Dogwood: cultivation, reproduction, types and varieties
Plant dogwood (lat.Cornus) belongs to the genus of the Cornel family, whose representatives in nature number about fifty. Most often these are deciduous woody plants - shrubs or trees, but sometimes they are herbaceous perennials or woody winter-green plants. The genus Dogil consists of four subgenera. The word “dogwood”, borrowed from the Turkic language, means “red” - apparently, by the color of the berries of the most famous species of dogwood. Plants of this genus are widespread in Eastern and Southern Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, China and Japan.
People began to cultivate dogwood a long time ago: even the Romans and ancient Greeks were engaged in the selection of the best forms of plants for cultivation in gardens and, as Virgil argued, not without success. In the middle lane, dogwood began to be grown in the 17th century, under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, a great lover of all kinds of plant wonders, and interest in dogwood was caused by the extraordinary usefulness of its fruits, used in those days in the form of a decoction.
The first settlers to America used dogwood to brush their teeth, and the American natives used to make arrows. Later, shuttles for weaving equipment, doorknobs, hammer handles, tennis rackets began to be made from very hard dogwood wood. Even the Holy Cross is said to have been made from dogwood. The Pacific dogwood flower is the official flower of British Columbia, a province in Canada, and the flowering dogwood tree is the official tree of the US states of Missouri and Virginia.
Planting and caring for dogwood
- Landing: in the fall, at the very beginning of leaf fall.
- Bloom: in April-May.
- Lighting: penumbra.
- The soil: rich in lime. The groundwater at the site should be no higher than 1.5 m.
- Watering: moderate and regular.
- Top dressing: in the first half of the growing season, the nitrogen component should prevail in the fertilizer, in the second half - on the potash.
- Cropping: regular, during the dormant period - in late winter or early spring.
- Reproduction: green cuttings, layering, grafting or seeds.
- Pests: cochlea and polychrome caterpillars.
- Diseases: rust, powdery mildew, leaf spots.
Read more about growing dogwood below.
The most famous representative of the genus is the common dogwood shrub, or male dogwood, up to 2.5 m high with shiny red-orange hanging shoots, which, in contact with the soil, easily root, bright green opposite or alternate leaves and milky-white flowers collected in inflorescences up to 5 cm in diameter, which bloom in May and bloom within two weeks. Dogwood fruits with one or two seeds, ripening from August to October, differ both in shape and color. In cultivated forms, they reach a length of 3 cm, the shape is usually elongated-cylindrical, however, there are also species with almost round, like cherry, fruits, as well as barrel-shaped and even pear-shaped.
The color of the fruit is usually bright red, but forms with pink, yellow, purple and even black berries are known. And dogwood berries differ in taste: they can be sweet, tart or tart-sweet, juicy or dryish. The plant itself can be formed both as a bush and as a tree. Dogwood is quite frost-hardy, but at a temperature of -30 ºC, the ends of the shoots are frozen over. The dogwood bush lives for more than a hundred years.
When to plant
The time when the time has come to plant the dogwood is easy to guess - as soon as the poplar leaves begin to fall off. Planting dogwood in autumn is preferable to spring because in spring you will have to plant dogwood in a very short time interval between the time the ground warms up, and sometimes, when the dogwood buds begin to bloom. Choose a semi-shady area for dogwood with lime-rich soil on the south or southwest side, on which the groundwater does not occur more than one and a half meters. Dogwood grows in acidic soils, but this negatively affects both its development and the quality of the crop.
The dogwood is placed no closer than 3-5 meters from the fence, buildings and other trees. In order for the dogwood to bear fruit, it must have a couple in the garden, and preferably two, and they should be placed no further than 3-5 meters from each other.
How to plant
Cornelian seedlings ready for planting should be two-year-old, about 1.5 m high, with a trunk diameter of about 2 cm, they should have 3-5 skeletal branches. The dogwood is planted in a hole with a diameter and depth of about 80 cm. Having dug a hole, drive a stake into it, to which you will then tie a seedling. The stake is driven in from the side from which the wind usually blows.
The top, fertile soil layer removed from the pit, mix with humus and mineral fertilizers, pour a hill out of it in the center of the pit, set a dogwood seedling on the hill, carefully spread its roots, fill the hole with fertile soil with fertilizers, supporting the seedling so that its root the neck was 3-4 cm above the level of the site. Water the seedling with three buckets of water, and when it is absorbed, the soil will settle and the neck will be flush with the surface, cut off the seedling shoots by a third of the length, tie it to a support and mulch the near-trunk circle with humus or dry soil from the lower, less fertile soil layer.
Growing conditions in the garden
Planting and caring for dogwood is not much different from planting and caring for any other fruit shrub - rose hips or barberry, for example. The care of the dogwood consists in watering, loosening the soil on the site, removing weeds from it, pruning plant shoots and feeding.
The peculiarity of the dogwood is that there is no periodicity in its fruiting, that is, it gives a crop annually. The laying of the next year's harvest is carried out in May-June of the current year, and by the end of the growing season, flower buds, which form simultaneously with the growth of shoots, should be finally formed. This is why it is so important to water and fertilize the dogwood in a timely manner. In order for the water not to spread over the site, but to go to the superficially located root system, make a circular furrow around the bush and pour water into it.
