Planting and caring for ornamental onions in the open field
Onions are not only a plant that is actively used in cooking. Botanists include more than six hundred species, including decorative ones, in the Allium genus. They grow everywhere - both in Novaya Zemlya and in southern Africa. You can also plant decorative varieties of onions in the country, in a flower bed, in a garden. They are quite unpretentious, but at the same time they are distinguished by their original colors, shape and a long flowering period. Only from different varieties of such a flower can a so-called continuous flowering garden be created. Today's article is about growing and planting decorative onions in the ground.
What is a decorative perennial onion?
Ornamental onion varieties are attractive flowering plants of a wide variety of species. There are both very tiny and fairly tall specimens.
Most types of such onions are perennial, that is, you do not have to buy seeds every year, grow seedlings or engage in picking.
In total, about 130 varieties of this flower are used in gardening, and some of them are eaten. However, it is better to add table varieties to the salad, and decorate a bouquet or flower bed with decorative ones.
A feature of alliums, because of which they are practically not used in floristry on their own, is a high content of essential oils with a specific smell. For the same reason, they are best grown outdoors. These flowers have long been used in landscape design:
- when forming alpine hills or stone gardens;
- when making curbs or group landings;
- for decorating garden lawns, parks;
- use plants as dried flowers.
The most popular varieties of decorative onions
In horticulture, many varieties of such flora are used, as well as hybrids.... Among the popular types are chives, aflatunsky, karatavsky, Roseum, Christoph's bow.
- Chives well known to lovers of first greens. It can be grown both on the street and at home, in pots. It reproduces and grows very well, it looks very decorative. Leaves may turn yellow during flowering. In such cases, they must be cut off, and after a couple of days new ones will appear.
- Aflatunsky - the most popular variety of decorative alliumaa. It is also known under the name of the Dutch. Spherical inflorescences consist of small purple flowers.
In some countries, the wild Alfatun bow is on the verge of extinction. It is listed in the Red Book. The properties of the plant are comparable to that of ginseng.
- Karatavsky - a variety that looks especially good on mini-flower beds and alpine slides. Short but hardy. Inflorescences can be purple, pink, cream.
- Roseum - a variety that differs in light pink flowers of a small size.
- Bow of christoph Is a popular ornamental variety used in large flower beds. The diameter of the balls, which consist of individual flowers, reaches 18-20 cm.
Open ground planting rules
The plant is planted in autumn (early flowering varieties), in September, or in spring (late flowering varieties), in May or late April.
For decorative onions, sunny areas are chosen - the more light, the more beautiful the color of the leaves and the richer the color of the buds.
Planting depth plays a role: on average, it should be two diameters of the bulbs. There should be up to 0.5 m of distance between the shoots.
Blooming allium care
It is very important to provide such an onion with a sufficient amount of moisture during the growing season - without this, it stops expelling leaves. Later, he practically does not need watering.
You do not need to cover the plant for the winter., and allium should be transplanted every four to five years.
The soil should be loose and neutral. Reacts well to composting, loves potash fertilizers.
Alliums get along well with irises, peonies, delphinium, poppy. During preparation for flowering, the leaves die off, but they cannot be cut off. With their help, plants accumulate nutrients in the bulb.
This onion is propagated by bulbs, bulbs or seeds. It is better to separate the overgrown bulbs in the fall, during transplantation. To collect seed, the first inflorescences are used, and they must be allowed to fully bloom.
To get a bright decorative flower from seeds, it is better to grow them in a separate bed in the first year, and collect the bulbs at the end of the season. A full-fledged plant in this way is obtained only after three years, and sometimes even after five years.
Diseases and pests of the decorative onion flower
- Peronosporosis - caused by fungi. Leaves and flowers turn yellow, dry out, and purple bloom is visible on them in damp weather. The reason may be too much nitrogen fertilization, contamination from other plants. Before planting, the bulbs are treated with a fungicide, and the diseased flowers and the soil around them are treated with Bordeaux liquid.
- Root mite, onion fly - these pests often infect alliums. To protect the plants, heat the bulbs at 40 degrees Celsius for 12 hours before planting. Plants can be sprinkled with tobacco dust, ash, sprinkled with dichlorvos.
