Miscellanea

Topiary, the use of trimmed ornamental plants for home and garden decoration

Topiary, the use of trimmed ornamental plants for home and garden decoration


Country of topiary forms

Traditionally, the Dutch are considered the trendsetters for tulips, hyacinths and daffodils. However, Holland could boldly be called a kingdom topiary forms: both in cities and in large and small villages, even the tiniest courtyards have neatly trimmed thujas, yews and boxwoods. The climate allows all of them to winter painlessly, and there is probably no other country in Europe where geometric shapes cut from plants are so popular.

Trees and shrubs transformed into all sorts of figurines, neat lawns and flower beds with symmetrical patterns and extremely flat edges - all these are elements of classic regular parks, which in the understanding of most of us should occupy a very large territory. However, over hundreds of years, the population of Holland has achieved extraordinary skill in the art of projecting elements of classic Dutch parks in a regular style onto the tiny spaces of their courtyards (Holland is a very densely populated country and a plot of 6-8 acres is already considered very large). Thanks to the art of gardeners, this country looks very elegant even in winter.

Contemporary art of regularity

Today the classic Dutch courtyard looks like this: in front of the house, on a site of about a couple of acres, there is a small, strict lawn. Neatly trimmed and symmetrically arranged green bosquets contain aromatic herbs (the most popular are rosemary and lavender) or heathers with different colored foliage, or summer flowers. Although the latter - "filling" the space inside the neatly formed low hedges of evergreen shrubs - a completely optional technique.

Many people confine themselves to drawing geometric patterns from green "stripes". The components within each "strip" are cut in exactly the same way, this is strictly taken care of by the owners, who can often be seen in the courtyard with garden shears in their hands. But among themselves, the parts of such a pattern differ in height and often consist of plants of different types.

But a special chic is to use plants of the same genus, differing both in the color of the foliage and in the texture of the crown (for example, denser or less dense), since modern breeders have worked wonderfully well.

A very popular material in Dutch gardens - thuja... The variety of its varieties allows you to achieve the most unusual combinations. For example, many varieties of thuja with a yellow color (for example, Thuja ocidentalis of Sunkist, Rheingold, Wareana Lutescens or Thuja orientalis of Aurea nana, Fastigiata aurea, and others) can set off the bright colors of their "green" relatives. Without any haircut, the almost perfectly spherical shape of the western thuja Little Champion, Woodwardii, Globosa or Danica make up ideal contrasting compositions with pyramidal shapes (for example, Smaragda or Spiralis).

Classic topiary forms (balls and pyramids made of boxwood or berry yew) are interspersed in Dutch courtyards with much more avant-garde options: for example, you can see figurines of a variety of animals (hares, bears, dolphins, sharks, etc.) or a bicycle completely made from boxwood.

In the backyard, the plants grow more freely, and often the owners decorate the flower beds with figures of funny gnomes, lanterns or carts with various summers inside.

Exhibition news

The slender rows of selection delights at the spring exhibitions in Holland begin with plants with "fashionable haircuts". The most popular model of this season is garden bonsai from thuja, cypress or boxwood.

Topiary craftsmen work directly at exhibitions and, in front of visitors, transform green trees of the usual shape into practically bald trunks with a small number of branches, "fluffing" at the ends with green shoots. Representatives of the plant kingdom cut in this way are in extraordinary demand. Although they can never surpass real pine garden bonsai in solidity ...

In Holland, cutting plants for garden bonsai is rather a demonstration of the art of "topiary", while in Russia such trees made from wintering varieties of western thuja could replace the capricious Japanese maple in oriental-style gardens.

My home is my castle

Dutch parks in a regular style were characterized by the presence of separate green rooms, the "content" of which could be significantly different: somewhere it was roses, somewhere it was aromatic plants, somewhere fruit trees.

The average inhabitant of today's Dutch village can rarely afford to "maintain" an entire green room, most often limiting himself to growing 1-2 "walls" on the sides of his site. But these walls are so high and thick that you have to cut openings in them for passage or small windows for a mailbox or trash can. It looks incredibly funny. Such dense hedges are quite capable of replacing traditional Russian fences.

Of course, Dutch gardeners are not limited to planting only well-trimmed bushes. A wide variety of conifers, clematis, among which the most popular are plants with white and green flowers, willows that are very common now in Europe (the latest "willow fashion" - the variety Salix gracillistyla Melanostachys, with dark purple earrings, which was declared a plant in March 2003 of the year), bamboo or beautiful modern varieties of deren with different stem colors (for example, the bright green Cornus stolonifera Flaviorea or the bright red C. alba Sibirica) all find their place in the gardens of private sector dwellers in Holland.

