponge and take a small shower, covering the ground with plastic. You can put the pots in a tray with water or moss, pebbles, expanded clay, which are constantly moistened. The main thing is that the water from the pan does not fall into the plate under the pot. And it is better to combine all types of air humidification.
Top dressing and fertilizers
During the flowering period, you need to add top dressing (you can both organic and mineral) to the water for irrigation every ten days. Alternatively, water the soil with plenty of water before using fertilizers. But do not overdo it with a dose of top dressing. If the plant is overfed, it will almost certainly not bloom.
Usually, the Jacobinia is transplanted once a year, when it becomes cramped in the pot. There are rare cases in the summer season when a transplant is required two or even three times a year. When transplanting a plant, the pot must be taken one size larger. Many novice growers make the mistake of using a growing pot. This categorically cannot be done for a simple reason - there will be a lot of land, which means there will be plenty of water. And this excess will acidify the soil and, as a result, lead to poor results.
Drainage is an important detail when transplanting Jacobinia. Drainage serves two purposes. The first one accumulates water. Second, it removes excess moisture from the ground. Expanded clay (but not construction!), Fragments of an old clay pot and, with loose soil, pieces of foam plastic can be used as drainage.
You can pick up any soil, even garden. But if the “owner” wants to create comfort for his “pet”, it is better to use humus soil. It will not be difficult to cook it yourself - sand, humus, peat, deciduous soil (1-1-1-3). In a young forest, it is better to take the top layer of deciduous soil. It is worth paying attention to the soil under linden, maple and walnut. But willow and oak are best avoided. Ideally, humus should be taken after cleaning the greenhouses. The sand needs river white. If you use a marine one, then it must be washed several times. And it is better not to use construction at all.
If the grower is not indifferent to the appearance of the Jacobinia, and he wants to get a beautiful plant with many branches and flowers, then regular pruning is an indispensable condition. If you strive for a low, but voluminous flower, pruning should begin from the moment when the plant grows to 15-20 cm.
While the plant is young, pinching of the third leaves in the buds is carried out. As you grow older (usually in the second year), you can start pruning. Moreover, it must be done without regret, but also without fanaticism. Shoots are cut to a maximum of half, so that 2-4 nodules remain. Each cut off shoot gives 2-4 tops. If the grower regularly, every year, pruns, in a few years he will receive a short and lush plant.
Reproduction of Jacobinia
Most often, Jacobinia is propagated using cuttings. The optimal period for propagation by cuttings is the end of winter. After pruning the plant, take a stalk with two knots. Dry it slightly (within 24 hours, maximum two) and plant it in a mixture of peat and sand. Can be covered with a bag for a greenhouse effect. The temperature should be around 20 degrees. Water a little. The first watering is carried out a few hours after planting the cuttings. With the use of growth stimulants and heating, the onset of growth will accelerate. When the cuttings grow to 10-12 cm, they can be transplanted into separate pots. To make the plant more effective, you need to plant 2-3 cuttings at once. Young leaves can be pinched several times for greater branching.
Another way of reproduction of Jacobinia is by seeds. However, this method is not popular with flower growers. If you nevertheless decide to grow Jacobinia using seeds, then it is important to know that the crops should be at a temperature of 22 degrees.
Diseases and pests
Jacobinia rarely gets sick and is affected by various pests. But if the air humidity is too low, a spider mite may appear. The leaves first turn yellow, and then dry out altogether. On the reverse side of the sheet, you can see a thin white web.
With improper care of Jacobin, painful symptoms appear:
- Due to insufficient moisture in the plant, leaves may fall off.
- With a lack of lighting in winter, the leaves turn yellow.
- With an excess of fertilizers, the plant does not bloom, while actively gaining leaf mass.
- Jacobinia loses its decorative shape if the air is too cold or near drafts.
- Flowers can rot if they get a lot of moisture or the room is poorly ventilated.
- The tips of the leaves curl at low temperatures.
- In direct sunlight in the heat, burns may appear on the leaves.
Types of Jacobinia with a photo
A low shrub, reaching a maximum mark of 0.5 m. The shoot is branched, the shape of the leaves is oval. During flowering, you can observe lush red and yellow inflorescences.
Jacobinia meat-red (Jacobinia carnea)
The straight shoot reaches a height of 1 m. The leaves are elongated, up to 20 cm long, with slight pubescence on the surface. Inflorescences are round pink.
Yellow Jacobinia (Justicia aurea)
The plant of this species has a magnificent shape and reaches a height of 1 m. Leaves are matte, densely cover the stem. The inflorescences are volumetric yellow.
The highly branching shoot reaches a length of about 1 m. Large leaves are bright green. Inflorescences are small, white, around which there are orange bracts.
The species is represented by large shrubs about 1 m high. The leaves are green with a deep shade. The flowers are pale pink, collected in small inflorescences.