Try to maintain a balance in the hydration of the dogwood: there should be enough water, but excessive watering is unacceptable. After watering, the soil on the site is loosened no deeper than 8-10 cm, while getting rid of weeds. As for dressings, in the first half of the season, fertilizers with a nitrogen-phosphorus component are used, and in the second they focus on potash - for example, wood ash is added to the soil. Dogwood reacts well to compost and humus, but the most important for the growth and fruiting of dogwood is the presence of calcium in the soil - keep this in mind.
Growing dogwood involves regular pruning of the shrub. In winter or early spring, during the dormant period, remove from the bush all damaged, dry and frostbitten branches that are easy prey for fungi or harmful insects. Before cutting the branch, dip the scissors in a 1: 3 mixture of bleach so as not to transfer pathogens that may have settled on the dogwood onto healthy branches.
Shorten or prune stems that are too old to stimulate new growth. Cut out the branches and shoots growing inside the bush. If your bush is grafted, remove all shoots below the graft site. You probably won't have to do formative pruning, since the plant has a naturally beautiful crown.
Pests and diseases
As a rule, dogwood is not affected by pests or diseases. But sometimes, extremely rarely, the plant suffers from a fungal disease of rust, manifested by yellow spots on the leaves. They destroy the fungus by treating the plant with Bordeaux liquid. Powdery mildew is also rarely affected by dogwood, which is fought with colloidal sulfur, as well as spotting, against which the dogwood is treated with the same Bordeaux mixture. Of the pests, the dogwood is the snailworm and the multiflorum caterpillar - the first is destroyed by processing the plant with lime, and the second - with Parisian greenery.
Features of care in the suburbs
For some reason, it is customary to think that dogwood does not take root in Moscow and the Moscow region, but this is not true. Breeders have bred plant varieties that can withstand frosts of thirty degrees, so the dogwood develops normally and bears fruit abundantly in the middle lane. Planting and caring for dogwood in the Moscow region is no different from growing a plant, for example, in the Stavropol region or in Ukraine.
Sometimes, however, the ends of its young shoots freeze over in winter, so in the spring they have to be cut off. In order to avoid such unpleasant surprises, the young dogwood for the winter needs to be covered with burlap for several years, and the trunk circle of the dogwood, both young and adult, should be mulched for the winter with a thick layer of peat or humus.
In amateur gardening, dogwood is propagated mainly vegetatively, but seed propagation is quite possible.
Growing from a bone
Dogwood seeds are cleaned of pulp and placed in moist moss or sawdust for a whole year, constantly maintaining a moist environment - thus, the seeds are stratified before sowing. The dogwood seed does not disintegrate into cotyledons, so it should be immersed in the soil no more than 3 cm.
Unstratified seeds germinate only after two years, and not all of them. Stratified seeds germinate in the year of sowing. Seed care is usual: watering, feeding, weeding, at the very beginning of growth, shading from scorching rays. For the first year, seedlings grow only up to 3-4 cm, by the end of the second - up to 10-15 cm, and in the fall they can be planted in open ground in a nursery. Dogwood bears fruit from seeds only after 7-10 years.
For seed reproduction, seeds of wild species of dogwood are used, then, when young seedlings grow from them, they are used as rootstocks for cultivated species of dogwood.
Propagation by cuttings
Only green cuttings from bushes at least 5-6 years old are suitable for cuttings of dogwood - lignified cuttings take root very poorly. Cuttings 10-15 cm long are cut early in the morning from shoots in the phase of active growth, each should have a well-developed growing point and two pairs of leaves. Cuttings after cutting are immediately placed in water. The oblique lower cut should pass half a centimeter-centimeter below the kidney.
Before planting, the cuttings are deprived of the lower pair of leaves and incubated for six to twelve hours in a 3% heteroauxin solution. Then they are washed, planted at an angle of 45º in a shady place, in the soil, sprinkled on top with a layer of well-washed sand 7-10 cm thick, and covered with polyethylene so that there is a gap of 15-20 cm between the film and the cuttings. After planting, the cuttings are watered , and in the future, the soil is kept in a slightly damp state, preventing direct sunlight from falling on the cuttings.
It is necessary to water the area through a fine sieve so that the water does not pour out in a stream, but is sprayed. The temperature under the wrap should be about 25 ºC, and as soon as it rises higher, lift the wrap to ventilate. Cuttings take root after two to three weeks, after which they begin to harden - this will take about two weeks of time, then the film is removed, and the mature cuttings are fed with liquid ammonium nitrate (30 g per bucket of water). The next fall, the bushes are planted in a permanent place.
Budding is carried out in August-September on planted and rooted two-year-old seedlings of wild dogwood, and cultivars are used as a scion. With a sharp knife, an incision is made on the rootstock crosswise - horizontally and vertically, and a vertical incision is made up to 3 cm deep.A bud with bark, leaf petiole and part of the wood is cut from the scion, inserted into a vertical incision, carefully pushing the bark on it to the side , and fix the scion with an eyepiece tape (you can use clerical tape).
After two to three weeks, if you did everything right, the petiole will fall off. Film can be removed in October. The emerging rootstock shoots must be removed.
Reproduction by layering
Horizontal arcuate annual shoots are used as layering. In the spring, as soon as the soil warms up, dig it around the dogwood bush with the addition of fertilizers, level it, make grooves in it, bend and lay the intended shoots in them, pin them and sprinkle them with soil at the attachment point, and pinch the tops. When green shoots with a height of 10-12 cm develop at the attachment points near the layers, sprinkle them up to half with earth, after 2-3 weeks, when the shoots will add the same amount in growth, sprinkle them up to half again.
