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Helianphora - Carnivorous plant

Helianphora - Carnivorous plant


HELIAMPHORA

The Helianphora are carnivorous plants that capture their prey through mechanisms of

ASCIDES OR SIMILAR deriving from the modification of some leaves.

The flap of the modified leaves loses, in whole or in part, its shape to become a trap that takes on the function of capturing small animal prey.

The preys are attracted in various ways (with colors, with nectar, etc.) and remain trapped in the ascidian. At that point, devices are activated to dissolve them and absorb the elements that derive from them.

Generally, the ascidia are filled with water and the device that determines the death and decomposition of the prey is of secondary importance (a typical example is the Sarracenia and the Darlingtonia) as very often both the death and the decomposition of the prey takes place by the bacterial microflora normally present in these structures and not thanks to enzymes secreted by the plant but due to the secretion of acids by the acid-resistent bacteria they contain.

In typical carnivorous plants there is no symbiosis with bacteria and the digestion of the prey, which is always extracellular, occurs thanks to the secretion of animal proteolytic enzymes (pepsins, trypsins) associated mostly with the secretion of acids (formic acid) .

In some carnivorous plants the secretion of acids and enzymes is continuous while in others the secretion occurs only under the stimulus of the presence of the prey.

L'Heliamphora (family Sarraceniaceae) is a genus that has a cone-shaped ascidium and has no normal leaves but only leaves modified to ascidium.

It includes five species.

Their appearance resembles that of the sarracenie and the difference lies in the fact that they do not have a clear and distinct lid.

The Heliamphora they are extraordinary and very particular plants originating from Venezuela and Brazil typical of very inaccessible areas subject to heavy rains, frosts and wind.


Carnivorous plant

Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods. However, carnivorous plants generate energy from photosynthesis. Carnivorous plants have adapted to grow in places where the soil is thin or poor in nutrients, especially nitrogen, such as acidic bogs. Charles Darwin wrote Insectivorous Plants, the first well-known treatise on carnivorous plants, in 1875. [4] Carnivorous plants can be found on all continents except Antarctica, as well as many Pacific islands. [5]

True carnivory is thought to have evolved independently nine times in five different orders of flowering plants, [6] [7] [8] [9] and is represented by more than a dozen genera. This classification includes at least 583 species that attract, trap, and kill prey, absorbing the resulting available nutrients. [6] [10] This number has increased by approximately 3 species per year since the year 2000. [11] Additionally, over 300 protocarnivorous plant species in several generate show some but not all of these characteristics. A 2020 assessment has found that roughly one fourth are threatened with extinction from human actions. [12] [13]


Index

Existem quatro famílias principais de plantas carnívoras: Nepenthaceae, Sarraceniaceae, Droseraceae and Lentibulariaceae. São extremamente distinctas entre si com respeito às estruturas reprodutivas, or que indicates que podem ter evoluído parallel, and que its habilidade de capturar e digestir seja uma convergência evolution. Entretanto, algumas estratégias de captura são similares, como nos animais.

Nepentes Editar

Possuem na ponta de suas folhas estruturas semelhantes a jarros, sendo na verdade continuações da própria folha modifications, com as bordas do limbo unidas forming uma ânfora. Sobre a abrezza desta ânfora encontra-se uma estrutura semelhante a uma "tampa", normally colorid, servindo de proteção estática para que a armadilha não se encharque. Isso faz com que apenas uma porção de líquido encontre-se em seu interior, e é neste líquido que insetos, aranhas, e mesmo pequenos pássaros ficam presos ao escorregarem para inside do tube - atraídos pelas cores e pelo brilho de glândulas base situad tampa. Uma vez in, uma parede waxosa e pelos no interior da folha voltados para baixo, evitam que esta ser escalada, e ali os animais são digeridos.

Esta família possui algumas das maiores espécies de plantas carnívoras and tem a forma de uma trepadeira (sendo que a estrutura entre a folha e a armadilha atua na sustentação da planta, de maneira análoga às gavinhas das videiras).