N. Ivanova biologist


Environmental project "Use of ornamental plants of the natural flora of the Trans-Baikal Territory in landscaping the school grounds

MBOU "Uzon secondary school".

"The use of ornamental plants of the natural flora of Transbaikalia in landscaping the schoolyard"

Executor: Zhamsoeva Sayana.

Chapter 1. The history of landscaping the schoolyard in the history of the school

Chapter 2 Pre-project site assessment

2.1. The study of literature on the creation of landscape design ... ... .5-6

2.2. Analysis of the soils of the investigated areas ……………………………… .7-9

2.3. Selection of plants for decoration of the school site and determination of agrotechnical methods of growing the proposed plants ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

Chapter 3. Development of the project and its implementation.

3.1. Sketch of the terrain with the proposed zones ……………………… ..10

3.4. Further development of the project ………………………………………… .14

Relevance. The enrichment of the assortment of ornamental plantings with new species and forms of trees and shrubs is of particular relevance.

To make the air cleaner in the cities and villages of the Trans-Baikal Territory today, and in general, the entire habitat becomes more favorable for the life of the population, it is necessary to use as actively as possible the unique plant resources of the region, the experience of botanists and the centuries-old traditions of landscape art (Rybkina, 2011, p. 4 )

This year our school turns 85 years old. All preparation is carried out under the motto: "With love for the school." We, the students of the MBOU "Uzon secondary school" in the village of Uzon, decided to make our contribution to the preparation.Namely, to pay attention to our school territory, to study the history of the use of ornamental plants in landscaping the school yard. The school yard is the hallmark of the school. The peculiarity of the location of our school is that it is always in the field of view of fellow villagers.

In this jubilee year, projects were announced: “Ya. My kind. My school ", a scientific and practical conference on the history of the school, preparation of an anniversary concert, shooting a video about the school" Our school is 85 years old ", decoration of graduation albums" Graduates are the pride of the school ", the creation of an open-air museum" History of the school ", meetings of school friends etc. During the preparation, organizational issues were decided: where to organize a meeting, what cultural and sports program to offer guests ..

A beautiful, well-groomed school area fosters in schoolchildren a sense of beauty, love for their native land. The school site is a place where students spend a lot of time during recess, after school, relaxing in the school camp in the summer. The school at all times was a mirror of its time, and the education system in the village is associated both with the general changes that took place in the country, and with the peculiarities of this educational area, the way of life of the village, with its traditions.

... Each person cherishes the exact time in which he lives, whatever it may be. Let us try in this work to present a living history of the landscaping of our schoolyard and the kind aura of our school.

For me, school is a second home. Here we communicate, consult and grow up. For many, school is more than just education. It is not for nothing that adults say that school years are the best time of their lives. At school, character is formed, our attitude to the world around us is formed. School is an integral part of life, so children should feel good and comfortable in it. It should be light, spacious, thought-provoking.

I am lucky because I study in a wonderful school. For ten years now, every morning I have been happy to open school doors and plunge into a colorful, noisy, wailing world in every way. This is a special world of students and teachers, in which everyone is in a hurry somewhere. I feel like, having crossed the school threshold, I find myself in this stream and swim, observing my direction. The feeling that I am a small part of a large organism called SCHOOL does not leave me.

I like everything in my new school! I like spacious staircases, round wooden railings, bright classrooms, but most of all - people. We have wonderful teachers!

Object of study - the history of the use of ornamental plants of Transbaikalia in landscaping and transformation of the school yard in the village of Uzon.

Subject of study - transformation of landscaping of the school yard in the village of Uzon.

Objective of the project: display the history of the use of ornamental plants in Transbaikalia in landscaping a school with Uzon, give a pre-project assessment of the site, develop and implement a project for landscaping a new school yard.

Hypothesis: if a project for the use of ornamental plants for landscaping the school site is developed and implemented, this will improve the recreation conditions for school students and cause a lot of positive emotions not only among the project participants, but also among parents, teachers, students, guests of the anniversary holiday, passers-by and will teach them take good care of nature.

Identify the stages of the school's formation and the history of landscaping the schoolyard in the village of Uzon.

Explore literature on landscape design , divide the school territory into zones and analyze the soil of each site, select plants for each site, taking into account the chosen style

Development and implementation of the project. Making a sketch of the terrain with the proposed zones. Project planning and student engagement.

Conversations, interviews, study of archival documents, photographs of school and rural museums and analysis.

Dividing the school territory into zones (practical work)

Study of literature on landscape design and gardening (theoretical method)

Determination of the chemical composition of the soil of each site (practical work)

Selection of plants for each site, taking into account the chosen style (theoretical method)

Involvement of students in research activities (practical work).

Determination of agrotechnical methods of growing the proposed plants (theoretical method).

