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Construction of a pond on the site: report on the creation of my film reservoir

Construction of a pond on the site: report on the creation of my film reservoir


The idea to dig a pond on my site came to me a few years ago. But, since this work is laborious and difficult in terms of a creative approach, its beginning was postponed for a long time. Finally, during my next vacation, I decided to get down to business and step by step through all the steps required to create a pond. It was decided to make the pond film, with geotextile lining. Plant it with plants and get fish. Install an aerator for fish. It is also planned to circulate water through a small waterfall with three cascades. It was originally made, even before digging a foundation pit under the pond, from a pile of stones laid on a man-made clay hill. The water will circulate in a closed loop from pond to waterfall using an inexpensive bottom pump.

That's all the initial data. Now I will proceed directly to the story of the construction of the pond, trying not to miss the details.

Stage # 1 - digging a pit

First of all, I took a shovel and dug a pit with dimensions in terms of 3x4 m. I tried to make the shape natural, rounded, without sharp corners. Indeed, in nature, coastlines are always smooth, without straight lines, such must be adhered to when creating an artificial pond. At its deepest point, the excavation reached 1.6 m below ground level. It could have been done less, but in my case, it is supposed to breed wintering fish, for which at least 1.5-1.6 m is required.

There are 3 terraces on the rise of the pit. The first (shallow water) - at a depth of 0.3 m, the second - 0.7 m, the third - 1 m. All 40 cm wide, so that you can install pots with plants on them. Terracing is performed for a more natural look of the water surface. And also for the placement of aquatic plants, the type of which will determine the number of terraces and their depth. You need to think about this in advance. For planting cattail, for example, you need a depth of 0.1-0.4 m, for nymphs - 0.8-1.5 m.

The pit for the pond should be multi-level, with several terraces

Stage # 2 - laying geotextiles

The pit was dug, stones and roots were taken from the bottom and walls. Of course, you can immediately start laying the film, but this option seemed too risky to me. Firstly, seasonal movements of the soil can lead to the fact that the pebbles that were in the soil layer change their position and break through the film with sharp edges. The same will happen if the roots of trees or shrubs growing nearby reach the film. And the last factor - on our site there are mice that dig underground passages and, if desired, can easily get to the film. We need protection. Namely - geotextile. He just will not allow rodents, roots and other unpleasant factors to damage the film.

I bought geotextile 150 g / m22, carefully laid it out and brought the edges to the shore a little (about 10-15 cm - how it happened). Temporarily fixed with stones.

Geotextile is laid with edging to the shore

Stage # 3 - waterproofing

Perhaps the most crucial stage is the creation of waterproofing. It can be neglected if the hydrogeological conditions of your site allow the creation of natural reservoirs. But such cases are very rare and it is better not to take risks, so that later you do not have to redo everything.

So, waterproofing is needed. In my case, this is a dense butyl rubber film specially designed for ponds and reservoirs.

Initially, I want to dissuade you from using plastic films sold in ordinary hardware stores and used to upholster greenhouses. Especially if your pond is large enough. Such isolation will last for 1-2 years, then, most likely, it will leak and everything will have to be redone. Extra headache and expenses are provided. You need a special film, for ponds - made of PVC or butyl rubber. The last option is of the highest quality, the strength of the butyl rubber film will be enough for 40-50 years for sure, and maybe even more. The advantage of rubber waterproofing is that it stretches well. The water pressure in the pond will sooner or later lead to subsidence of the soil. In this case, the film is stretched. PVC can crack or break apart at the seams. Butyl rubber will just stretch like rubber, it can withstand significant stretching without consequences.

I calculated the dimensions of the film required for my pond as follows: the length is equal to the length of the pond (4 m) + double maximum depth (2.8 m) + 0.5 m. The width is determined in the same way.

I spread the film over the geotextile, bringing 30 cm of the edges to the shore. I tried to smooth out the folds on the bottom and walls, but did not really succeed in this. I decided to leave it as it is. Moreover, the folds will compensate for temperature changes and it is not necessary to pull it too tightly.

A pit covered with butyl rubber will keep water in the pond

After laying it is necessary to fix the edges of the film. It is impossible to leave them open on the ground, as water will get between the film and the walls of the pit. Water bubbles will inevitably appear and will have to be removed. And this is very difficult, especially with a large pond.

I decided to dig in the edges of the film and thereby fix them firmly. At a distance of 10 cm from the edges of the pond, I dug a groove, 15 cm deep. I put the film inside the edges and covered them with earth. He covered the whole thing with turf from above. It turned out to be a real coastline, overgrown with grass!

Stage # 4 - starting the water

Now you can start the water. I threw a hose into the pit and pumped water from the well with a pump. The water was collected for several hours. As the filling progressed, the folds of the film got confused and had to be straightened out. But in the end, the stretch turned out to be quite uniform.

A pond filled with water must settle for a while to establish a biobalance

And one more important detail worth mentioning. Together with clean water from the well, I poured a bucket of water from a natural reservoir into the pond. This is necessary to accelerate the development of biobalance. In other words, water from a reservoir with an existing biosphere will help to quickly establish the same in a new pond. There will be no balance, the water will become cloudy and green in a matter of days. And soon it will not resemble a pond, but a swamp with a greenish slurry. Plants planted in the water at the bottom will also contribute to the activation of the biosystem.

