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Tropical pineapple - where it grows, useful properties, features of flowering and fruiting

Tropical pineapple - where it grows, useful properties, features of flowering and fruiting


Pineapple is one of the most beloved and valuable fruits not only in our country. The recognized king of tropical fruits gives people its freshness in hot countries, and northerners are reminded of summer by its sunny colors and southern aroma.

Pineapples don't grow on palms

Pineapple is a tropical herb of the bromeliad family. In nature, there are many species of this perennial, but all valuable cultivars are obtained from the large-crested pineapple, or Ananas comosus.

Pineapple leaves are quite tough, with finely toothed edges form a dense rosette about 60 cm high. Their ability to accumulate and retain moisture gives the plant succulent properties and excellent adaptability to dry hot climates.

During flowering, a peduncle with an inflorescence in the form of an ear appears from the rosette of leaves. Pineapple flowers are bisexual, growing together. Flowering lasts from 10 to 20 days, after which the fruit is tied - hA bud in the form of a cone with additional vegetative leaves on the vertex growing in a tuft, hence the name - crested or large-crested.

Pineapple inflorescence → purple flowers with red bracts

Pineapple ripens when the cone reaches a weight of about 2 kg, and the surface acquires a pleasant golden color. Compound fruit consists of a rigid axis with juicy fruits attached, fused together, on the tops of which there are coarse parts of the flower and cover leaf. The seeds of cultivated pineapple varieties do not ripen, but remain in their infancy.

When ripe, the skin becomes golden yellow.

Fruit use

Pineapple fruits have long been appreciated for their delicious, aromatic and very juicy pulp. In China, this fruit is the main decoration of the New Year's table, as a symbol of the success and prosperity of the family.

Original decorated pineapple - decoration of the festive table

In South America, pineapple is considered a medicinal plant. Compresses from the pulp and coarse fibers of the fruit, applied to open wounds, relieve inflammation. In the Philippines, the tough pineapple leaves have been used to produce fiber used to make natural fabrics.

Despite the fact that the peel of a tropical fruit is considered inedible, in Mexico they make a drink from it, similar to our kvass - tepache. Sugar is added to the peeled pineapple peel and fermented. After 2-3 days, the refreshing drink is ready. It is served in tall glass glasses with crushed ice.

Beneficial features

Sweet and sour pineapple pulp contains a lot of sugars and organic acids. The rich content of vitamins B, A and PP, as well as the presence of valuable minerals - potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, iodine and others provide its food value.

Pineapple juice and pulp are used:

  • with thrombosis, as a blood thinner;
  • with obesity - a low calorie content and the presence of potassium salts, which remove excess fluid from the body, help to reduce weight;
  • in case of indigestion - improves the activity of fermentation of gastric juice;
  • for vitamin deficiencies - juice as a source of useful trace elements and vitamins;
  • in cosmetology - masks and lotions with the addition of pineapple juice tighten pores and dry oily skin.

The famous Sophia Loren, who has a girlish figure in adulthood, eats two pineapples every day. It is to this fruit that the actress attributes the ability to burn fat and maintain well-being.

The pulp of unripe pineapple not only burns the mucous membrane of the mouth, but also causes severe indigestion. Ripe fruit loses its laxative properties, acquiring enzymes that improve digestion.

All kinds of jams and confitures are made from pineapple, used for filling when baking cakes and pastries. The fruits preserved in their own juice are used in a healthy diet and as a component of all kinds of salads.

Where are these fruits grown?

The homeland of pineapple is the sunny plateaus of Brazil. It was from there that the exotic fruit began its journey around the world. In the 16th century, Portuguese sailors brought pineapple to India and Africa, and in the 17th century Europe also met it. True, European climatic conditions do not allow growing this fruit in the open air, so it was settled here in a greenhouse. In the same way, for a long time it was possible to obtain the fruits of this plant in St. Petersburg and even on the Solovetsky Islands. But in the 19th century, with the development of a merchant shipping company, it became unprofitable to deal with pineapples, since they were brought in large quantities from plantations, and greenhouses refused to grow exotic fruits.

Due to the long growing season, it is not profitable to grow pineapples indoors.

Today, the main large plantations supplying pineapples around the world are in Brazil, the Philippine Islands, Thailand and Taiwan. In Russia, this fruit is grown only by amateur gardeners at home, in pots or in heated greenhouses and greenhouses.

On Valaam, a few years ago, novices tried to root pineapples in the monastery greenhouse, among ordinary vegetables and herbs. The experiment was a success, and today several exotic fruits are ready to diversify the menu of ascetics.