• in rooms with bright windows
• in general premises (offices, halls)
• in winter gardens, greenhouses
• young plants - annually
• adult specimens - in 2-4 years in pots of classical proportions
turf land: leafy land: sand (1: 3: 1)
• may suffer from excessive dryness of the air
• in low light it blooms less often
• damaged by spider mites, whiteflies, aphids
in room conditions, forced (from October to February) due to low illumination and humidity
• rooting stem cuttings with soil heating up to 20-25 ° C and using root formation stimulants
needs annual pruning to maintain compactness
• leaves are finely pubescent, with a reddish tint on the underside, oval or lanceolate, 10-20 cm long
• there are decorative forms: 'Obtusior' - with narrower leaves and 'Velutina' - with densely pubescent leaves
usually in the summer-autumn period
• flowers are two-lipped, in a spike-shaped inflorescence, the length of the flower corolla is up to 5 cm, inflorescences are up to 15 cm
• there is a decorative form 'Obtusior' with shortened inflorescences
Content of Justice at home
Justicia (Justicia) belongs to the Acanthus family, it includes about 4 hundred species, even such as Beloperone and Jacobinia, which were previously considered independent.
Lovers of home floriculture know these flowers by their old names, more familiar. This flower can be seen in tropical and temperate latitudes of North and South America.
Justicia brandegeeana was formerly called Beloperone. Grows in Mexico, is a green all year round strongly branching dwarf shrub up to 100 cm high. Leaves, pointed, elliptical in shape, up to 10 centimeters long. The flower is appreciated by flower growers for year-round flowering. Throughout the year, bright bracts of pink or red-yellow colors are formed at the ends of the shoots. The flower itself is white with dark burgundy specks in the neck. Several varieties of Brandege have been bred, differing only in the shade of the bracts: in some they are defiantly yellow, while in others they are pink or brick-colored. The flowering of this species of Justicia lasts a long time, and even after its completion, the bracts remain bright and the plant remains attractive almost all year.
Justicia is bright red, formerly known as Jacobinia bright red. It grows wild in Brazil. In the natural environment, it reaches 120-150 cm, but at home it can only grow up to 80 cm. The flower has large, 15-20 cm long, wrinkled ovoid leaf plates. The foliage is dark green, sometimes with a tinge of bronze. The bracts are green, but the flowers themselves are bright - they create a head with a large number of elongated and narrowed petals of a deep pink color.
Justice Rizzini (Jacobinia small-flowered). The variety is native to Brazil. The flower forms a small bush (30-50 cm), which makes it an excellent option for landscaping an apartment. Shoots consist of a large number of thin branches with dark green small (2-4 cm long) leaves. Drooping tubular flowers about 2 cm long form racemose inflorescences. Red-yellow flowers are collected in them 3-5 pieces. What makes Justice Rizzini special is the ability to bloom in cold weather. It looks very impressive at the end of winter, in spring, when it is completely covered with bright flowers.
Justice letter grows in India and southeastern Africa. In its natural environment, it reaches 2 meters, but at home it can grow no more than 1 meter. The leaves are slightly wavy. Bracts combine cream and light green color with streaks of green, while the flowers are bright purple. The inflorescences are erect, and the flowering is abundant.
Lighting. Most of all, Justice loves bright and diffused light. For the northern part of the globe, it is better to set the flower pot to the south, southwest or east windows. In southern latitudes, at the peak of the heat, you should remove the flower from the sun or shade it. Not only direct rays of the sun are dangerous, but also just a very warm temperature, due to which the leaves and inflorescences dry out and fall off.
In the summertime, justice should be taken out into the street, a balcony or terrace is ideal, but during cold rains and strong winds, it is necessary to bring the plants back. The usual mild summer rain of Justice won't hurt.
Temperature. Justices love warmth, but react badly to extreme heat. The best thermometer reading in spring and summer is 20-25 degrees, in colder months the indicator is lowered to 16-18 degrees. For example, a flower like Justicia Rizzini needs a very cool place during flowering, about 10 degrees, and if all conditions are created, then with a high probability there will be an abundance of beautiful buds.
Humidity. Justice loves high humidity, although they perfectly tolerate air that is not saturated with water, but it is best to constantly spray the leaves with settled water.
Watering. In the spring and summer, the irrigation regime is plentiful. To do this, it is necessary to pre-defend the water so that it becomes softer. With insufficient watering, the leaves and inflorescences will fall off, so do not allow the substrate to dry out. If Justice is kept cool in winter, then watering is reduced, but at warm temperatures it still remains abundant.
Fertilizer. During the growth of the flower and after planting, fertilizer should be applied for flowering plants every week, and then 1-2 times a month.
Pruning. To grow a neat and compact Justice on the windowsill, you need to prune in a timely manner. It is most preferable to do this in the spring, cutting off 1/3 or from the height of the shoots. So the plant will branch better, become lush and take on a more decorative look. Young flowers from cuttings can be pruned before spring.
If you want to arrange Justice with a small bush, you can begin to pinch the shoots at a height of 10-15 cm from the base, the side branches deprive the third pair of leaves. Pinching will help not only form a low bush, make it branchy, but also form many tops, on which many new inflorescences will then appear.