In the fall or next spring, the layers are separated from the mother plant and planted in a permanent place.
Dividing the bush
This method is used when it is necessary to transplant the dogwood bush to a new place. In the spring, before the buds swell, or in the fall, a month before frost, the dogwood is dug up, all old branches are removed from it, the root system is carefully freed from the soil and the bush is cut into several approximately equal parts, each of which has good roots and healthy aboveground part. Before planting, the old roots are cut out, the rest are slightly shortened.
Dogwood is also propagated by root suckers, if they grow from a rooted plant - the shoots are separated from the bush and transplanted to a new place. In a grafted plant, root shoots grow from a rootstock - a wild species of dogwood, you are unlikely to need it.
Types and varieties
Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)
The most famous species of the genus is the common dogwood, which we have already described. We only add that the most popular forms of common dogwood are:
- Pyramidalis - dogwood with a pyramidal crown shape;
- Nana - dwarf dogwood with a spherical crown;
- Variegata - dogwood with leaves bordered by a white stripe;
- Aurea - dogwood with golden leaves;
- Aurea variegata - dogwood with yellow variegated leaves.
White dogwood (Cornus alba)
It is also a very widespread species in culture, which is found in natural conditions in China, Japan, Korea and almost throughout the territory of Russia. It is a shrub up to 3 m in height with flexible, thin branches of predominantly red-orange color, although there are forms with black-red and red-brown branches. Its young shoots are covered with a bluish bloom. The leaves of plants of this species are broadly ovate, slightly wrinkled, 10-12 cm long, dark green on the upper side of the plate, whitish below, in autumn they are painted in a dark red-purple color. Small white flowers up to 5 cm in diameter, collected in corymbose inflorescences, abundantly cover the bush in the first half of summer and again in early autumn.
White globular fruits with a blue tint ripen just in time for the second flowering of the white dogwood. This species has many decorative forms:
- silver-bordered - a plant with a creamy white border on the leaves, which in autumn turn from green to carmine red. The color of the bark is also red. The height of the bush is 2-3 m;
- Elegantissima - a very winter-hardy, fast-growing form of dogwood up to 3 m high with spectacular red shoots that are striking in winter, and leaves with uneven cream edging, spots and stripes;
- Siberica Aurea - a bush 1.5-2 m high with pale yellow leaves on erect red shoots and creamy white flowers, sometimes blooming again in autumn, simultaneously with the ripening of bluish fruits;
- Siberica Variegata - a dogwood of two meters in height with a wide creamy-white edging, stripes and spots on the leaves, which in autumn change from a green background to purple, and the border and speck remain creamy.Shoots retain their coral red color in winter. This plant bears little fruit, grows slowly, and is very suitable for small gardens.
Dogwood red, or blood red (Cornus sanguinea)
It grows in the undergrowth of deciduous and mixed forests, along the banks of rivers and lakes from the Baltic to the lower reaches of the Don and from the south of Scandinavia to the Balkans. It is a deciduous shrub up to 4 m high with a branched crown and drooping shoots of different colors - green, red, purple. Its leaves are round, ovoid, bright green with fine pubescence on the upper side and densely pubescent, and therefore whitish from the bottom. In autumn, the leaves turn bright red. Small, dull, whitish flowers make up corymbose multi-flowered inflorescences up to 7 cm in diameter. They bloom for 15-20 days.
Numerous black fruits look elegant and contrasting against the background of bright red leaves. Decorative forms of red dogwood:
- Greenest - with shoots, leaves and green fruits;
- Variegata - shrub up to 4 m high with variegated yellow leaves and pale green young shoots, which become burgundy with age. The fruits are bluish black;
- Dogwood Mitch - the leaves of this form are pale yellow in color with small spots.
Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida)
Originally from the east of North America. It is a deciduous tree with a dense, spreading crown that blooms until the leaves open. The autumn foliage is bright red. Varieties:
- Cherokee Chief - the height of the tree is 4-6 m, the bracts are red-pink;
- Rubra - bracts from light pink to bright red, bush height 4-6 m.
Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera)
Also from North America, where it grows in moist forests along the banks of watercourses, climbing to an altitude of 450 to 2700 m above sea level. The species is close to the white dogwood, but differs primarily in the ability to give many offspring around the bush. It is a shrub up to 2.5 m high with red-coral shiny shoots, bright green leaves, milky white flowers, collected in inflorescences up to 5 cm in diameter and bluish-white fruits.
Decorative forms of offspring dogwood are:
- White-bordered, to which the variety belongs White Gold - a shrub of medium height with a white border around the edges of green leaves;
- Flaviramea - a fast-growing shrub with a round shape of a bush with a height and width of 2-3 m. Its bark is yellow in winter and spring, and yellowish-green in summer and autumn. The foliage is green, reddish in autumn, but not all - many leaves do not change color;
- Kelsey - a dwarf shrub no more than a meter high and up to one and a half meters wide with reddish or bright green bark and green leaves that do not fall until late autumn, although they change color to orange or dark red.
It grows naturally in Japan and China. It is a winter-hardy deciduous shrub up to 9 m in height with graceful graceful bracts. In autumn, the leaves turn bright red. Varieties:
- Gold Star - green leaves with a yellow pattern, bush height 5-7 m;
- Milky Way - a tall bush, creamy white bracts.