I immersed the pump to a depth of 0.5 m, and it supplies water to the upper cascade of the waterfall and to a small garden fountain. The water separation is controlled directly at the pump.

The circulation of water in the pond is due to the fountain and waterfall

Stage # 5 - planting plants and launching fish

Plants are a separate topic. I wanted to plant a lot of things so that the pond immediately, from the first days, created the appearance of a natural, natural reservoir. So I went to the market and picked up marsh irises, calla, water hyacinths, and a few nymphs there. For landscaping the coast, I took a couple of lobelia bushes, monetary loosestrife, white calla bulbs.

Upon arrival, this seemed to me a little, so I made a trip to the nearest pond (from which I drew water for biobalance) and dug out several bushes of young cattail. It will grow and purify water. It is a pity that there is nothing more suitable in this pond. Otherwise I wouldn't have to buy anything. Perhaps you are more fortunate and in the nearby pond you will find all the plants for landscaping your own pond. After all, almost all aquatic plants grow in our natural reservoirs. With a certain amount of luck, you can find and pick sedge, cattails, yellow irises, marigold, calamus, deerbein, yellow egg-pods and much more.

On the upper terrace, I put balcony boxes and baskets with planted cattails, callaires, water hyacinths, and marsh irises. I planted it in heavy fertile soil, covered it with pebbles on top so that the fish would not pull the soil and pull out the roots.

I put nymphs in baskets - I have 4 of them. He also covered it with pebbles on top. I put the baskets on the middle terrace, the one that is 0.7m deep. Then, as the stem grows, I will lower the basket lower until I set it completely 1-1.5 m above the water level.

In shallow water, aquatic plants are planted in baskets and boxes

Nymphaea flowers last only a few days, then close and sink under the water

Lobelia and loosestrife were planted along the coastline. I dug the calla bulbs there. Verbeinik very quickly began to lower his branches directly into the pond. Soon the film will not be seen on the rise! Everything will be overgrown with grass, loosestrife, calla and other planted plants.

At first, the water in the pond was as clear as a tear. I thought it would be so. But, after 3 days, I noticed that the water was cloudy, the bottom was no longer visible. And then, a week later, she became clean again - a biological balance was established. I waited another two weeks and decided that it was time to launch the fish - all the conditions for its living were created.

I went to the bird market and bought some suitable copies of comets (almost a goldfish) and crucians - gold and silver. Only 40 fish! Let everyone out. Now they frolic near the fountain.

A pond with running fish looks magical!

For the comfortable living of the fish, an aerator was connected. The compressor is 6 W, so it works constantly, it is not expensive in terms of electricity consumption. In winter, the aerator is especially useful. Water saturation with oxygen and polynya will be provided.

This is the end of the master class. I think it worked out very well. The most important indicator of this is clean water. As such, I do not have mechanical filtration. The balance is regulated by a variety of plants, an aerator, circulation of water through a waterfall and a fountain using a pump.

As for finance, most of the money went to butyl rubber film. I dug the pit myself, if you have to pay to hire an excavator or a team of diggers, but the pit will be dug quickly. Plants are not too expensive (and if you take them from a natural pond, then in general - for free), fish - too.

So everything is real. If you are not afraid of significant labor costs (especially for digging a pit) and the need for a creative approach, go ahead. As a last resort, if you are not lucky with a designer vein, look through photos of ponds in magazines or on the pages of specialized sites. Find what you like and try to do something similar for yourself. And then - enjoy the result and your own pond on the site.

Ivan Petrovich

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Ornamental garden pond in a private house

Ornamental garden pond

Garden ponds have long become an everyday element of the decor of most household plots. Such reservoirs can have any shape and size, be multi-level and connected by whole cascades of waterfalls. Also, fish and many aquatic plants can live in the pond, in combination with architectural elements, creating compositions that are unique in beauty and originality.

Large-scale projects of cascading waterfalls, connected by other water elements of the landscape, look especially impressive: improvised streams, ponds framed by moisture-loving vegetation, small fountains.

Decorative garden pond with artificial waterfall

It is important to remember that the implementation of multicomponent water systems requires a competent landscape designer with sufficient knowledge and, most importantly, skills in disciplines such as architecture, hydromechanics and zoology.

Otherwise, he will be able to determine the optimal living conditions for a particular breed of fish, calculate the power of the pump motor, which will be enough for uniform circulation of water in the system, choose such design elements that would sufficiently fit into the surrounding landscape and decorate it. True, not every landscape bureau has experienced and qualified specialists in its staff, capable of embodying architectural projects of a high degree of complexity.

Usually, the role of education, and sometimes even the experience of novice landscape designers, are short thematic courses, during which the student is told about the basics of composition, several dozen common decorative cultures, classical techniques and techniques. Such basic knowledge is available to any amateur gardener, so you can always try to make an architectural composition, for example, a decorative garden pond, on your own, without resorting to expensive services of landscape designers.

The idea for a small garden pond is far from new: today such a decorative pond can be seen in almost every flower bed. Usually, this design is based on a container made of frost-resistant plastic, which is dug into the ground to the required depth. In the assortment of building supermarkets, you can find plastic molds for ponds: several standard forms, with which novice gardeners usually prefer to work.