Colombian pineapples get along well next to cucumbers

Distribution of pineapples in the wild

Wild pineapples are still found in their homeland - in Brazil, settling among grass stands or along the edges of forests. Their fruits are much smaller than varietal ones and not so tasty, but, unlike cultural relatives, they retained the ability to reproduce by seeds. In cultivated pineapples, seeds are either absent or do not ripen, therefore reproduction occurs by layering and rooting of the top.

Wild pineapple fruits are much smaller than cultivars

A bit of agricultural technology

For some reason, many people think that pineapple, like dates, grows on a palm tree. Not at all - all species and varieties of this plant are herbaceous perennials. Pineapple plantation is a field with low shrubs on which these wonderful fruits are formed. Proper care of pineapple, like any other crop, will ensure a rich harvest. Plants are planted in rows, at a distance of 1.5-2 meters from each other. And then everything is as usual - weeding, watering in drought, fertilizing, fighting diseases and pests. If everything is done correctly, it will be possible to get 2-3 harvests per year.

Tropical plantations allow you to get up to three harvests of juicy fruits per year

The planted young pineapple rosette develops and gains mass for the first year. It blooms only 1–1.5 years after planting. The time of flowering and ripening of the fruit depends on the plant variety and can take from three to six months. Fruiting plants are removed, and new sockets are planted in their place.

Ornamental potted cultivation

Pineapple is most often propagated by rooting the tops of the fruit or by layering. Less commonly, seeds are used for these purposes, since ripe seeds are absent in the purchased fruits, and they are extremely rare on sale. Propagated by layering if there is already an adult plant, from which you can take planting material.

When choosing a pineapple for planting, first of all, we pay attention to the condition of the fruit. The pineapple skin should be even, without dents and damage, the leaves are elastic, without spoilage. But the main thing is that the pineapple must have a growth point. Therefore, you need to look very carefully at the center of the outlet - the leaves should be alive, green, and without damage.

For rooting, it is necessary to separate the crown from the fetus. If the pineapple is ripe enough, then it can be easily unscrewed by rotating it clockwise, or cut off with a knife, grabbing 2-3 cm from the fruit. Peel the cut off top of the lower leaves and pulp residues. It is best to root in a glass jar of water, not dipping to the leaves. After about a month, the first roots will appear, and after a week the pineapple can be planted in a pot.

Rosette rooting stages - separating the crown, removing the lower leaves and pulp, standing in water and planting in a pot

A rooted plant will take about a year to get ready for flowering. During this time, the rosette will noticeably grow and the first peduncle will appear in the spring or summer. The ear is 10 to 15 cm long and contains a variety of bright pink or purple flowers. The flowers open gradually from the base to the crown, and, after a month, the fruits begin to set. Growing rapidly, they merge, turning into one juicy fruit. Ripening will be completed in 4–5 months.

Ripening pineapples in beautiful flower pots will add sun and warmth to any home

Of course, grown in a pot, pineapple fruit will not be as large as its counterparts ripening in the tropics, but the taste and aroma will be just as good.

It often happens that indoor pineapple develops well, but flowering never comes. Insufficient lighting may be the reason. In this case, it is necessary to rearrange the plant to the south window or use supplementary lighting with a phytolamp. You can also use stimulants of flowering and fruiting.

Video: Blooming and growing pineapple at home

After ripening, the fruit is cut off, and the plant itself, if there are no other peduncles on it, is renewed. It's easier to say - they say goodbye to him, dropping one of the appearing processes in his place. Repeated fruiting in indoor conditions is extremely rare, and a rosette without fruit does not represent decorative value, although it takes up a lot of space.

Thanks to exports, and pineapple is in fourth place in terms of supplies after bananas, grapes and citrus fruits, today this tropical fruit is available in every corner of the globe. The refined taste and aroma, as well as the presence of fiber, vitamins and substances necessary for health in the pulp, make this fruit not only tasty, but also a healthy dessert.

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Hobbies play an important role in my life - floriculture, gardening, traditional medicine, pets. I love nature and all living things very much, so I read many articles on various phenomena and laws of life, everything that brings harmony.

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Sea buckthorn buckthorn. Planting, reproduction, care, varieties, photos on Supersadovnik.ru

Buckthorn buckthorn occupies an intermediate position between shrubs and trees. In the wild, it is a tree-like shrub with a height of half a meter to 9 m. The cultivated variety is most often a multi-stemmed tree 3-4 m high, the crown diameter of which reaches 5 m.