There is a number of creeping dogwoods, which botanists distinguish into a separate genus - Swedish and Canadian dogwoods; the genus Svida, which includes Georgian and Meyer dogwoods, stands apart.
Dogwood properties - harm and benefit
When the medicinal properties of dogwood are described in the literature, they mean, first of all, plants of the common dogwood species. What is the use of dogwood, and what properties does it actually have?
Firstly, its fruits contain vitamin C in larger quantities than lemon, and have an anti-scurvy effect; therefore, a paste for astronauts and long-distance sailors is made from the cornelian cherry fruits.
Secondly, the tannins contained in the fruit hold the stool together. Berries are also useful for patients with diabetes mellitus, since they reduce blood sugar levels and increase the activity of the pancreas to produce the necessary enzyme. Dogwood has anti-inflammatory, choleretic, diuretic, bactericidal and astringent effects. Cornel berries increase appetite, improve digestion, normalize blood pressure, relieve headaches, and accelerate metabolic processes in the body.
Cornel is used in the treatment of cystitis, gout, skin diseases, edema of the legs, inflammation of the veins, intestinal diseases, including diarrhea and dysentery. It must be said that not only dogwood fruits have healing qualities, but also its flowers, bark, leaves and roots.
We offer you several recipes that can help out in difficult times:
Dogwood leaf tincture: Pour 50 g of crushed dogwood leaves with a glass of edible alcohol, leave for two weeks, then strain. Drink 10-15 drops with water three times a day. This tincture treats hemorrhoids, eczema, gout, skin infections, and expels intestinal parasites.
Dogwood decoction: Pour a tablespoon of dried berries with a glass of water, boil over low heat for 20 minutes, then leave for 2 hours, strain and take a quarter of a glass with vitamin deficiency 3 times a day before meals.
Decoction of dogwood bark and roots: pour a teaspoon of chopped roots and bark with a glass of water and boil for 15 minutes, then insist for two hours, strain and drink for rheumatism 3 times a day, 2 tablespoons.
In addition, drinks and dogwood jam have remarkable medicinal and taste qualities. Dogwood fruits are dried for the winter and a tasty and healthy broth is prepared from them.
The use of berries and dogwood juice is not recommended for people with high acidity, constipation or sluggish intestinal motility, as well as for those who have an unstable nervous system or individual intolerance to dogwood.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of family Cornelaceae
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Information about medicinal plants
- Shrub Information
- Information about Fruit Crops
- Information about Berry Crops
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Heliopsis - the "sun" of your flower garden
Home page »Heliopsis - the" sun "of your flower garden
The historical habitat of the species is the plains of Central and South America. Despite the foreign origin of heliopsis, it can hardly be called exotic in our gardens. Rather, on the contrary, it is difficult to imagine a grandmother's front garden or summer cottage without the towering "golden balls" of this plant. The name Helios opsis literally translates from Greek as similar to the sun and it is not for nothing that the bright golden-yellow balls of inflorescences can always rise above the site to a height of 160 cm.
Cornel is a thermophilic shrub that, in addition to the sun, also needs nutritious soil. It is recommended to prepare the garden bed in the fall: dig up the soil to a depth of 50-60 cm and apply fertilizer. For one planting pit with an area of about 1 m2, 3.5-4 kg of manure and 250 g of complex mineral fertilizer containing potassium and phosphorus are enough.
- Choose a spacious place for the dogwood so that 3-5 bushes can fit on the site - thanks to cross-pollination, the tree will bear fruit well. The site should be calm, light, the best option is the south side of the house.
- The soil is light, air and moisture permeable, slightly alkaline or neutral. If you have clay soil in your area, dilute it with peat or sand. Add lime to acidic soil, optionally dolomite flour.
- Humus or compost will increase the fertility of the soil - the plant will take root better and give a good harvest.
- Also, when planting, take into account such an important point as groundwater: the minimum level from the surface of the earth is 1.80-2 m.
- In a moderately warm climate, seedlings are planted in spring - late March - early April, until the plant has swollen. The best age for planting dogwood is 1-2 years: by this time a healthy seedling reaches a meter or slightly more height.
- If you are transporting a tree with exposed roots, wrap the seedling in a damp cloth to keep the roots from drying out. And before planting, put it in water for 8-10 hours so that the young tree is saturated with moisture.
- Dogwood can be planted not only in spring, but also in autumn (until mid-October). Well-watered and sprinkled plants manage to take root before the onset of frost, endure winter firmly and wake up in the spring.
- The depth of the planting pit is 50-60 cm, the diameter is 60-80 cm. The distance between the bushes is 3-5 meters. The tree does not tolerate stagnant water, so put drainage at the bottom of the pit, for example, rubble, and pour earth on top. Drive in a peg near the windy side, which will serve as a support for the tree. Form an earthen mound in the hole and gently spread the roots of the plant on it, cover it with the dug earth on top and tamp it lightly. Make sure that the root collar is 3-4 cm above ground level. After planting, water the plant: one hole will need about 30 liters of water (about 3 buckets of water). When the water is absorbed and the earth settles, mulch the trunk circles
Varieties and types
Zinnia graceful - Zinnia elegans.
Annual plant, fast-growing, with erect, stable stems, 30-90 cm tall. Leaves ovate-pointed, whole-edged, sessile, opposite, dark green.