For larger projects of ponds that do not fit into the standard framework, other technologies are used. For example, a more complex option for arranging a garden pond is reservoir built into the winter garden under the skylight. This alternative to the usual ornamental pond seems more preferable to many.

Decorative pond in the winter garden

Decorative pond in the winter garden

Its advantages include year-round decorativeness, which is not affected by the vicissitudes of the weather, as well as a high level of aesthetics and ease of perception. Agree, it's not so bad on a cold winter evening to sit in a warm indoor garden and admire dwarf palm trees under the murmur of a small waterfall or fountain. Even indoors, plants can be created close to natural conditions if there is a sufficiently large window opening or a fully glazed wall.

Ideally, such architectural and compositional solutions should be provided for by the project of the house or extension. Of course, a wide glazing area, reinforced floor waterproofing or a podium for a container with a decorative pond can significantly increase the cost of construction - drawing up an estimate for a house with unusual architectural solutions will allow you to accurately calculate the cost of purchasing materials, wages for builders, operating tools, equipment, and machinery.

Decorative pond in a private house

If it is decided to make a decorative pond with aquatic vegetation in an existing building, where a global restructuring is not planned and at the same time there is not enough natural light, you can always use additional lighting that is useful for plants and is interesting in terms of creating original visual effects.

The disadvantages of this, at first glance, a budget option - indeed, you just need to purchase several lamps for additional lighting - can be attributed only to the additional costs of electricity. Thus, architectural and compositional solutions largely determine the further functional use and maintenance costs of the decorative pond.

Ornamental garden pond

Ornamental garden pond

If the work on the construction of the pond has been carried out successfully, you can begin to prepare its surface for decoration and placement of flora and fauna in it. Containers made of stainless steel and plastic usually do not require special preparation.Homemade wooden and concrete pools, on the other hand, need careful treatment, after which aquatic plants can be planted there or fish released.

For example, when pouring a pond frame from a concrete solution, you must adhere to a number of technical recommendations, such as, for example, a 2-week exposure of the hardening concrete mixture under plastic wrap to maintain the required moisture level. After that, the pool is filled with water or vinegar solution several times in order to remove alkalis, and its inner surface is washed with hard brushes without the use of chemicals. After treatment, the surface can be painted with non-toxic enamel intended for swimming pools, or you can immediately start placing aquatic plants in an unpainted container.

The more competently the construction and finishing works are carried out, the more spectacular your home pond will look, the better plants and fish will feel in it, the longer it will decorate the interior of your home.

All types of ponds can be roughly divided into two types: aquarium and "water lily". In the first, plants are bred whose need for natural light is very moderate - they prefer the abundance of artificial lighting more. When designing an additional lighting system, it is taken into account that the closer the light sources are to the aquatic plants, the more effective their action will be.

In "water lily ponds" - this is how one can conditionally call the second type of ponds - on the contrary, it is necessary to create lighting conditions as close as possible to the natural environment. Such a decorative reservoir requires a high level of natural light, as well as several hours of artificial lighting. The south and southeast side of the placement of windows and transparent surfaces will be preferable in this case.

The selection of plants for home ponds is primarily determined by the size of the reservoirs. So, the leaves and flowers of the most common water lily usually occupy about a quarter of a square meter of the water surface. Moreover, when growing water lilies in a decorative pond, it is desirable - both from a practical and aesthetic point of view, so that at least part of the mirror surface is not covered with leaves.

Ornamental garden pond - lighting

You can read about the peculiarities of caring for various aquatic plants both in specialized literature and on the websites of amateur gardeners or thematic forums. The better you take care of your aquatic pets, the more often they will delight you with abundant flowering, and the more decorative your garden-pond will look.


How to build a decorative bridge in the garden

The garden is a place where you want not only to work, but also to relax. Therefore, what the buildings are made of is very important, and how they fit into the landscape design. Usually, the general perception of the entire site depends on even small stylish elements and buildings, and, therefore, garden design takes one of the first places in the planning and construction of a private house.

Garden design is impossible without additional decorations, so a decorative bridge can be built for beauty and stylish design. Usually bridges are of several types, and can be made of different materials. Each of them will decorate the garden in its own way and will become one of the favorite places on the site.

What material is suitable for construction

We offer options for building a garden bridge:

If desired, materials can be combined, because here each idea has its pros and cons. First you need to decide in what style the garden design is made. If the country style prevails, then you can make a bridge with your own hands from wood, logs and flooring from boards. In the presented photos, you can see how such a bridge will look from the side.

If you want something more original, you will even have to sketch out small drawings. So, having chosen the curved version, you need to know that the bend of the bridge itself should not be more than 21 degrees, and the maximum rise should be 10% of the length of the entire structure.

If you make a bridge with your own hands, then the simpler it is, the better. Complex architectural forms are best left to landscape designers. The wood is easy to process, so railings and other decorative elements are easy to grind or simply cut with a knife. It is not necessary to complicate the work and make the building massive. The more delicate the bridge, the prettier it looks among the greenery. The main thing is that its lightness and weightlessness does not compromise safety and functionality.

