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Athene noctua - Little owl

Athene noctua - Little owl


OWL

The owl, the beautiful bird of prey too often associated with bad luck and misfortune, is actually a very useful predator, deified by the ancient Greeks and associated with the cult of the goddess Athena.


Note 1

SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION

Kingdom

:

Animalia

Phylum

:

Chordata

Subphylum

:

Vertebrata

Class

:

Aves

Order

:

Strigiformes

Family

:

Strigidae

Subfamily

:

Surniinae

Kind

:

Athene

Species

:

Athene noctua

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua bactriana

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua orientalis

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua glaux

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua plumipes

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua kneading

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua saharae

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua indigenous

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua somaliensis

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua lilith

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua spilogastra

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua ludlowi

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua vidalii

Subspecies

:

Athene noctua noctua

Common name

: owl

GENERAL DATA

  • Body length : 21 - 24 cm
  • Wingspan: 54 - 60 cm
  • Weight: 105 - 220 gr
  • Tail: 73-80 mm
  • Lifespan: 16 years on the loose

HABITAT AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

The owl, scientific name Athene noctua belonging to the Strigidae family and is a bird that is part of the large group of NIGHT RAPACI.


Note 1

It is widespread in all areas with a warm temperate climate of Europe, Asia and North Africa. In Italy the owl is the most widespread nocturnal bird of prey (including in many smaller islands) with a surprisingly high spreading and nesting capacity compared to other European countries. It is not widespread in the Alpine areas, in fact, generally its range goes from sea level up to 600 m of altitude (with some rare exceptions). It has also been successfully introduced in Great Britain and distant New Zealand.

The original habitat of the owl was the sandy and rocky desert areas, the steppes and the cliffs. Civilization has significantly reduced these areas causing these spaces to become increasingly rare. Despite this, it has been able to adapt and colonize what are defined secondary environments, that is to say those places or ecosystems forged by man such as niches in both urban and rural buildings, ruins, cavities of industrial warehouses, etc. . something that does not happen for example in the Middle East where the owl continues to nest in primary environments, not contaminated by man such as the ground in stony places, its ideal habitat as still happens in some areas of France, Spain, Portugal and Greece and in some areas of Italy (in Sardinia, in some areas of Lazio, in Basilicata, Puglia and Sicily) where it still nests on the ground among piles of stones.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

civetta has a massive body, covered with brown-greyish-brown feathers. Generally the chest and belly are light with brownish streaks. The undertail is whitish.

The juveniles are easily distinguished from the adults as well as by the plumage of a much more uniform color also because the feathers on the forehead are poorly developed and short, as if they had "brush hair" which gives the head an almost rectangular shape while in adults the feathers are uniformly developed giving a much more rounded appearance to the head.

The owl has no sexual dimorphism even if the female is slightly larger than the male.


Note 1

The head is broad and flat and the ear tufts present in the real owl are absent, as is the facial disc typical of nocturnal birds of prey, with eyes placed anteriorly, circled in black, large and with yellow iris and black pupils. The beak is yellow - greyish - olive green, robust and curved.

The wings are short and rounded.


OWL LOOKING

The tarsi of the owl are covered with whitish feathers with bare fingers provided with dark-colored and curved claws and positioned two in front and two behind (in diurnal birds of prey, for example in the eagle, there is a finger in front and three fingers behind) one of the rear fingers can move forward in case of need for example to better grab a prey.

COMMUNICATION AND PERCEPTION

The owl is a very vociferous species that emits a series of very different sounds that vary from individual to individual and from situation to situation. For example, the typical, shrill and shrill singing repeated and regular is emitted to highlight the territoriality of an individual; a ringing and very nervous sound is a sound of danger. Young people sometimes make meow-like sounds during the night.


Note 1

The emission of sounds is maximum during the reproductive period.

The auditory system is very developed and shaped for hunting in fact the owl, like all members of the Strigidae family, does not have external auricles but has the ear cavities arranged in an asymmetrical and very large way that make sure that the sounds are perceived. in moments slightly deferred from each other and this favors the evaluation of the movements of the prey even in the dark, thus favoring the localization of the prey.

The sight in the owl is very acute at night (although less than in the cat). Their field of view is 110 ° with binocular vision which they remedy by rotating their head up to 270 °.