Stems and leaves have hard pubescence. Inflorescences - baskets 3-14 cm in diameter. The ligulate flowers are bright, white, cream, yellow, orange, red, lilac, lilac, violet in shape - elongated-oval, linearly elongated or rolled lengthwise into a tube, with three teeth at the end, tubular - small, yellow.
It blooms very profusely and for a long time from mid-June to frost. Bears fruit. Seeds remain viable for 2-4 years. In the culture of Europe since 1796, among the Aztecs since 1520.
According to the structure of the inflorescences, the shape of the reed flowers and the height of the plants, they are divided into several groups: dahlia, chrysanthemum, scabio, gaiard, pompon (lilliputian), fantasies.
In Russia, the most common varieties dahlia and pompom, less often they use varieties of the fantasy group. Most often, seeds are sold in a mixture, although recently, with the development of the culture of landscape gardening, the need for seeds, divided by varieties or colors, has increased.
Dahlia. - Bushes are vigorous, spreading or compact, 60-90 cm tall, with few first-order shoots. The leaves are large, up to 12 cm long. Inflorescences are hemispherical, large, 10-14 cm in diameter, terry. Ligulate flowers are elongated-lobed, arranged in tiles with slightly raised edges.
Examples of varieties:
Violett - Sprawling bush, 60-75 cm tall. The inflorescences are terry, dense, 9-12 cm in diameter, purple, of various shades. Flowering inflorescences 18-23. Blooms from mid-June until frost.
Crimson Monarch '(Crimson Monarch) - Sprawling bush, 60-70 cm tall. The inflorescences are terry, dense, sometimes loose, large, 11-13 cm in diameter, dark red. Flowering inflorescences 18-25. Blooms from mid-June until frost.
Lavandelkonigin - Sprawling bush, 65-80 cm tall. The inflorescences are dense, double, 10-12 cm in diameter, lavender with a purple hue. Flowering inflorescences 19-23. Blooms from mid-June until frost.
Orange Kenig - Sprawling bush, 60-70 cm tall. Terry inflorescences, medium density, large, 12-14 cm in diameter, bright red-orange. Flowering inflorescences 18-23. Blooms from late June until frost.
Polar Bear - he is White or, in another spelling, Polar Bear. The bush is compact, 60-65 cm tall. Inflorescences are densely double, dense, 12-14 cm in diameter, white with a slight greenish tinge. Flowering inflorescences 17-20. Blooms from mid-June until frost.
Purple Prinse- The height of the bush is up to 60 cm, with large purple inflorescences, blooms from late June until frost.
Rose (Rosa) - Sprawling bush, 50-65 cm tall. The inflorescences are terry, medium-dense, large, 10-12 cm in diameter, pink in various shades. Flowering inflorescences 15-20. Blooms from mid-June until frost.
Tango - Semi-spreading bush, 60-70 cm tall. The inflorescences are terry, loose, large, red-orange, 9-11 cm in diameter. Flowering inflorescences 18-28. Blooms from mid-June until frost.
Cherry Queen - The height of the bush is up to 70 cm, with large dark cherry baskets blooming from mid-June to frost
Scharlach - Sprawling bush, 60-80 cm tall. The inflorescences are terry, loose, large, 10-13 cm in diameter, bright red with an orange tint. Blooms from mid-June until frost.
Envy - The height of the bush is 60-70 cm, with double green inflorescences with a diameter of 10-15 cm. The most unusual and, probably, the most popular variety at the present time. Blooms from mid-June until frost. It looks especially advantageous against a contrasting background of pink and purple tones.
Pompom (Lilliputian) - Bushes 40-55 cm tall, compact, densely branched, with a large number of shoots of the second - fourth order. The leaves are small. Inflorescences are cap-shaped, round, small, 3-4 cm in diameter, very dense, terry. Ligulate flowers are small, tiled. Abundant flowering, simultaneous.
Examples of varieties:
Rotkopchen - Bush densely double, almost spherical, 45-55 cm tall. Inflorescences are densely double, dense, 3-5 cm in diameter, from truncated-conical to almost rounded, bright red, do not fade in the sun. Flowering inflorescences 65-75. Blooms from late June until frost.
Tom-Thumb - Compact bush, 35-45 cm tall. The inflorescences are terry, very dense, 4-6 cm in diameter, cap-shaped, but flatter than the 'Rotkophen' variety, bright red, do not fade in the sun. Flowering inflorescences 30-40. Blooms from mid-June until frost.
On sale there is a mixture of ‘Tambelina’ (‘Thumbelina’). Plants up to 45 cm high with double, very dense inflorescences 4-6 cm in diameter, blooming from mid-June until frost.
Zinnia narrow-leaved, or Hage - Zinnia angustifolia.
The plant is an annual, erect, forms branched bushes 30-40 cm tall. Leaves are sessile, elongated or lanceolate, pointed, up to 6 cm long, with a wide base.
Inflorescences are small, up to 4 cm in diameter, monochromatic, bright orange, sometimes ligulate flowers with red tips and a dark orange base, simple and semi-double tubular - dark or black-brown.
Blooms from late June until frost. Bears fruit. Seeds remain viable for 2-4 years. Achenes are strongly flattened, oval-wedge-shaped. In culture since 1862.
Planting and breeding
Propagation of aglaonema by cuttings is the simplest and most common method. The plant can also be propagated by seeds. Rooting is carried out when the first leaves appear.