Sequence of work

All work can be roughly divided into several stages:

  1. We strengthen the future slopes of a stream or ravine.
  2. We fix the supports.
  3. We fix two beams 10 by 10 cm.
  4. We lay boards with a thickness of at least 3 cm, nail them to the beams.
  5. We fix the pressure logs on the sides.

More precisely, the design and drawings can be viewed in the photo, where the entire sequence of work is indicated. In addition, there is also a video on the manufacture of this design.

If you need a humpback bridge, then instead of beams, it is better to choose trusses that are sold in the store. All this is easy to do with your own hands, the main thing is not to forget to process the boards and beams with a plane so as not to get stuck.

Do not forget to paint the bridge with waterproof paint or impregnate with special impregnations so that the tree does not rot. Iron is less resistant to corrosion than other materials, so it is better to make railings and decorative elements from it, and make the flooring itself from other materials.

Also, if you like to move objects and change the design of the garden, you should not make the bridge too heavy and heavy, otherwise it will be difficult to remove it. Before starting any building in the garden, make sure that they are not superfluous, and draw a general plan of the site. Any building eats up enough space, and if it is massive, then the space will be twice less.

Types of buildings depending on the location

An ordinary simple wooden decorative bridge can be a decoration for any corner of the garden. It doesn't matter if there is a reservoir or not, the bridge will still look great among the grass and trees. Any garden combines various decorative elements, therefore, decorating it with a bridge, you can give the landscape a special charm.

So, among the trees or against the background of stone walls, you can make an openwork bridge made of wrought iron, and a decorative bridge made of wood or stone will look beautiful on a sunny lawn.

You can choose different styles in the photo, and only then try them on to your own garden. If the drawings are too complex and incomprehensible, then you can make a bridge of concrete, although it looks somewhat massive, but it is a little easier to complete.

Do not worry if there are no suitable materials, everything will be used. A stylized building can be made from paving slabs or other materials left over from construction. If it performs only a decorative function, and you do not need to think about safety when passing through it, then the garden bridge can be made small and simply decorative.

Divide space, highlight accents

Sometimes the bridge simply divides the garden into a recreation area, a work area and a living area, so the garden design depends on the location of the objects that decorate the landscape. Various figures, a gazebo, flower beds and a decorative bridge will be an excellent transition from a recreation area to a residential area, and vice versa. In the photo you can see how by correctly placing accents, you can get several areas for rest and work, even in a small garden.

Buildings look great on an area where there are small terraces. Then the do-it-yourself bridge will also fulfill its functional role. Any garden design, planned in advance, looks great and often does not require professional intervention.

If the area where the garden is located is flat and monotonous, then you can create an unevenness artificially by placing boulders and stones, among which you can place a decorative bridge. Those who love water can make a small pond, make a bridge over the pond, or make it close by.

You can make an original building from ordinary scraps of medium-sized trees, fastening them together with a rope or wire, and also decorating the building with one-sided railings. Such a stylized bridge is within the power of everyone, but there is no need to expect special strength from it, it's just a props.

A beautiful, unusual garden is everyone's dream, and only the owner can decide how exactly he will look. You should not rush and collect everything in one pile, first you should decide on the style, and only then fill the garden with buildings and accessories. If you cannot arrange landscape design and buildings yourself, you can turn to professionals.

Garden plots vary and are used in different ways. Someone turns the dacha into a vegetable garden, someone plants a garden and a raspberry tree, someone.

The effectiveness of planting will directly depend on the correct choice of tree, planting site, the quality of the procedure and future care measures. Knowing.


How to find water for a well on a site

Here you will find out:

Finding out how to find water for a well on the site. There are folk ways to find water - using clay pots, silica gel, bricks, observing nature and animals. As well as engineering methods of seismic exploration, electrical sounding and exploration drilling.

Groundwater classification

Before proceeding with the search for water under the well, it is necessary to record the presence of such underground resources and determine the depth of occurrence in the selected section of the aquifer.

Depending on the location and depth of occurrence, groundwater is divided into three types:

  • Verkhovodka - lies within 2-5 meters from the surface. It is formed as a result of and filtration of atmospheric precipitation. Due to the shallow bedding, this type of water can fluctuate: it rises after precipitation, then falls in the dry period.
  • Ground water - aquifers in sedimentary rocks, occurring approximately 8-40 meters from the surface. From above, they are protected by several layers of rocks, therefore they do not depend on the change of seasons of the year. Sometimes they are in the depressions of the relief, they independently make their way by springs, supplying tasty clean water.
  • Artesian waters - most often lie at a depth of over 40 meters. They are distributed along cracks in rocky limestone. The water is characterized by the presence of mineral salts and the absence of clay suspension. The flow rate of artesian wells is quite stable.

The qualitative and quantitative parameters of the aquifer are of key importance.

The mass of the earth is formed from rocks, some of which prevent the penetration of moisture - aquicludes, while others, on the contrary, form aquifers

When searching for water for well development, you can use different methods, both with the use of improvised means, and with the use of modern technology. But most often hydrogeologists use the preliminary exploration method in search of an aquifer and determining its depth.