He has very acute eyesight both day and night and this is thanks to the large eyes that have very developed cornea and crystalline and are able to collect and concentrate all the light possible, thus projecting a very bright image into the retina. In addition they have a completely dilated retina at night; a retina with more rods than cones (which are also stimulated by low light intensities but with the disadvantage of scarcely distinguishing the colors and details of the images).

CHARACTER, BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL LIFE

The owl is a sedentary species and as we have seen it is perfectly at ease in both rural and urban environments. It is a crepuscular and nocturnal bird and during the hours of darkness it hunts, it defends its territory, courting its partner, in short, it carries out all the activities that are normally carried out during the day.

Today it is defined as a synanthropic animal as it lives in the same environment occupied by man, colonizing many city areas where it has found food and suitable places for reproduction.

EATING HABITS

The owl generally tends to ambush its prey which it catches on the ground after a short flight.

Its diet is made up of vertebrates, such as mammals, birds and reptiles but the most considerable part of its diet is made up of invertebrates, especially insects such as beetles and orthoptera (grasshoppers).

Prey is caught on the ground and prefers to hunt in open places rather than in dense forests.

For the study of its eating habits, ornithologists help themselves by studying balls (wads) which are regurgitated by the owl and which contain feathers, bones and hair of the animals eaten as these parts are not digested. Piles of wad are often found in places where an owl has perched or near the nest or where it has eaten.


Note 1

REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH OF THE SMALL

The reproductive period is spring. After mating, from 1 to 7 eggs are laid and deposited asynchronously, i.e. at a distance of one day from each other.

The eggs are hatched only by the female for a period of 27-28 days at the end of which the chicks are born that are fed only by the mother for about 2-3 weeks.

The pullets are born with a soft and white plumage which after a week begins to be replaced by gray feathers and is completed within twenty days.

After 35 days from birth they are able to fly.


Note 1

STATE OF THE POPULATION

It is classified in the IUNC Red list 2009.2 among animals at low risk of extinction, LEAST CONCERN (LC) in consideration of the fact that the natural habitat of the owl is so vast as to avoid the danger of extinction.

In Europe the breeding population is estimated at 560.000-1.300.000 breeding pairs, equal to 16.80.000-3.900.000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). In consideration of the fact that in Europe the population of this animal is present for 25-49% of the world population, the estimate of the individuals present in the world is estimated to be 5,000,000-15,000,000.

SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE IN THE ECOSYSTEM

It is a very useful bird for agriculture as it feeds on small mammals (especially rodents) and insects, thus containing the number of these potentially harmful animals.

CURIOSITY'

In Greece it is represented in the 1 euro coin. It is not surprising that a land like Greece with a millenary culture has chosen to imprint this animal in certainly the most used currency. In fact, since ancient times the ancient Greeks had deified it by identifying it with Athena (hence the scientific name Athene noctua) the goddess of wisdom so much so that even in the coins of the time, the effigy of this nice nocturnal bird of prey was found.


Note 1

In many other countries, however, this small bird has long been considered a symbol of bad luck.

The term "do the owl" to indicate a person who does everything to attract the attention of admirers derives from the fact that in the past this bird was used by hunters as a lure to catch other birds such as larks, which were attracted precisely with an owl.

Phaedrus tells us the story The cicada and the owl (Third Book - XVI Cicada et noctua) which tells the story of a cicada that never stopped singing annoying an owl that used to rest during the day. One day the owl asked the cicada to stop singing but the cicada gave no weight to her words and continued with her song.

«Then the owl said to the cicada: -Your songs do not make me sleep and it seems that they derive from a sound of Apollonian zither, for this reason, I wish to drink with you the nectar that Pallas recently gave me; come if you care so much, let's toast! -. The cicada, proud of these words, approached the owl that in a moment ate it like this, what it did not allow in life, it agreed when it was dead. The moral of the story was that he who did not shine with kindness met the pain of his arrogance. "

Note

(1) Courtesy of Paul Bunyard, Wild About images


Athene noctua

The Little owl (Athene noctua, Scopoli 1769) is a nocturnal bird of prey that belongs to the Strigidae family.