Thickets of wild sea buckthorn can be found in many parts of the world: in Eastern and Western Siberia, in Central Asia, in the Caucasus, in the Baltics. She prefers to settle along the banks of reservoirs.

The introduction of sea buckthorn into horticultural culture is a merit of the employees of the Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia. M.A. Lisavenko (Barnaul). For this achievement, 10 Altai scientists were awarded the USSR Prize in Science and Technology in 1981. In 2003, 4 employees received an award from the European Union for their work on the creation of a sea buckthorn assortment.

Sea buckthorn is often called a "storehouse of vitamins". Its fruits are rich in ascorbic acid, B vitamins and carotene. In addition, 15 trace elements were found in them, including iron, magnesium, manganese, boron, sulfur, aluminum, silicon, titanium.

The fruits of sea buckthorn have long been widely used by folk medicine, and the flowers have been used as a cosmetic product. Modern medicine, perfumery and cosmetology also actively use sea buckthorn. Sea buckthorn oil obtained from fruits is considered especially valuable.

This plant does not tolerate heavy soils - it needs light, loose, well-aerated fertile soils. Most of the root system is located in the surface layer at a depth of 10–40 cm, and only a few roots deepen to one and a half meters. The roots are fragile, break easily, so caution is needed when planting or transplanting.

Sea buckthorn is very light-requiring and does not grow in the shade. Ideal for planting is a gentle slope where the soil is light and water does not stagnate. But even on a flat area, the tree will take root well - if you provide it with all the conditions.

Sea buckthorn flowers are dioecious - on some plants only female (pistillate) flowers are located, which give a crop, on others - male (stamen) flowers, which serve for pollination. Sea buckthorn is always planted in "married couples". Better yet, surround one male plant with 3-4 female ones - then there will be especially many berries.

In the spring before flowering or in the fall after leaf fall, you can distinguish the male from the female bush by the buds. Male buds are 2-3 times larger than female ones, have 5-7 covering kidney scales, female - 2. If flowering has come, take a closer look: female sea buckthorn flowers are very small, imperceptible, petalless, yellowish in color and are located in bunches in the axils of the scales. Greenish-silvery males are gathered in short ears.

Blooming sea buckthorn is not at all decorative: small nondescript flowers do not have nectaries, do not attract bees. But the breeze will blow - and a light cloud of pollen flies from the male to the female. Therefore, the "man" is better placed on the side of the prevailing winds. Sea buckthorn begins to bear fruit at the age of 3-5.

Wild species and forms of sea buckthorn are famous for their protective device - long, up to 7–8 cm, strong and very sharp thorns, thorns, which cover the skeletal branches and young shoots. Because of the thorns, picking sea buckthorn berries sometimes becomes difficult, traumatic. However, cultivars with few or no thorns have already been developed.

An interesting and important feature of the sea buckthorn root system is the presence of nodules with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Sometimes, unknowingly, gardeners mistake nodules for root cancer and cut them off, which significantly reduces the survival rate of seedlings and impairs their growth.

The frost resistance of sea buckthorn is extremely high. Siberian varieties and their cultural forms calmly withstand frosts: minus 40 ° C is a usual thing for them. The Baltic and Kaliningrad sea buckthorn is less cold-resistant, but it tolerates temperature fluctuations better, almost does not support it with frequent thaws. There is a noticeable difference in endurance based on gender: sea buckthorn - "men" are more capricious than "women", they often suffer from temperature jumps and freeze in cold weather.

CARE RECOMMENDATIONS

Sea buckthorn is moisture-loving, so frequent and abundant watering is required, especially in dry weather. The trunk circle around the tree is mulched.

Sea buckthorn is fed with mineral fertilizers.

Pests - sea buckthorn fly, green sea buckthorn aphid, sea buckthorn notch-winged moth.

Susceptible to endomycosis, fusarium wilting and mycotic drying.


Where are these fruits grown?

The homeland of pineapple is the sunny plateaus of Brazil. It was from there that the exotic fruit began its journey around the world. In the 16th century, Portuguese sailors brought pineapple to India and Africa, and in the 17th century Europe also met it. True, European climatic conditions do not allow growing this fruit in the open air, so it was settled here in a greenhouse. In the same way, for a long time it was possible to obtain the fruits of this plant in St. Petersburg and even on the Solovetsky Islands. But in the 19th century, with the development of the merchant shipping company, it became unprofitable to deal with pineapples, since they were brought in large quantities from plantations, and the greenhouses refused to grow exotic fruits.

Due to the long growing season, it is not profitable to grow pineapples indoors.