To get to a source that will provide high-quality and clean water, you will need to penetrate a decent depth

Where underground waters accumulate

Before embarking on your search, it is worth learning a little more about groundwater. Moisture underground accumulates inside the so-called aquifers as a result of the filtration of precipitation. The liquid, sandwiched between water-resistant layers of soil, consisting of stone or clay, forms reservoirs of different sizes.

Their location is not strictly horizontal, they can bend, forming in such areas a kind of lens filled with water. Their volumes are also very diverse: from a few cubic meters to tens of cubic kilometers.

The groundwater bedding scheme is necessary in order to have at least some idea of ​​where the source may be

The closest to the surface, at a depth of only 2-5 m, is the "top water". These are small bodies of water fed by precipitation and melt water. In dry times, they tend to dry out and cannot be a source for water supply. In addition, water from them can most often be used only for technical purposes. Of greatest interest to humans are deep aquifers containing large reserves of perfectly filtered water. They usually occur at a depth of 8-10 meters and below. The most valuable water, enriched with minerals and salts, is located even deeper, at a distance of about 30-50 m. Getting to it is real, but difficult.

Impact of depth on water quality

If you dig a well in the place where the water is located, the aquifer can be found even just a few meters from the earth's surface. Knowledgeable people call such a water layer a water layer and do not use it for drinking.

The proximity to the surface is a bad sign, because water has accumulated due to melting snows, infiltration of rain streams and waters of nearby reservoirs. The quality of the water in it leaves much to be desired, because there is a high probability of seepage of sewage drains and other dirt.

The deeper the aquifer is located, the less chances that all kinds of dirt on the soil surface can spoil the water.

In addition, the mirror of such water is usually unstable. A well with a top water can completely dry out during the heat of summer and fill up during the season of melting snow or autumn lingering rains.

And this means that the water supply sources that feed on top water will also be empty, and summer residents will be left without water in the hot summer season, when it is especially needed. In such circumstances, it is better to forget about plans for the harvest. After all, until late autumn water in the well is not expected.

Therefore, we will look for water deeper. Experts believe that quality water is not so deep, only 15 meters from the soil level. In sands where the water is clean and tasty. The sandy layer in which water is "stored" is a natural filter. Passing moisture through itself, it cleans it from the remnants of dirt and harmful elements.

If you are interested in arranging a personal water source at a summer cottage, it is worth comparing the arguments in favor of constructing a well or a well, and also finding out about their shortcomings. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the comparative review.

Effective ways to find water

There are more than a dozen ways to determine the proximity of water to the surface. The search for water under the well can be carried out using one of the following effective methods.

Barometric method

The readings of 0.1 mm Hg of the barometer correspond to the difference in the pressure drop of 1 meter. To work with the device, you must first measure its pressure readings on the shore of an existing nearby reservoir, and then, together with the device, move to the place of the proposed arrangement of the source of water production. At the place of drilling the well, air pressure measurements are taken again, and the depth of water occurrence is calculated.

The presence and depth of groundwater is also successfully determined using a conventional aneroid barometer

For example: the barometer readings on the river bank are 545.5 mm, and on the site - 545.1 mm. The groundwater level is calculated according to the principle: 545.5-545.1 = 0.4 mm, i.e. the depth of the well will be at least 4 meters.

Exploration drilling

Test exploration drilling is one of the most reliable ways to find water for a well.

Exploration drilling allows not only to indicate the presence and level of occurrence of water, but also to determine the characteristics of soil layers that occur before and after the aquifer

Drilling is carried out using a conventional garden hand drill. Since the depth of the exploration well is on average 6-10 meters, it is necessary to provide for the possibility of increasing the length of its handle. To carry out the work, it is enough to use a drill, the screw diameter of which is 30 cm. As the drill deepens in order not to break the tool, excavation must be carried out every 10-15 cm of the soil layer. Wet silvery sand can be observed already at a depth of about 2-3 meters.

The place for the arrangement of the well should be located no closer than 25-30 meters relative to drainage trenches, compost and garbage heaps, as well as other sources of pollution. The most successful well placement is in an elevated area.

Terrain-repeating aquifers in elevated areas provide cleaner, filtered water

Rainwater and melt water always flows down from a hill to a lowland, where it gradually drains into a waterproof layer, which in turn displaces clean filtered water to the level of the aquifer.

Seismic survey method

The search method is based on "tapping" the energy device of the earth's crust through the action of sound waves and capturing the response vibrations using a seismic-sensitive device.

Depending on the structure and material of the layers of the earth's crust, waves pass through them in different ways, returning damped reflected signals, the properties and strength of which are used to judge the rocks that represent these layers, voids and the presence of aquifers, and the accumulation of water between strong water-resistant layers. Not only the force of the returned vibration is taken into account, but also the time during which the wave comes back.

Water and rock do not reflect sound waves in the same way, therefore, knowing the difference in these indicators, one can judge where and how deeply the aquifers are located.

Testing is carried out at several points of the site, all indicators are entered into a computer and processed by a special program to find out where the water carrier is present.

Comparison of the obtained data, collected in places with similar geology, in the immediate vicinity of water bodies, with data collected at the proposed drilling site. Or they find out the seismic signal standard characteristic of most points of a particular place and, by deviating from this standard, they identify the assumed area of ​​occurrence of the aquifer. Artesian waters give a high seismic background, several times higher than the standard one.