Systematics -
From a systematic point of view, it belongs to the Eukaryota Domain, Animalia Kingdom, Subgenus Eumetazoa, Superphylum Deuterostomia, Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Vertebrata, Superclass Tetrapoda, Class Aves, Order Strigiformes, Family Strigidae, Subfamily Surniinae and then to the Genus Athene and then to Species A. noctua.
There are several subspecies of this bird.

Geographical Distribution and Habitat -
The Little owl is a nocturnal bird of prey present throughout the northern hemisphere, in Europe, Asia and Africa. The species is fairly evenly distributed from the Mediterranean basin to China, below the 60th parallel. First absent from the British Isles, it was successfully introduced in the late nineteenth century, and is present today, as well as in North Africa, also in tropical Africa, from Ethiopia to the Persian Gulf.
It is a very common bird in Italy and is widespread in almost the entire peninsula except the Alps. Its preferred habitats are in the vicinity of civilian settlements, where there is human presence, in the hilly area. In our country, it is widespread as a breeder in the flat and hilly areas at altitudes generally lower than 700 meters, except for sporadic and modest penetrations in the Alpine and Apennine valley bottoms, at altitudes generally lower than 1,000-1,200 meters. The species prefers mixed-farming areas with rows of old plants, farmhouses, abandoned buildings, new or abandoned industrial areas, where, despite the negative effects of the new agricultural management systems, it reaches a more than decent density. Many couples then settled in sub-urban areas and in the historical centers of many cities.
Its presence diminishes as it gets closer and exceeds 1000 m of altitude, especially in cold periods, as snow strongly limits its food sources.

Description -
Athene noctua is a bird about 21–23 cm long, with a wingspan of 53–59 cm and a weight ranging from 100 to just over 200 grams.
It is distinguished by the squat shape, broad and flattened head without the typical ear tufts of the owl with yellow eyes and long legs partially covered with bristles. The upper part is gray-brown stained with white while in the lower part it is predominantly white, stained with brown.
It is recognized for its vocal repertoire. The male emits a melancholy “hu-u-ou” repeated at variable intervals, after 3-4 seconds. Sometimes, however, the owls emit shrill and annoying sounds as self-defense.

Biology -
The Little owl nests between March and June. The cycle begins with the female laying 2 to 5 white eggs in small cavities between the rocks, in trees, in the walls of old buildings, in abandoned dens of medium-sized mammals. The hatching lasts about 4 weeks and is assisted by the male in hunting activities. After a month or so the chicks leave the nest, but become completely independent only at 2-3 months of life.

Ecological Role -
The Little owl is a nocturnal bird par excellence, but it can also be active in the late afternoon and early morning and is very alert even in the rest of the day.
It is a carnivorous bird that, like all strigiformes, is capable of swallowing whole preys, only to regurgitate, in the form of wads, the indigestible parts (hair, feathers, teeth, bones, keratinized shell of insects). It feeds on small vertebrates and large insects.
The Athene noctua has marked terricolous habits and is not closely related to forest environments, it shows a distinctly sedentary behavior - except for erratic and irregular migrations by “Nordic” subjects.
Unfortunately the modification of the habitats, the succession of cold winters and the increase in vehicular traffic of which the species is the most frequent victim among the Strigiforms, have conditioned the population trend of this small predator. More serious, in fact, compared to other Strigiform species, appear the losses due to vehicular traffic: out of 800 Strigiformes collected on Italian roads, in the period 1990-2000, 41% belonged to this species. Every year several hundred not-yet-independent young people are taken to wildlife recovery centers throughout Italy.
Among the other risk factors are electrocution, impact against suspended cables and fences, illegal felling during the hunting season, but also cutting operations of tree rows (especially mulberry trees) and restructuring of buildings which, especially in reproductive period, can cause loss of broods or high mortality of the chicks.
The Little owl, in Italy, is more present in northern Italy, above all in the rural areas of the plains and the first hilly strips, where, moreover, we are witnessing a progressive - sometimes quite marked - recovery of the populations (for example in Pavia, Bergamo, Milan, Brescia, Mantova, with densities that even reach 25 pairs per 20 square kilometers). Elsewhere, in peninsular and insular Italy, the species shows a stable trend.
History and traditions have always attributed a strong symbolic value to Little owl, sometimes beneficial, sometimes a bearer of bad luck. In ancient Greece, for example, it was considered sacred for the goddess Athena (hence the scientific name), goddess of wisdom, and still today is depicted in many lucky charms. From the popular tradition it is instead considered in a more negative sense, so much so that seeing it perched on the roof of one’s own home was considered a bad omen. Quite peculiar is also another meaning of the term "owl", associated, in common language, with that of a woman who would like to be courted attracting numerous admirers: a custom due to the fact that this bird of prey, when used by hunters as a reminder to deceive small passerines, he attracted them with a particular way of flapping their wings, with bows, winks and other similar attitudes, “irresistible” spectacle for potential prey.