To make a tall bush or small tree, you need to pinch later and cut off the side branches from the sides from below.
Transfer.It is better to transplant a flower after flowering. Young plants develop very quickly. Over the summer, they can change the pot to a larger one 2-3 times. Do not forget to place a high-quality drainage layer at the bottom.
The soil. Justice needs fertile soil. Leafy soil, sod, humus, peat and sand in equal quantities are perfect. It is useful to add a little phosphate fertilizer and coal to the resulting mixture.
Reproduction. You can propagate Justicia using cuttings or seeds. Seeds germinate at a temperature of at least 20-25 degrees. Cuttings must be harvested before creating inflorescences. They need to be dug into a mixture of peat and sand and maintain a temperature of at least 18 degrees. Only cuttings with internodes are suitable for reproduction. It is best to dry them a little and cover them with a solution to stimulate root formation. In the pot, the stalk should be placed at a slight angle and covered with a plastic glass or bag, which must be removed once a day to ventilate the flower. After one month, it will already be possible to notice growth.
Rooting can be done in an ordinary glass of water, and sent to the pot when the roots reach 1 cm.
Justice almost does not suffer from diseases and harmful insects, but if the content is too dry, then spider mites and scale insects may appear.
Excellent justice will be a great addition to a winter garden or home greenhouse. With simple care, it will delight the owners with a beautiful unusual flowering.
If beloperone is more often used as a background plant - its inflorescences are not so expressive as to become the center of the composition, then the flowering yellow pachystachis (Pachystachys lutea) is simply impossible to ignore. With good care, this is a meter-long branched shrub, strewn with sunny yellow candles of inflorescences.
The festival of colors lasts from March to November.
Perennials in garden design
To decorate a summer cottage, on its territory, you can break several flower beds and plant various types of yellow flowers on them. For example, in your garden, you can place irises or gladioli, which dissolve their buds literally one after another. If you plant ornamental plants (for example, maned barley or hosts) somewhere next to them, the picture will turn out to be incredibly beautiful.
Daffodils, tulips, goose onions, crocuses and primroses will look very good in the garden. They will be able to delight their owner with exuberant color, attractive flowers and stunning aroma. And the same adonis, which is a relative of the buttercup, will be able to adequately decorate not only a flower bed, but also an alpine hill. But it is worth remembering that this flower grows well only on neutral soils, under the sun, and does not like transplants.
If you are wondering what yellow flowers can still be placed on the site, then this is a miniature viola. It looks good in foreground flower beds. And also hairy or hybrid rudbeckia. Interestingly, the original name for the yellow flowers is "black-eyed Suzanne." This is how the settlers who came to live in North America called them. But the Europeans have the opinion that the name "Sun Hat" is much more suitable for rudbeckia.
Yellow annuals in your flower bed
One of the first to include gating is one of the first to be included in the list of yellow flower names from among annuals. This plant is somewhat reminiscent of a gerbera, but its flowers are more like small stars. It is planted in open ground on the 20th of May. Another attractive yellow flower is nasturtium. She is able not only to decorate the garden, but also to scare away many pests from it. It can also be used to create decoctions for weight loss and rejuvenation.
Chinese asters, marigolds, petunias, kosmeya, calendula, majors (zinnias) and mirabilis take root well at their summer cottage. And helianthus (a fellow sunflower) can serve as a background for them. Without it, it is impossible to imagine any country-style garden. In general, a variety of annual flowers can be planted in a flower bed. And let them delight you with their beauty and exquisite aroma that can spread throughout the site.
Caring for plants from the acanthus family is very similar. In order for them to retain their attractiveness and delight with lush flowering, they need to provide good lighting. The best place for these flowers is the east or west windowsill. On the south windows, they will need protection from the midday sun in the spring and summer to avoid burns.
They prefer a loose, nutritious, humus-rich substrate and good drainage. Plants are usually transplanted in the spring, with the beginning of active growth.
Since most of them are developing quite actively, additional transshipment may be necessary in the summer. The signal that it is time for the plants to "move" to a larger pot is the drying out of the substrate too quickly and the roots showing up from the drainage hole.
All members of this family cannot stand drying out. With insufficient watering, the lower part of the stem is exposed in the plants, the foliage on the new growth becomes smaller and lighter, the plants bloom worse and lose their decorative effect. In winter, they are transferred to a more moderate watering, preventing the substrate from drying out.
Acanthus always in shape
Plants must be protected from drafts and sudden changes in temperature.
They prefer high humidity.
Regular spraying and water treatments will help maintain their attractive appearance and serve as an excellent prevention against pests.
Over time, even with good care, the lower part of the stem of these plants is exposed.
Many grow indoor acanthus in a biennial crop, renewing plants from rooted cuttings.
If you do not want to part with your favorite adult flower, do a strong anti-aging pruning in the spring.
Of the pests, the greatest danger to these plants is the whitefly, scale insect, aphid and spider mite.