Electrical sensing method

The method allows using instruments to record the presence of water in terms of the resistivity of the layers of the earth. Special sounding equipment is used.

It is used to search for water at depths from ten to hundreds of meters.

Four electrode pipes up to one and a half meters long are driven into the soil. Two of them are creating an electric voltage field, and the other two are performing the role of testing devices.

They are sequentially bred to the sides. At the same time, the data is recorded, according to which the resistivity is measured, the potential difference is found out, thus, sequentially identifying indicators at different levels of the earth's crust.

Resistance varies with how high the moisture level is and what the composition of the rock layers is. This is an electrical sounding technique, with its help they find out the presence and depth of water.

Thus, electrical prospecting finds out information inaccessible to the seismic spectral method, being a less costly search method.

The disadvantage of this method is that if the search area is enriched in fossil metals or is in the vicinity of railway tracks, then sounding will become impossible.

Finding water by plants

The method of using indicator plants is used not only in the search for groundwater. Each plant is adapted to specific environmental conditions, so it grows only where it has the opportunity.

Height and root system

The taller the plant, the more water it requires. Therefore, tall plants are an indicator of the availability of groundwater. Plants with a taproot penetrate deep into the soil, sometimes far beyond the soil layer. Many large taproot plants per unit area is a good sign.

Most likely, here you need to look for water at a depth of about 10 meters.

The concept of "large plant" in this case is relative. Of course, tall tap-rooted trees in any case indicate the presence of water. However, you also need to pay attention to tall grass. If it has large, wide leaves, this is a good sign.

Species affiliation

All plants are divided into categories in relation to moisture. For our purposes, only two are needed - drought-resistant and moisture-loving.

In trees, a sign of exactingness to the level of moisture is the size of the leaf blade - the larger the leaf, the more water is needed for its maintenance. However, not everything is so simple - the leaves of trees living on waterlogged soils are usually thin. This is necessary in order to evaporate water as little as possible in conditions when the water around is cold.

A prime example is willows that grow near water, but have narrow leaves.

Vegetable groupings

If you see several willow or alder trees on the site, then the groundwater is coming close to the surface. A good signal is the presence of large poplars (they need a lot of water), some types of maples, elms.

But birch and oak groves are not very applicable as indicators of water.

The fact is that they can grow well due to the accumulated soil layer or dead organic matter in the form of litter, or they can take water from the ground horizons. Oak thrives in arid conditions, but it can grow almost in swamps.

It is better to pay attention to the combination of trees and grass. For example, willow stands overgrown in the lower tier with sedge indicate close water. A good sign is the abundance of grass with leaves that are delicate to the touch.

How to find water with your own hands

How to find water for a well on a site with your own hands, without spending a lot of money?

Quite easy. The most famous and well-known method is the use of aluminum frames. They are good at feeling magnetic vibrations on the ground.

And the water has a very strong effect on the magnetic background. In order to find some water with the support of aluminum frames, it is necessary to carry out similar actions.

Take 2 pieces of thick aluminum wire and peel off fifteen centimeters until the right corner is removed. Cut fragments from the viburnum trunk along the length of the handles and remove the core. Insert the wire into the tubes so that it runs smoothly. Holding these well-known devices in their outstretched handles, walk around the area. During the period of movement, the edges of the wire must be divorced in different directions.

In the event that water under the ground is revealed to the right or to the left, in this case, these two boundaries will unfold in the required direction. And if the aquifer is in front of you, the edges of the wire will close. In order to be convinced of your own find, walk over the found water several times, however, moving along a different line of movement. If everything repeats itself, then it is allowed to dig a well on the current site.

Using silica gel

To do this, the granules of the substance are carefully dried in the sun or in the oven and placed in an unglazed clay pot. To determine the amount of moisture absorbed by the granules, the pot must be weighed before instillation. A pot of silica gel, wrapped in a non-woven material or dense cloth, is buried in the ground to a depth of about a meter in a place on the site where a well is planned to be drilled. After a day, the pot with the contents can be dug out and weighed again: the heavier it is, the more moisture it absorbed, which in turn indicates the presence of an aquifer nearby.

The use of silica gel, belonging to the category of substances that have the property of absorbing moisture and retaining it, will allow in just a couple of days to determine the most successful place for drilling a well or arranging a well.

In order to narrow the place of finding water for a well, several such clay containers can be used simultaneously. You can more accurately determine the optimal location for drilling by re-instilling the pot of silica gel.

Ordinary red clay brick and salt also have moisture-absorbing properties. The determination of the aquifer is carried out according to a similar principle with preliminary and repeated weighing and calculation of the difference in indicators.

Vine-assisted water search technology

Our ancestors understood this very well! For this, they used an ordinary willow rod. There was also a similar activity - a dowser. The willow feels liquid and nature has endowed her with the ability to reach for water. It is not difficult to carry out such searches personally.

To do this, you should: mark a willow branch with 2 branches emerging from the 1st trunk, and dry it at room temperature. Take the edges of the branches in your hands and spread them to such an extent that the angle among them is about one hundred and fifty degrees. The outcome of a single trunk must look a little upward, and the muscles of the arms must be strained. It is necessary to walk on the area with this device.

Where an aquifer lies, the branch of the vine will go down without much difficulty.