Sources
- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
- C. Battisti, D. Taffon, F. Giucca, 2008. Atlas of breeding birds, Gangemi Editore, Rome.
- L. Svensson, K. Mullarney, D. Zetterstrom, 1999. Guide to the birds of Europe, North Africa and the Near East, Harper Collins Publisher, United Kingdom.


Athene noctua - Little owl

Отряд:
Strigiformes
Семейство:
Strigidae
Род:
Athene

Научный:
Athene noctua

цитирование:
(Scopoli, 1769)

Справка:
SmellIHist.-Nat. p.22

Протоним:
Strix noctua

Avibase ID:
9A7B268C4EF6F803

Taxonomic Serial Number:
TSN: 555471

  • Athene noctua noctua: Sardinia, Corsica, Italy, northwestern Balkans, southeastern Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania
  • Athene noctua glaux: N Africa and coastal Israel (north to Haifa)
  • Athene noctua vidalii: S Baltic to Iberian Pen., Balearic Is., Poland and nw Russia
  • Athene noctua indigenous: Balkans to Turkey, s Russia, Transcaucasia and sw Siberia
  • Athene noctua saharae: Morocco to Tunisia s of Atlas, Libya coast, w Egypt and Arabia
  • Athene noctua ludlowi: S-central China and Tibet to n Himalayas
  • Athene noctua plumipes: NE China, Mongolia and Ussuriland
  • Athene noctua orientalis: Extreme nw China and adjacent Siberia
  • Athene noctua kneading: W-central China (Kokonor and w Gansu)
  • Athene noctua spilogastra: Red Sea coast of e Sudan and n Ethiopia
  • Athene noctua somaliensis: E Ethiopia and Somalia
  • Athene noctua lilith: Cyprus inland Middle East from se Turkey to s Sinai
  • Athene noctua bactriana: Azerbaijan to Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan and Lake Balkhash
  • Показать больше.


Athene noctua

(Strigidae Ϯ Little Owl A. noctua) Gr. Myth. Athene, goddess of wisdom, war and the liberal arts, whose favorite bird was the owl (γλαυξ glaux), an ancient association from her primitive role as goddess of the night "3. Familie. Tageulen, Mesiia.. 17. Gattung. Athene. 32. passerina. 33. Tengmalmi. 34. acadica." (Boie 1822) "Athene Boie, Isis von Oken, 1822, Bd. 1, col. 549. Type, by subsequent designation, A. noctua (Retz.) Boie, Pl. Enl. 439. Str. Passerina Auct. = Strix noctua Scopoli. (G. R. Gray, List Gen. Bds., Ed. 2, 1841, p. 7.) "(Peters 1940, IV, 147). The Little Owl is depicted on ancient Athenian coins, and still features on that city's badge.
Var. Althene, Athelle.
Synon. Carine, Cunistrix, Noctua, Pholeoptynx, Speotyto.
● (syn. Megascops Ϯ Puerto Rican Screech Owl M. nudipes) "Strigidae. Athene: St. nudipes Daud. U.s.w." (Boie 1826). Var. Athena.

L. noctua owl sacred to the goddess Minerva (also known as Athene, Pallas, or Pallas Athene) Noctua

L. noctua owl sacred to Minerva (also known as Athene, Pallas, or Pallas Athene), goddess of wisdom, war, and the liberal arts, and whose favorite bird was the owl, an ancient association from her primitive rôle as goddess of the night


Cuntenutu

Aceddu nutturnu par antunumasia, a little owl in riality it is active ancu in u tardu dopu meziornu is early in the morning, but hè moltu vigilenti ancu in u restu di a ghjurnata.

Boci Mudificà

I civetti ani a grandiu repertoriu vucali. U masciu emit a melancholyu "hu-u-ou" repeated in variable intervals, after 3-4 seconds. Calchì time, parò, the owls emit shrill noises is annoying as it is self-defense.