Today, the main large plantations supplying pineapples around the world are in Brazil, the Philippine Islands, Thailand and Taiwan. In Russia, this fruit is grown only by amateur gardeners at home, in pots or in heated greenhouses and greenhouses.

On Valaam, a few years ago, novices tried to root pineapples in the monastery greenhouse, among ordinary vegetables and herbs. The experiment was a success, and today several exotic fruits are ready to diversify the menu of ascetics.

Colombian pineapples get along well next to cucumbers

Distribution of pineapples in the wild

Wild pineapples are still found in their homeland - in Brazil, settling among grass stands or along the edges of forests. Their fruits are much smaller than varietal ones and not so tasty, but, unlike cultural relatives, they retained the ability to reproduce by seeds. In cultivated pineapples, seeds are either absent or do not ripen, therefore reproduction occurs by layering and rooting of the top.

Wild pineapple fruits are much smaller than cultivars


Botanical description

As a magnolia tree, its chronology dates back to the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods of the history of the development of the Earth. This means that the age of a plant since its inception on the planet has already been many millions of years (from 20 according to some sources - to 95 according to others). Paleogeographic studies indicate a wide spread of culture in the past on the territory of Eurasia, including not only Kunashir (where magnolias still thrive today), but also Sakhalin, and the basins of the Don, Volga and even Ob rivers.

The structure of the flowers of this great tree is such that it was pollinated and gave seeds even when there was no trace of modern nimble insects-pollinators: flies, bees, butterflies. But the beetles had already appeared then, and this tree with an almost biblically long history patiently and persistently substituted its hard-skinned sepals for landing and crawling, imperceptibly turning into fragrant petals.

1 - branch with flower 2 - prefabricated multileaf 3 - flower diagram

The flowers of most species are still "sharpened" under the pollination of beetles - only they can push the petals with their solid shoulders in order to get into a closed bud for exquisite nectar, and on the way back, having bathed in pollen to their fullest, they leave part of it on the pistil (about pollination in this case, most likely, without even thinking). If everything were different, fruit setting simply would not have happened - in the flower of the already opened sticky moisture on the stigma of the pistil, it quickly dries up and the pollen cannot stick to it.

Yes, time has mercilessly converted species such as Magnolia into the rank of fossil:

  • capellini
  • primigenia
  • nordenskioldii
  • inglefieldii
  • paiivlensis
  • dianae
  • regalis.

The names for the botanical designation of culture have also changed many times. So, in addition to the traditional name "tulip tree", synonymous names appeared:

  • Kmeria (Parakmeria)
  • Tsoongiodendron
  • Dugandiodendron
  • Aromadendron
  • Manglietiastrum
  • Talauma
  • Elmerrillia
  • Alcimandra.

But it is what it was at the dawn of time, it remains so to this day: evergreen or deciduous, not too tall tree or shrub (depending on the type and growing conditions) with a spreading hemispherical or almost umbellate crown and ash-gray (or brown-gray ) bark, which may be scaly, smooth, or wrinkled.

And falling leaves with stipules still invariably leave their wide and narrow half-rings-scars on the surface of the shoots.

The flower buds that develop at the tops of the shoots are larger than the leaf ones. From the first, single fragrant multi-tiered flowers "collected" from tiled petals (from 6 to 12) that go one behind the other develop, forming several circles - from 2 to 4. The petals are densely colored in delicate pastel purple, cream or dazzling white tones, and the odor emanating from them can be so thick that it can cause dizziness.

When looking down from the petals, you can see how they imperceptibly pass into a cup of 3 pubescent sepals, and looking inside a terry multilevel corolla - a structure of many stigmas of pistils, reminiscent of a pineapple, which is tightly surrounded by a palisade of noticeably shorter stocky stamens ( over time, their bundle acquires a looser, "pompom" structure). This is what a magnolia flower looks like - a beautiful, simple and witty creation of evolution.

And from the middle of each of the flowers, from the structure that occupies its center, prefabricated leaflets, similar to a pineapple cone, are formed - magnolia fruits (colloquially called cucumbers), which upon opening reveal the seeds hanging down on thin and short seed threads. Each seed is supplied with a fleshy, appetizing for birds-looking broodstock, "poured" in varying degrees of intensity in red.

Leafy, smaller buds give rise to leaves that are most similar in shape to leaves. They are just as brilliantly polished (but not always as hard), with a solid edge, obovate or broadly elliptical, with a pinnate type of arrangement of veins, with an obligatory "tack" - stipule.

The development of the plant's root system is sufficient to keep a tree from pulling out of the soil when a tropical cyclone threatens.


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