The ancient way with clay pots

It is also an extremely old and classic way of finding water. To do this, in order to clearly establish the zones of occurrence of water, earthenware was used in the villages. Before this necessary commission, the pot was perfectly dried in the sun. In the section of the planned well, a dried product was placed in an inverted form. If there was actually some water deep under the soil, then the pot was very sweaty inside.

The current owners also use this technology, however, in a slightly improved version. A set number of silica gel is poured into the pot. It is also dried before use. The filled pot is weighed and placed in the water search area. For a greater likelihood of a positive ending, several similar pots are placed over the whole area. After the time has elapsed, the pots are weighed: where is the heaviest, there it is necessary to dig a well or a well. Instead of silica gel, it is allowed to use small pieces of typical brick.

Help animals

How to find water in the area under the well will be given a hint by tame pets. Peasants from time immemorial noticed that in a place where dogs or horses start to dig their mother earth, it is allowed to reveal water with a high opportunity. Chickens do not lay eggs when it is damp on the site, and geese, like waterfowl birds, or rather nest over the place of the coming well. Ants do not prefer "water" areas. If in the evening you notice a column of midges or mosquitoes over a certain area - here you can look for some water.

Fog

In those places where in the summer in the early morning there is a light smoke, or rather only, there is groundwater nearby. The thicker the fog, the higher the water underground. It is necessary to look only behind the fog that stands on the site without moving.

Salt and brick

Consider how to find water in a country house with the assistance of typical kitchen salt and building bricks. It is necessary to choose a sultry period when the earth will be completely dry. Pour the pre-dried salt or crushed scarlet brick into a gray clay unpainted pot. We weigh the container together with the contents. We wrap the pot in gauze or agrofiber and immerse it in the soil to a depth of half a meter. A day later, we buy our own homemade apparatus and weigh it again. If the difference in weight is significant enough, then water is not far away.


First-hand report on the construction of the reservoir

The idea to dig a pond on my site came to me a few years ago. But, since this work is laborious and difficult in terms of a creative approach, its beginning was postponed for a long time. Finally, during my next vacation, I decided to get down to business and step by step through all the steps required to create a pond. It was decided to make the pond film, with geotextile lining. Plant it with plants and get fish. Install an aerator for fish. It is also planned to circulate water through a small waterfall with three cascades. It was originally made, even before digging a foundation pit under the pond, from a pile of stones laid on a man-made clay hill. The water will circulate in a closed loop from pond to waterfall using an inexpensive bottom pump.

That's all the initial data. Now I will proceed directly to the story of the construction of the pond, trying not to miss the details.

First of all, I took a shovel and dug a pit with dimensions in terms of 3x4 m. I tried to make the shape natural, rounded, without sharp corners. Indeed, in nature, coastlines are always smooth, without straight lines, such must be adhered to when creating an artificial pond. At its deepest point, the excavation reached 1.6 m below ground level. It could have been done less, but in my case, it is supposed to breed wintering fish, for which at least 1.5-1.6 m is required.

There are 3 terraces on the rise of the pit. The first (shallow water) - at a depth of 0.3 m, the second - 0.7 m, the third - 1 m. All 40 cm wide, so that you can install pots with plants on them. Terracing is performed for a more natural look of the water surface. And also for the placement of aquatic plants, the type of which will determine the number of terraces and their depth. You need to think about this in advance. For planting cattail, for example, you need a depth of 0.1-0.4 m, for nymphs - 0.8-1.5 m.

The pit for the pond should be multi-level, with several terraces

The pit was dug, stones and roots were taken from the bottom and walls. Of course, you can immediately start laying the film, but this option seemed too risky to me. Firstly, seasonal movements of the soil can lead to the fact that the pebbles that were in the soil layer change their position and break through the film with sharp edges. The same will happen if the roots of trees or shrubs growing nearby reach the film. And the last factor - on our site there are mice that dig underground passages and, if desired, can easily get to the film. We need protection. Namely - geotextile. He just will not allow rodents, roots and other unpleasant factors to damage the film.

I bought a geotextile 150 g / m2, carefully laid it out and brought the edges to the shore a little (about 10-15 cm - how it happened). Temporarily fixed with stones.

Geotextile is laid with edging to the shore

Perhaps the most crucial stage is the creation of waterproofing. It can be neglected if the hydrogeological conditions of your site allow the creation of natural reservoirs. But such cases are very rare and it is better not to take risks, so that later you do not have to redo everything.

So, waterproofing is needed. In my case, this is a dense butyl rubber film specially designed for ponds and reservoirs.

Initially, I want to dissuade you from using plastic films sold in ordinary hardware stores and used to upholster greenhouses. Especially if your pond is large enough. Such isolation will last for 1-2 years, then, most likely, it will leak and everything will have to be redone. Extra headache and expenses are provided. You need a special film, for ponds - made of PVC or butyl rubber. The last option is of the highest quality, the strength of the butyl rubber film will be enough for 40-50 years for sure, and maybe even more. The advantage of rubber waterproofing is that it stretches well.The water pressure in the pond will sooner or later lead to subsidence of the soil. In this case, the film is stretched. PVC can crack or break apart at the seams. Butyl rubber will just stretch like rubber, it can withstand significant stretching without consequences.