Cibu is alimantazioni Mudificà

A civetta hè carnivora. Like all the Strigiformes, he is capable of ingodda the prey within. It feeds on small vertebrates and large insects.

Repruductions Mudificà

Nidificheghja between marzu and ghjugnu. A female place 2-5 white eggs in small cavities between the rocks, in the arburs, in the walls of old buildings, in abandoned dens of medium-sized mammals and after the hatching par about 4 sittimani. In quiddu periodu she is helped by u masciu in hunting. After a month or a little more the piulacona leave u nidu but I know independent accumulations for only 2-3 months of life.


Athene noctua - Little owl

  • Athene noctua lilith: Cyprus inland Middle East from se Turkey to s Sinai

Источники, признающие этот таксон

Avibase taxonomic concepts (current):
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith)
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 01 (August 2013):
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith)
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 02 (May 2014):
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith)
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 03 (March 2015):
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith)
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 04 (Aug 2016):
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith)
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 05 (Jan 2017):
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith)
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 06 (Feb 2018):
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith)
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 07 (Feb 2020):
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith)
Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 08 (Feb 2021):
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith)
HBW and BirdLife Taxonomic Checklist v5 (Dec 2020):
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (as published):
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2000 revisions):
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]
Clements 5th edition (incl. 2001 revisions):
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Clements 5th edition (incl. 2002 revisions):
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Clements 5th edition (incl. 2003 revisions):
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Clements 5th edition (incl. 2004 revisions):
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Clements 5th edition (incl. 2005 revisions):
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Clements 6th edition:
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Clements 6th edition (incl. 2007 revisions):
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Clements 6th edition (incl. 2008 revisions):
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Clements 6th edition (incl. 2009 revisions):
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Clements 6th edition (version 6.5 incl. 2010 revisions):
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Clements 6th edition (version 6.6 incl. 2011 revisions):
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Clements 6th edition (version 6.7 incl. 2012 revisions):
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Clements 6th edition (version 6.8 incl. 2013 revisions):
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Clements 6th edition (version 6.9 incl. 2014 revisions):
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Clements, version 2015:
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Clements, version 2016:
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Clements, version 2017:
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Clements, version 2018:
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Clements, version 2019:
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eBird version 1.52:
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith) [version 1]
eBird version 1.53:
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eBird version 1.54:
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eBird version 1.55:
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eBird version 2015:
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith) [version 1]
eBird version 2016:
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith) [version 1]
eBird version 2017:
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith) [version 1]
eBird version 2018:
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith) [version 1]
eBird version 2019:
Little Owl (Lilith) (Athene noctua lilith) [version 1]
Howard and Moore 2nd edition:
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (as published):
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. Corrigenda 1.2):
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]
Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. Corrigenda 2.1):
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Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. Corrigenda 3.1):
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Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. Corrigenda 4):
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Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. Corrigenda 5):
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Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. Corrigenda 6):
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Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. Corrigenda 7):
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Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. Corrigenda 8):
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Howard and Moore 4th edition (vol. 1-2):
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]
Howard and Moore 4th edition (incl. Corrigenda vol.1-2):
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World (vol 1-16):
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]
Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (31/01/2015):
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Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (03/07/2017):
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Handbook of the Birds of the World and Birdlife (Dec 2017):
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Handbook of the Birds of the World and Birdlife (Dec 2018):
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IOC World Bird Names, version 3.1:
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IOC World Bird Names, version 4.1:
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IOC World Bird Names, version 4.2:
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IOC World Bird Names, version 4.4:
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IOC World Bird Names, version 5.1:
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IOC World Bird Names, version 5.3:
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IOC World Bird Names, version 6.1:
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IOC World Bird Names, version 10.1:
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IOC World Bird Names, version 10.2:
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IOC World Bird Names, version 11.1:
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James Lee Peters (original):
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James Lee Peters (2nd edition):
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Working Group Avian Checklists, version 0.01:
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]
Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource:
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]
Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource:
Athene noctua lilith [version 1]

Таксономический статус:

Статус вида: subspecies (candidate for split)

Этот таксон является подвидом Athene noctua


Video: Asio otus Long-eared owl 1. Mating call of male