Novelty: On the occasion of the anniversary of our native school, we decided to study the history of landscaping the school grounds, and before, a comprehensive landscaping research had not yet been conducted on the school grounds. On the basis of this, a project was developed for the study and landscaping "The history of the use of ornamental plants of the natural flora of Transbaikalia in landscaping the school yard." To study the history and implement ideas for landscaping the school territory in our school, groups were organized in 4 zones:

Grade 8 Zone 1: Shagzhaeva Dolgor, Batalov Dmitry, Darzhalova Anastasia.

Grade 9 Zone 2: Moritoeva Milena, Dashinimaev Sanzhai, Andreeva Tatiana.

Grade 10, Zone 4: Balchinova Dolgor, Zhunduev Bator, Chimitsyrenov Damdin.

Grade 11, Zone 3: Maksarova Yanzhima, Rinchinova Surena, Tsyritov Chingis, Batalova Tatiana.

These creative teams developed their own plans and layouts for the schoolyard zones.

Chapter 1. The history of schoolyard landscaping in the history of the school

The enrichment of the assortment of ornamental plantings with new species and forms of trees and shrubs is of particular relevance.

In this regard, it is recommended to use more than 70 plant species, including those introduced and acclimatized to our conditions. Some of the presented species have high decorative qualities, wide ecological plasticity, resistance to adverse environmental conditions and damage by pests and diseases. However, until now, only no more than two dozen species of trees and shrubs have found wide application in the landscaping of our settlements. (Bobrinev, 2009)

To make the air cleaner in the cities and villages of the Trans-Baikal Territory today, and in general, the entire habitat becomes more favorable for the life of the population, it is necessary to use as actively as possible the unique plant resources of the region, the experience of botanists and the centuries-old traditions of landscape art. (Rybkina, 2011, C 4)

A school on the territory of the Uzon village was opened in 1931 on the basis of a hut - a reading room in the Ulan - Zargantai valley in the Khabirga gorge much earlier than the Uzon village was formed. The school consisted of grades 1 and 2.

In 1933, the construction of a new school building was completed, in the construction of which the entire adult population of the village of Uzon took part. The new school was located above the place of the same valley in the Shara-Hunda gorge and had four classrooms. By this time, the school had become a full four-year elementary school.

In 1946, in the village of Uzon, on the central estate of the collective farm, the Dodo-Ilin primary school was opened and the school building from the Shara-Khunda gully was moved to the village of Uzon. Some of the students, at the request of their parents, stayed to study at the old place, as a result of which two primary schools were formed on the territory of the village at that time.

In 1952, both schools merged on the basis of the Dodo - Ilin school into the Uzon primary school.

At this time, our fellow countryman, Veteran of the Great Patriotic War Dondokov Banzaraksha Dondokovich, made a great contribution to the history of the improvement and landscaping of the village, streets and courtyards in the post-war period. He worked on a collective farm as a foreman of a construction brigade. Under his leadership, dwelling houses, objects of social and cultural significance were built in the village of Uzon.Beginning of the improvement of the village, schools, the streets were greened, the streets were asphalted.

Since that time, our village Uzon has been considered an exemplary village for landscaping and landscaping the streets and courtyards of schools, kindergartens, parks, and other institutions, where schoolchildren and teachers were always in the forefront. All this can be traced by studying the yellowed sheets of various documents, reviving old photographs, memories of old-timers, teachers and school graduates of different years.

Ordinary plantings were used for landscaping the streets in the village. On both sides of the streets on the western and eastern sides of the school, balsam poplar seedlings were planted at a distance of 3-5 m from each other. It is a light-loving and frost-resistant breed. Poplar is moderately soil-demanding, drought-resistant, tolerates weak soil salinity. The root system is well developed, with deep roots up to 4-5 meters. Propagated by cuttings and seeds. On the territory of the school, coniferous trees were planted: Scots pine, Siberian larch, Siberian spruce, which have phytoncidal properties. The playgrounds in the schoolyard were isolated from each other by hedges of rosehip and acacia. On the north side of the school there is a coniferous park and an alley of low-growing shrubs - elm, wild apple, bird cherry.

In 1966, a new cinder block school building for 180 places, built at the expense of the millionaire's collective farm, was put into operation, which made it possible to reorganize the primary school into an eight-year one.

In 1967, the first graduation of the Uzon eight-year school was released. In the same year, a two-story brick building of a dormitory of a school boarding school for 90 places was put into operation, for the children of the livestock breeders of the collective farm. The building of the boarding school was also built with funds from the Lenin collective farm.

In 1975, the school was reorganized into a secondary school and the first graduation of the Uzon secondary school took place in 1977.