I calculated the dimensions of the film required for my pond as follows: the length is equal to the length of the pond (4 m) + double maximum depth (2.8 m) + 0.5 m. The width is determined in the same way.

I spread the film over the geotextile, bringing 30 cm of the edges to the shore. I tried to smooth out the folds on the bottom and walls, but did not really succeed in this. I decided to leave it as it is. Moreover, the folds will compensate for temperature changes and it is not necessary to pull it too tightly.

A pit covered with butyl rubber will keep water in the pond

After laying it is necessary to fix the edges of the film. It is impossible to leave them open on the ground, as water will get between the film and the walls of the pit. Water bubbles will inevitably appear and will have to be removed. And this is very difficult, especially with a large pond.

I decided to dig in the edges of the film and thereby fix them firmly. At a distance of 10 cm from the edges of the pond, I dug a groove, 15 cm deep. I put the film inside the edges and covered them with earth. He covered the whole thing with turf from above. It turned out to be a real coastline, overgrown with grass!

Now you can start the water. I threw a hose into the pit and pumped water from the well with a pump. The water was collected for several hours. As the filling progressed, the folds of the film got confused and had to be straightened out. But in the end, the stretch turned out to be quite uniform.

A pond filled with water must settle for a while to establish a biobalance

And one more important detail worth mentioning. Together with clean water from the well, I poured a bucket of water from a natural reservoir into the pond. This is necessary to accelerate the development of biobalance. In other words, water from a reservoir with an existing biosphere will help to quickly establish the same in a new pond. There will be no balance, the water will become cloudy and green in a matter of days. And soon it will not resemble a pond, but a swamp with a greenish slurry. Plants planted in the water at the bottom will also contribute to the activation of the biosystem.

I immersed the pump to a depth of 0.5 m, and it supplies water to the upper cascade of the waterfall and to a small garden fountain. The water separation is controlled directly at the pump.

The circulation of water in the pond is due to the fountain and waterfall

Plants are a separate topic. I wanted to plant a lot of things so that the pond immediately, from the first days, created the appearance of a natural, natural reservoir. So I went to the market and picked up marsh irises, calla, water hyacinths, and a few nymphs there. For landscaping the coast, I took a couple of lobelia bushes, monetary loosestrife, white calla bulbs.

Upon arrival, this seemed to me a little, so I made a trip to the nearest pond (from which I drew water for biobalance) and dug out several bushes of young cattail. It will grow and purify water. It is a pity that there is nothing more suitable in this pond. Otherwise I wouldn't have to buy anything. Perhaps you are more fortunate and in the nearby pond you will find all the plants for landscaping your own pond. After all, almost all aquatic plants grow in our natural reservoirs. With a certain amount of luck, you can find and pick sedge, cattails, yellow irises, marigold, calamus, deerbein, yellow egg-pods and much more.

On the upper terrace, I put balcony boxes and baskets with planted cattails, callaires, water hyacinths, and marsh irises. I planted it in heavy fertile soil, covered it with pebbles on top so that the fish would not pull the soil and pull out the roots.

I put nymphs in baskets - I have 4 of them. He also covered it with pebbles on top. I put the baskets on the middle terrace, the one that is 0.7m deep. Then, as the stem grows, I will lower the basket lower until I set it completely 1-1.5 m above the water level.

In shallow water, aquatic plants are planted in baskets and boxes

Nymphaea flowers last only a few days, then close and sink under the water

Lobelia and loosestrife were planted along the coastline. I dug the calla bulbs there. Verbeinik very quickly began to lower his branches directly into the pond. Soon the film will not be seen on the rise! Everything will be overgrown with grass, loosestrife, calla and other planted plants.

At first, the water in the pond was as clear as a tear. I thought it would be so. But, after 3 days, I noticed that the water was cloudy, the bottom was no longer visible. And then, a week later, she became clean again - a biological balance was established. I waited another two weeks and decided that it was time to launch the fish - all the conditions for its living were created.

I went to the bird market and bought some suitable copies of comets (almost a goldfish) and crucians - gold and silver. Only 40 fish! Let everyone out. Now they frolic near the fountain.

A pond with running fish looks magical!

For the comfortable living of the fish, an aerator was connected. The compressor is 6 W, so it works constantly, it is not expensive in terms of electricity consumption. In winter, the aerator is especially useful. Water saturation with oxygen and polynya will be provided.

This is the end of the master class. I think it worked out very well. The most important indicator of this is clean water. As such, I do not have mechanical filtration. The balance is regulated by a variety of plants, an aerator, circulation of water through a waterfall and a fountain using a pump.

As for finance, most of the money went to butyl rubber film. I dug the pit myself, if you have to pay to hire an excavator or a team of diggers, but the pit will be dug quickly. Plants are not too expensive (and if you take them from a natural pond, then in general - for free), fish - too.

So everything is real. If you are not afraid of significant labor costs (especially for digging a pit) and the need for a creative approach, go ahead. As a last resort, if you are not lucky with a designer vein, look through photos of ponds in magazines or on the pages of specialized sites. Find what you like and try to do something similar for yourself. And then - enjoy the result and your own pond on the site.


Watch the video: Luke Combs - When It Rains It Pours