Sarracenia Edit

This family consists of plantas carnívoras com folhas saindo de um rhizome subterrâneo, folhas estas unidas pelas bordas forming um comprido jarro, semelhante à família Nepenthaceae. Compreende os gêneros Sarracenia, Darlingtonia (ambas naturais from América do Norte) e Heliamphora (natural from América do Sul). Encontradas na his maioria in climas temperados, as plantas both in the period of sleep in the period of time in the maize frias do ano.

Algumas especies de aranhas-caranguejo podem viver em suas armadilhas para caçar suas presas, mas como apenas sugam os fluidos dos insetos nem a planta nem a aranha saem prejudicadas.

Drosera Edit

Droseraceae is a family of plantas angiospérmicas (plantas com flor - divisão Magnoliophyta), pertencente à ordem Caryophyllales. A ordem à qual pertence this família está por its vez incluída na class Magnoliopsida (Dicotiledôneas): desenvolvem portanto embriões com dois ou mais cotilédones. A família abriga os gêneros Drosera, Dionaea is Aldrovanda (Aldrovanda vesiculosa). As plantas do gênero Drosera, or único da família com mais de uma espécie, possuem tricomas glandulares ("tentáculos") que recobrem mainly suas folhas e que, ao secretarem uma substância pegajosa, atraem suas presas. Estas ficam aprisionadas nas armadilhas Adesivas waves morrem and são slowly digeridas, tendo os nutrientes de seus corpos absorvidos pela surface das folhas.O gênero Dionaea it is composed just pela espécie Dionaea muscipula, a popular "papa-moscas".

Lentibularia Edit

Or gênero Pinguicula pertence à família Lentibulariaceae, mas possui estratégia parecida com as Drosera. Esta família também possui estratégias passivas and ativas. Em Utricularia, gênero de plantas basically aquáticas, a maior part das folhas (senão todas) são submersas and extremly modifications em filamentos muito ramificados. Em alguns pontos destes filamentos, encontram-se pequenas câmaras vazias, seladas por uma válvula and Guarnecidas por pêlos. Larvas ou animais planctônicos, ao encostarem nestes pelos, detonam um semelhante process to or from Dionaea, abrindo to válvula and causing a current súbita de água para o interior das câmaras, carregando or animal consigo, waves and digested será.

Outras famílias Editar

Além destas quatro famílias, há plantas carnívoras menos conhecidas em outras famílias:

Cephalotaceae é uma família cuja única espécie é Cephalotus follicularis. Esta espécie possui uma elaborada, mas pequena, armadilha do type ânfora (uns poucos centímetros no máximo), and está localizada no sudoeste da Austrália.

A family Drosophyllaceae inclui o Drosophyllum lusitanicum, uma planta carnívora endêmica de Portugal, Espanha and norte de Marrocos.

Os membros da família Bybliia Byblidacdaceae, pertencentes ao gênero Byblis , possuem armadilhas similares às de Drosera is Drosophyllum.

Algumas espécies de Bromeliaceae, como a Brocchinia reducta is Catopsis berteroniana são reconhecidamente carnívoras. Bromélias são monocotiledôneas, e como são naturally plantas coletoras de chuva pela forma de sua folhagem, e muitas espécies são epífitas e coletam detritos (Bromélia tanque), não é de se espantar que algumas tenham desenvolvido um hábito em dire ação glândulas digestivas and pelos voltados para baixo à sua estrutura.

Como in maioria das carnívoras, Cephalotus e bromélias carnívoras são encontradas em regiões de solos pobres (ou com deficiência de nutrientes, como ocorre com as bromélias epífitas), high luminosidade, muita humidade and incêndios naturais regulares ou outras perturbações do habitat. alimentar de animais pequenos para suprir suas necessidades biológicas, esses insetos possuem nitrogênio, important muito para a planta, and fotossíntese cunt responsável pelos açúcares.

A family Dioncophyllaceae abriga or monoespecífico gênero Triphyophyllum (T. peltatum), currently considerada a maior das plantas carnívoras.