For aglaonema, reproduction is no different from breeding other plants. There are two ways: cuttings and seeds. In order to use the seed propagation method, you need to collect the seeds, rinse them thoroughly and place them in a mixture of sand and peat. You need to grow seeds in a warm place, water thoroughly. After the first stems with leaves appear, the plant can be transplanted into a pot.
Aglaonema transplant is a rare procedure, as the flower grows slowly. Young specimens are transplanted no more than 1 time a year, older plants 1 time in 3-4 years. The procedure should be carried out in late spring. To do this, choose a wide pot, fill it with a soil mixture of leaves, humus, peat and charcoal.
Aglaonema is best propagated by cuttings.To do this, you need to cut off the top of the stem, divide it into several parts, about 8-9 cm each. Each of these parts of the stem should be with leaves. Sections must be treated with charcoal, then planted in sand mixed with peat. After 3 weeks, roots are formed on the cuttings. Plants can be transplanted into rooting pots. This method is also used to rejuvenate aglaonema.
Dogwood: varieties and cultivation
Cornel ordinary (or male) - Cornus mas - deciduous, highly branched shrub or small tree up to 8 meters high.
In nature, it grows in mountain forests, on forest edges and in thickets of other bushes, rising to a level of 1500 meters. Found in Transcarpathia, Crimea, the Caucasus, Central and Southern Europe and Western Asia.
Young shoots of dogwood are greenish-yellow at first, later covered with gray cracking bark. Leaves are simple, whole, elongated-elliptical, narrowly pointed at the end, green, glossy above and lighter below, with compressed scattered hairs.
Dogwood plants - long-lived shrubs - live from 120 to 250 years. Their bark is reddish brown. The fruits are edible, juicy, sweet and sour, astringent, pleasant to the taste, after freezing their taste is significantly improved.
The reduction in the area of dogwood is associated with insufficient production of high-quality planting material, however, the author of this article reliably knows that this problem is slowly beginning to be resolved, there are already plantations in Krasnogvardeisky, Belogorsky, Bakhchisarai districts, in the zone of Sevastopol and Yalta, in Kherson and Zaporozhye regions. The widespread distribution of dogwood is also hindered by its low winter hardiness - even in the conditions of the Central zone of Russia, which has a not so harsh climate, the dogwood sometimes freezes to the level of snow cover.
Cornel is an extremely valuable fruit crop, biologically active components that make up the berries, normalize blood pressure, prevent sclerosis, in addition, berries are used as a tonic, tonic, anti-inflammatory agent for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Its fruits are considered valuable biologically... Their pulp contains up to 17% sugars, over 3% organic acids, vitamins C, P, A, a lot of iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur salts. The content of vitamin C in fruits is close to that of currants, and in some varieties it is even higher.
The inhabitants of the Crimea consider the dogwood fruit to be extremely useful for all kinds of diseases, especially in the form of a decoction. There is even a small legend about this, explaining the shortage of doctors in Taurida, who did not agree to stay there to work, because they did not see the point in this due to the presence of a huge amount of wild dogwood, which at that time was considered the best doctor against all diseases inherent in human the body.
From time immemorial, a decoction of cornel leaves was used to treat intestinal diseases, and a decoction of fruits was used to treat colds and fevers. In addition, the fruits have bactericidal properties. Quite recently it was found that the cornelian bark, its berries and leaves contain organic acids, sugars, pectins, tannins, and they contain the same amount of vitamin C as in black currants. In the Caucasus, a special vitamin lavash is made from mashed dogwood berries. It is reliably known that during the First World War, with the help of such lavash on the Caucasian front, it was possible to eliminate such a dangerous disease as scurvy.
Inhabitants of the southern regions, where dogwood is most common, unripe berries are salted with bay leaves and fennel, a dish is obtained that tastes like well-known olives. It is known from reliable sources that this recipe, bypassing the years, has reached our days and since the times of Ancient Greece and Rome, where cornelian fruits were also salted and eaten with cheese and fish, and almost did not change.
Due to its early flowering, dense beautiful foliage and bright fruits, durability and resistance in urban conditions, the dogwood is an excellent ornamental plant for gardens, parks and home gardens.
Over the long history of growing dogwood, a fairly large number of varieties have been created that differ in the shape of the crown, color of the leaves, size and taste of the fruit. Among them, the most famous are worth noting:
One of the most productive varieties with large (average weight over 7 g), outwardly attractive, one-dimensional, shiny, black-red fruits, oval-cylindrical, somewhat flattened on both sides. The pulp of the fruit is gristly, dense, the taste is sweet and sour. They ripen at the end of August. The positive quality of this plant is the absence of fruit shedding, due to their dense attachment to the branches. Fruiting is abundant, annual, the yield from a twenty-year-old plant is 55-60 kilograms. The fruits are good both fresh and processed.
The fruits are large, reach 6.5 grams, oval-pear-shaped, dark red, shiny and juicy with a thin skin and delicate, sweet and sour pulp with a specific cornelian cherry aroma. The variety is characterized by an average ripening period and an annual stable (up to 60 kilograms per plant) yield. The fruits are tasty both raw and suitable for processing.
Fruits are regular oval, shiny, dark red, almost black when fully ripe, with a thin but dense skin. The pulp is dark red, tender, sweet-sour taste. The average fruit weight is 6 grams. The fruits ripen in the last decade of August - early September. The variety has a high yield, a 15-year-old tree can produce up to 50 kilograms of fruit. Fruits ripen together, do not crumble, ripen well in maturation, fresh in the refrigerator are stored for up to five weeks. Evgenia's variety is one of the best fruits in terms of biochemical composition. They are good fresh, frozen and processed products.