Application and combination with other plants in the outdoor garden
A flower is planted on alpine hills, in flower beds, stone gardens, used as a border. Giant blue or light blue balls are especially popular. Large varieties are used independently, while they should be planted at a great distance from each other. Small varieties can be planted side by side, "islands": so they look more advantageous.
Since the leaves of alliums can dry out during the flowering period, it is better to plant low-growing flowers next to them: delphiniums, hosts. Similar plants look very attractive next to lupins, poppies, peonies, irises, aquilegia. It is especially good to combine allium with perennials.
In landscape design, both single plants and groups are used. Tall shoots are planted one at a time, creating color accents in certain areas. When planted in groups, decorative bows create colored spots.
Having picked up varieties with different flowering periods, you can create a garden of continuous flowering, which will delight with bright inflorescences from mid-spring to late autumn.
Ornamental onion is an original plant with ball-shaped inflorescences. It is widely used to create colored bouquets, flower beds or flower beds. Easy care and unpretentiousness make this perennial popular with gardeners and landscape designers.
Decorative bow allium Planting and care in the open fieldDecorative bows alliums are very beautiful
Allium (Allium) or ornamental onion is a herbaceous biennial or perennial plant from the subfamily Onions, which has a large bulb. In appearance, this plant of the Amaryllis family is so different from other inhabitants of the flower garden that it is difficult to confuse it.
A high (in some species up to 1 m), swollen stem is crowned with an umbrella-shaped inflorescence of a spherical shape, consisting of many small flowers on long pedicels. In some representatives, the size of the inflorescence can reach 40 cm in diameter. Different varieties will delight with flowering from June to September.
The plant has a characteristic pungent onion smell and taste due to the presence of essential oils, but allium is valued by flower growers for something else. Exotic external data make it possible to use it in rock gardens, rocky gardens, single plantings and flower arrangements.
The best varieties of onions for herbs
There are many varieties of vegetables, but not every variety of onions can provide healthy greens.
Therefore, the forcing of bulbs on a feather takes place after a thorough study of the varietal characteristics of the crop. The vitamin vegetable can be grown in a variety of ways. The culture takes root well both in the open field and in greenhouse conditions. And the most enterprising housewives grow healthy greens at home all year round.
For open ground
To grow green feathers in your backyard, you should pay attention to the following varieties of vegetable crops:
- To obtain green vitamin feathers by the end of April, onions of the Batun variety are planted. Varieties of April, Baron, Russian winter or Emerald are characterized by increased resistance to low temperatures.
- Varietal varieties of shallots are unpretentious in cultivation and care. But at the same time, the quality and quantity of the crop is significantly superior to its crop counterparts.
- Onion sets are also popular with vegetable growers for growing green feathers.
- Due to its unpretentiousness to growing conditions and excellent yield indicators, the Egyptian variety of onions, known among vegetable growers as Canadian or multilayer, is also in demand. To get an early harvest of greenery, the crop is planted in late autumn.
To get a harvest of green feathers all year round in greenhouse conditions, it is recommended to plant the following varieties of vegetable crops:
- Varieties of slime onions take root well in greenhouse conditions and are suppliers of fresh herbs all year round. The variety is characterized by wide, flat feathers with a taste and aroma of garlic, suitable for making snacks, soups and side dishes.
- Leeks are characterized by long ripening periods, therefore, for regions with a temperate and cold climate, it is recommended for growing in greenhouses and greenhouses.
- Vegetable growers appreciate the Karatalskiy feather onion for its high yield and excellent taste. In greenhouse conditions, a vegetable crop increases its green mass all year round.
Also suitable for year-round cultivation and chives, chives in common people. The variety is characterized by narrow, needle-like feathers with a juicy taste and aroma. Underground root crops in this variety of vegetable crop develop poorly, therefore, the plant gives all its strength to the growth of green cover.
Winter or spring?
Sevok can be planted both before winter (winter) and in spring (spring).
Winter onions have some benefits:
- does not release arrows
- ripens earlier, already in June a full-fledged turnip is formed, which is suitable for eating
- the onion fly is less likely to damage the winter bow, because by the time it appears, it is gaining strength and becomes more rough for it
- full harvest is carried out in July. The vacant space can be sown with siderates, and after them, plant greens or other vegetables (radishes, Chinese cabbage).