Index

Sixteen species are ascribed to the genus. [1]

  • Heliamphora chimantensisWistuba, Carow & Harbarth, 2002
  • Heliamphora ciliataWistuba, Nerz & A.Fleischm., 2009
  • Heliamphora elongataJ.Nerz, 2004
  • Heliamphora exappendiculata(Maguire & Steyermark) Nerz & Wistuba, 2006
  • Heliamphora folliculataWistuba, Harbarth & Carow, 2001
  • Heliamphora glabraNerz, Wistuba & Hoogenstrijd, 2006
  • Heliamphora heterodoxaSteyerm., 1951
  • Heliamphora hispidaWistuba & Nerz, 2000
  • Heliamphora huberiA.Fleischm., Wistuba & Nerz, 2009
  • Heliamphora ionaeMaguire, 1978
  • Heliamphora minorGleason, 1939
  • Heliamphora nutansBenth., 1840
  • Heliamphora pulchellaWistuba, Carow, Harbarth & Nerz, 2005
  • Heliamphora sarracenioidesCarow, Wistuba & Harbarth, 2005
  • Heliamphora tateiGleason, 1931
    • Heliamphora tatei f. macdonaldae
    • Heliamphora tatei f. parva
    • Heliamphora tatei var. neblinae
  • Helianphora uncinataNerz, Wistuba & A.Fleischm., 2009

At least five natural hybrids have been identified [2]

  • H. chimantensis × H. pulchella
  • H. elongata × H. ionasii
  • H. exappendiculata × H. glabra
  • H. glabra × H. nutans
  • H. hispida × H. tatei

and probably other undescribed species.

All the Heliamphora are herbaceous perennial plants that grow from an underground rhizome.

The size of the leaves varies from a few centimeters to H. minor is H. pulcher, up to one meter or a little more than H. ionasii.

The leaves, rolled up and with fused edges, act as tubular traps always full of water. Unlike other ascidian plants, the species of Heliamphora they do not have caps that close the traps but have structures similar to spoons, secreting a substance similar to nectar which attracts insects and other small animals. Each ascidian has a small slit that allows excess water to flow out. This mechanism allows the plant to always keep the maximum level of rainwater present inside the ascidia constant. The internal surface of the ascidia has small hairs pointing downwards that force the insects to reach the lower parts of the trap.

Carnivory Edit

The Heliamphora they do not produce digestive enzymes, such as proteases, ribonucleases, phosphatases etc. but they rely on the enzymes produced by symbiont bacteria for the digestion of their prey. One of the few species capable of producing enzymes is the H. tatei.

The main prey of these plants are generally ants, although the H. tatei catch flying insects.

L'habitus carnivore in these plants is lost in low light conditions. This suggests that the concentration of certain nutrients, such as nitrogen or phosphorus is only limiting during periods of rapid plant growth under normal lighting conditions [3]

All sorts of Heliamphora they are endemic to the Guyanese highlands of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil except for H. heterodoxa is H. sarracenioides, which are also found in the Gran Sabana a Venezuelan plateau. The large number of species discovered in recent years suggests that there are many other species that have yet to be described.

Heliamphores are considered to be among the most difficult carnivorous plants to grow. Some, like for example H. nutans, H.ionasii, is H. tatei require very low temperatures, while others like H. minor and H. heterodoxa, they need high temperatures. All require high humidity levels [4]

The substrate must be composed of acidic sphagnum peat mixed with quartz sand or perlite and pumice, in a 1 to 1 ratio to favor drainage. It must be kept constantly moist with 2–3 cm of rainwater, distilled or osmotic in the saucer. It is possible to use vermiculite, but never more than 10%, so as to stimulate the growth of the plant.

Propagation by division is not very successful, as the plant does not withstand stress well there is a risk that it may die. The seeds must be germinated in a substrate composed of sphagnum peat and placing them in full light and at a high level of humidity. The seedlings appear after several weeks.


Carnivorous plant Heliamphora Heterodoxa x minor you can find it in the Categories:

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