The variety is obtained by crossing the yellow-fruited dogwood (Amber) and the red-fruited dogwood varieties. Fruits are pink-orange, original in shape, barrel-shaped, similar to cherry plums. The average fruit weight is about 6 grams. When fully ripe, the fruits are transparent. They are sweet, with a cherry flavor, but somewhat sour. The pulp of the fruit is pink. The variety is distinguished by an average ripening period, annual fruiting and a stable yield of up to 40 kilograms per tree. The fruits are suitable for consumption both fresh and in jelly, jam, juices and syrups.
The fruits are large, one-dimensional, have the shape of a bottle, are beautifully colored in dark red, and in the period of full ripening almost black. The average fruit weight is 6 grams. Fruits are distinguished by juicy pulp, dense and dark red, with a specific cornelian aroma. The fruits usually ripen in the third decade of August. Plants of this variety have a compact, rounded crown, and reach a height of 3 meters. Fruiting is annual, the harvest from a twenty-year-old tree reaches 70 kilograms.
A yellow-fruited variety, distinguished by original bottle-shaped fruits with a delicate sweet pulp, in mature fruits a bone is visible through it. The average fruit weight is 4.5-5.5 grams. The variety is distinguished by an average ripening period, annual and stable fruiting, the yield from a fifteen-year-old tree can reach 40 kilograms. The crown of the tree is oval-pyramidal, up to 2.2 meters high, making the plant looks very attractive. The fruits are good both fresh and in raw jams.
One of the largest-fruited varieties with an average fruit weight of 6.5-7.5 grams. Bottle-shaped fruits with a thickened neck. Ripe fruits are red-black with dark red flesh, firm, sweet-sour and very aromatic. They ripen at the end of August, do not crumble and are well stored after harvesting. A tree with an oval crown up to 2.5 meters high and up to 3 wide. Fruiting is annual, the harvest from a fifteen-year-old tree can reach 60 kilograms. Fresh fruits are very tasty when fully ripe, well suited for freezing and processing.
Bottle-shaped fruits with a thin neck, graceful, very nicely aligned in shape and size, with an average weight of 5 grams. Ripe fruits are cherry-black, their flesh is dark red, tender. The variety is early, ripens in the first decade of August, in some years - at the end of July. Unpicked fruits do not crumble, wither and hang on the tree until frost. A spur-type variety - plants are low, up to 2 meters high with a wide, but sparse crown. The harvest from a fifteen-year-old tree can reach 50 kilograms. It is slightly lower than that of other varieties, but due to its beautiful, graceful and tasty fruits, the Elegant variety deserves attention. Its fruits, as the earliest in terms of ripening, are often used fresh.
These varieties are very valuable and can be safely recommended for both amateur and industrial gardening.
Today, the market for dogwood seedlings is represented mainly by small private farms, or simply by amateur gardeners who earn their living by producing seedlings; prices for seedlings vary depending on their origin. The cheapest, obtained from sowing seeds (their price ranges from 20 to 45 rubles), however, the quality of such plants is not very high - only 1.5-2% of cultural characteristics remain from the original, and such a seedling begins to bear fruit only by 10- 12 years old.
Seedlings obtained by green cuttings are much more expensive, they are rooted in a greenhouse, hence the costs, such a seedling can be estimated at 120-170 rubles, but its advantages are that it begins to bear fruit as early as 3-4 years. The most expensive seedlings are obtained by grafting varieties on a stock - wild dogwood, such seedlings can bear fruit the next year, and they cost about 200-250 rubles per plant.
Requirements for agricultural technology
Cornel is a thermophilic plant and is most successfully grown in regions with a fairly mild climate. In the conditions of central Russia, the fruits of dogwood ripen in a warm, slightly rainy summer.
You can try growing it in more northern regions as well. After all, in recent years, they begin to widen introduce grapes, individual gardeners grow apricots, nectarine. It must be remembered that dogwood is picky about the composition of the soil, it feels best on rich in lime, rather than on acidic soils, rather photophilous, but grows in the shade.
It is better to plant dogwood seedlings in a garden plot in the fall, poplar trees can serve as a reference point: the end of leaf fall is a good time for planting dogwood. On the site, it should be placed on the southern or southwestern side in order to at least slightly reduce the likelihood of frost damage to plants. Usually, in order to enjoy the fruits of the dogwood to its fullest, it is enough to plant 2-3 plants. Given the further growth of the bush and the development of the root system, they should be placed at a distance of at least 2.5–3 meters from each other.
Plants are planted in pits 50-60 cm wide and deep, covered with soil rich in humus, and watered with 1-2 buckets of water, this is usually quite enough.
The aerial part should not be cut off, since the fibrous root system of the dogwood ensures its 100 percent survival rate.
As for industrial plantings, here the planting scheme is somewhat different and depends, first of all, on soil fertility. The more fertile your site, the more powerful the plants will turn out and, accordingly, the further apart they should be located. On poorer soils, planting is carried out denser. At the same time, if the dogwood orchard adjoins other fruit crops, the scheme of this garden can be preserved. It is recommended to plant industrial plantations according to the 5x4 meter scheme, so 500 trees can be placed on a hectare.