Autumn sowing is suitable for those regions where the land is covered with snow by at least 10 cm in winter. The snow cover protects the plantings from frost, and the onions do not freeze even at temperatures below -15 °. For cultivation in the Urals and Siberia, where the winter is snowy and the soil warms up for a long time in spring, winter onions are a good opportunity to get early not only greens, but also turnips.
For planting before winter, the smallest set is chosen. It does not last until spring, but in the open field it undergoes natural stratification and forms a full-fledged large head.
Winter onions have one drawback - they are stored less than spring onions.
Planting onions in the open field can be carried out in two stages - part of them can be planted as winter, so that fresh onions are on the table in June. And plant the second, main, part in the spring, when the earth warms up. Spring onions are stored for a long time and do not lose their qualities until the next season.
Planting and caring for winter onions is no different from growing spring crops. The technology is the same, starting from choosing a place for a garden and ending with preparation for storage.
When growing onions in open ground, it should be provided with timely watering, dressing and treatments from pests and diseases.
Onions should be watered once a week, using five to ten liters of water per square meter of planting. However, if it rains regularly in summer, then watering may not be necessary. Otherwise, in waterlogged soil, the onions will begin to rot. Learn about the condition of the soil can be green. If it becomes pale, then there is an excess of moisture in the soil. The bluish-white feathers indicate that the soil is dry. In July, the bulbs begin to ripen and watering is reduced.
When growing onions during the season, three additional fertilizing with organic fertilizers is carried out. You can use a solution of mullein, urea or bird droppings for this (for 10 liters of water - one glass of organic matter). One square meter of the garden bed is watered with three liters of solution. The first feeding is carried out after the greens appear. After two weeks, the plantings are fertilized a second time. The third time the plants are fed when the bulbs are about the size of a walnut.
When the greens of the onions reach a size of about fifteen centimeters, it is recommended to treat the plants with copper sulfate, which is good protection against many fungal diseases... To do this, the feathers are sprayed with a solution prepared from ten liters of water and a teaspoon of the drug.
Growing onions in open ground involves timely regular watering, after which it is imperative to loosen the soil and remove weeds from the site so that it does not strangle the young shoots of the plant. In addition, onions need additional feeding, and in cases of infection with diseases or pests, it will need to be treated with fungicides or insecticides.
It would be easier to say that onions need to be watered once a week, spending 5 to 10 liters per 1 m², but one summer is not like another: in one year it can get dry, and you will have to water the onion almost every day, in another year it can rain every other day, and the onions will start to rot from waterlogging. Therefore, just make sure that the onion does not dry out and does not suffer from excess water: with a lack of moisture, the feathers become bluish-white, and with excess, the greens acquire a pale shade. In July, watering is reduced as the bulbs begin to ripen, unless the summer is too dry.
As we already wrote, in the fall, when preparing the site, organic fertilizers are applied to the soil, and in the spring, before planting, a complex of mineral dressings. Subsequently, if the leaves grow slowly, fertilize the onion with an organic solution (a glass of bird droppings or urea, or mullein per 10 liters of water) at the rate of 3 liters per 1 m². After two weeks, feeding can be repeated, and when the bulbs reach the size of a walnut, a third feeding is carried out according to the same recipe.
Very often, beginners ask how to process onions in order to protect them from diseases. In horticultural practice, the norm is the preventive treatment of onion leaves from fungal diseases when its feathers reach 15 cm in height with a solution of copper sulfate - a teaspoon of the drug per 10 liters of water. To prevent the liquid from draining off the leaves too quickly, you can add a tablespoon of grated laundry soap to the solution.
5 Plant care
Allium is an unpretentious plant and does not require much effort and time from the grower. For good growth, you need watering, weeding and feeding. Moistening is carried out as the top layer of the earth dries out, in a hot, not rainy summer.
Ornamental onions are fed three times per season:
- the first time - after the appearance of the leaves. For this, nitrogenous fertilizers are used.
- the second feeding - during the period of lush flowering - with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers
- the third - in preparation for wintering with potash fertilizers.
To protect the bulbs from decay after flowering, they are recommended to be dug up and stored until autumn planting in a dry, well-ventilated place.
Allium needs to be transplanted every 4 years. More often than not, this does not need to be done, since the nests grow, and the picturesque view is lost.
Do not pick off dried leaves, as this reduces winter hardiness. To hide the unsightly appearance, other plants are planted next to the decorative onions.