Planting and harvesting dogwood
Care for an industrial plantation is practically no different from that in amateur gardening, the exception, perhaps, is mandatory watering, a sufficient amount of which is provided by installing drip irrigation.
Harvesting in both industrial and amateur horticulture is carried out by hand.
Use of dogwood fruit
The fruits are consumed both fresh and after processing them into jelly and compotes, syrups, marmalades, various drinks, and also get excellent wine and liqueur from them. In folk medicine, they are used to treat gastrointestinal diseases, as an appetite stimulant, diuretic, tonic for vitamin deficiencies and general weakening of the body.
Among other things, the fruits are used in dried form for the preparation of infusions and decoctions. Roasted and ground kernels are used as a coffee substitute. In the Caucasus, special sweet cakes in the form of a long ribbon are prepared from dogwood - a fruit dough pastille based on mashed pulp, which quenches thirst surprisingly quickly.
Dogwood recipes tested by the author:
Pouring - for one liter of water, one kilogram of sugar. I sort out the dogwood, rinse it, boil it for 2-3 minutes in boiling water and leave it to dry. I put it in small sterilized jars, fill it with hot fill and close it. I sterilize the cans of compote for about 30 minutes at 85 ° C.
Kissel from dogwood and gooseberry
130 grams of berries (in half), 125 grams of sugar, 50 grams of starch - there will be liquid jelly. I wash the berries and put them in hot water, boil for about 10 minutes. I drain the broth, and knead the remaining berries. I add pulp to the broth, boil and filter, then pour sugar and boil again. At the end, I add starch, previously diluted in cold water, and brew jelly.
1 kg of dogwood, 700 grams of sugar. I peel the dogwood fruit and boil it in a little water with sugar until it thickens. Then I sterilize in jars at 85 ° C for twenty minutes.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
department of berry crops GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina,
member of the R&D Academy
Suitable plants for other species
Wild species are suitable plants for sweet cherry rootstock. In the process of these manipulations, rootstock plants merge with others, creating a single system. There are many subtleties and nuances that must be considered before starting this process.
The ideal plant for a pear is its wild prototype. The cultivated varieties of this fruit tree grow well together with wild-type seedlings and, unlike other dwarf trees, they are tall and can delight with their fruits for a long time. A wild pear called Ussuriyskaya grows in Siberia and, due to the peculiarities of its root system, needs more moisture than other species, but it is resistant to severe frosts. Therefore, for a pear, it is necessary to prepare all the necessary conditions in advance. Not everyone knows that another great option through which the fruits of this tree are grown is quince. It should be clarified that as a result of this process, dwarf trees are obtained, growing in the southern part of Russia.
If you want to feast on cherries, you need to know exactly which suitable plants can be used for the rootstock process. A simple berry must be grown with seeds, since they merge with almost all varieties and at the same time provide high yields. Instead of the sour variety of this berry, you can use varieties of such seedlings as Shubinka, Vladimirka, Rastunya. For artificially grown berries, a variety such as antipka is also used as a suitable plant, but it does not withstand frost and is bred with seeds.
As far as the wild cherry variety is concerned, it should be noted that it has many advantages. Cherry seeds and seedlings germinate rapidly, which is its main advantage, and thus no shoots are formed. The cherry trees that have been used for the rootstock will produce a selective harvest for a long time. But this variety also has a drawback - it does not tolerate low temperatures, which is why it is rarely used.
If antipka is selected as a suitable plant, then other results are observed. Antipka plants are frost-resistant, having egg-shaped leaves, the most interesting thing is that these trees have a dwarf form. It became widespread in the North Caucasus, Ukraine and Asia. During flowering, the flowers of the tree spill an almond aroma and have small fruits. On the dwarf rootstock of this plant, they are grafted for cherry berries and create new varieties and forms. Antipka is used most of all in the Volga region and in the North Caucasus, as they grow very vigorously. During grafting, it is this dwarf plant species that is used, since with their help magnificent trees on the rootstocks are obtained. These plants have a number of advantages, so almost every gardener grows them:
- have a rich harvest
- resistant to severe frost
- tolerate a high content of carbonates in the soil.
Despite a number of advantages, this variety still has disadvantages, namely, it does not combine well with certain species. But many summer residents grew and harvested using this suitable plant. This variety is also used in the northern regions of Russia, but one has to face a number of problems associated with strong temperature changes. Grown with this plant, the new trees show excellent results. But it must be borne in mind that this plant demonstrates itself in different ways, and development depends on the degree of soil fertility. If the land is not fertile, too moist and contains a lot of salt, then the plant is unlikely to take root and give appropriate fruits. Although there are times when it takes root, but such trees are not distinguished by their durability, therefore, summer residents are advised to study the condition of the soil well, and only then begin the grafting process.
Advice: If this plant does not take root, then a wild type of sweet cherry is used, since in practice it has demonstrated power, high yield.
The most important advantage of this species is the ability to graft with almost all varieties. The cherry tree is also used as a suitable plant, especially in the southern parts of Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
In any case, if you decide to start the vaccination process, then it is best to calculate everything to the smallest detail, weigh all the pros and cons. You also need to carefully consider the selection of a suitable plant for grafting. For this fruit tree, almost everything plays an important role in getting the desired result. The rootstock and cherries need to be given great attention. It is necessary to take into account the variety of the plant, and the technique with which you are going to carry out all the manipulations, and the time of the beginning of the vaccination.