On the territory of our village in 1982, a regional seminar on the improvement of villages was held.

- “A lot of people came from all over the region, headed by the first secretary of the Chita regional committee of the CPSU M.I. Matafonov. It was a big event in the life of a small village and personally for Banzaraksh Dondokovich, ”according to the former chairman of the collective farm named after Lenin Zhamsaranov G.Zh.

Before the commissioning of a new two-story school building in IN 2009, the school functioned in 7 separate buildings. The school in our village was long-awaited. The idea to improve the school area appeared when the new building of our school was opened. During the construction of the new Uzon secondary school, the area around the facility was partially damaged by the ecosystem, including the disruption of the normal development of plants. Nevertheless, in this territory there remain undisturbed parts of the ecosystem that differ from the original state.

I am lucky because I study in a wonderful school. For ten years now, every morning I have been happy to open school doors and plunge into a colorful, noisy, wailing world in every way. This is a special world of students and teachers, in which everyone is in a hurry somewhere. I feel like, having crossed the school threshold, I find myself in this stream and swim, observing my direction. The feeling that I am a small part of a large organism called SCHOOL does not leave me.

I like everything in my new school! I like spacious staircases, round wooden railings, bright classrooms, but most of all - people. We have wonderful teachers!

The school yard is not only the face of a general educational institution, but also an important component of the educational process. A well-maintained and well-groomed school yard will be one of the elements of the aesthetic and labor education of students. The goals of moral aesthetic labor education cannot be fully realized only in lesson activities, so we think it is necessary to involve students in project activities. The appearance of the school area of ​​our school is so far boring and monotonous. Therefore, we want to study the history of landscaping the schoolyard and continue transforming the school grounds, evoke a lot of positive emotions not only among the project participants, but also among parents, teachers, students, guests of the anniversary celebration, passers-by contemplating the result of our work.


Improvement of the territory of a private house with your own hands

  • 1 What to look for?
  • 2 Zoning the site
  • 3 Pads and tracks
  • 4 Landscaping
  • 5 Lighting
  • 6 We use decorative elements
  • 7 Artificial reservoirs
  • 8 videos
  • 9 Photos

It is much more difficult to improve a private house with the adjacent territory than an apartment in a high-rise building. A beautiful courtyard is the dream of many estate owners. It seems that not everyone can afford to hire a landscape designer who can quickly and efficiently develop a suitable project. How to be in such a situation? Before you undertake the independent landscaping of the territory of a private house, try to imagine what you want, ultimately, to get, and the practical recommendations provided in the article will help you decide on the design of the landscape.

What should you pay attention to?

What to look for

Everyone has their own ideas about beauty and comfort, which are expressed in the environment. Any little thing that pleases us characterizes us as a person. Although the improvement of the yard does not provide for work with the use of special equipment, if you first make drainage and strengthen the slopes, you can avoid many difficulties in the process of operating your personal plot.

If you are ready to attract additional workforce, then you can bring any of your ideas to life.

First, draw a plan of the site and depict on it all the planned buildings, plantings, fences and paths. After that, it will be possible to start marking the yard and its successive refinement. Please note, however, that the site must have both sunny and shady areas. This will diversify the family's vacation, as well as make it even more comfortable.

When designing a local area, it is important to take into account the climatic features of the region. This affects both plant selection and construction work.

Zoning the site

Landscaping in a small area The house is, of course, the main element of the site, so all other buildings should be built in the style corresponding to it. If your homestead is small, then you shouldn't experiment with styles. Remember, too, that too much decor will turn your home area into a colorful patchwork quilt.

Conversely, if you have a large area of ​​the site, then it can be zoned, bringing to life different thematic corners. For example, a rustic style involves the use of simple structures in design. It matches with handcrafted décor, gravel paths and wood flooring.

Think about what functionality you expect from the local area? What do you want to grow on it? Maybe it will be flower beds? Or are you planning to raise fish in a pond? Or maybe you like to relax on a sun lounger? In order for this variety of activities to harmoniously fit into the yard, it is necessary to divide the space into functional zones.

Flower bed

If you have children, then you need a playground. Therefore, think about which zones you need, which you want and which you can refuse. If you own a small yard, then try to combine some zones. For example, in the area for active games, you can put folding chairs and a table, thereby remaking it into a place for lunch and board games. After such a pastime, all these pieces of garden furniture can be removed by transforming the lawn into, say, a ball field.

Zones may be restricted by hedges, shrubs, and perennials. Remember, the fence shouldn't become dominant, so don't overload it.

Fences can be supplemented with arches or pergolas above the walkways. Such designs are especially effective when combined with flowering vines. Garden trellises entwined with climbing plants will create the impression of a living wall.In such a simple way, you can close your yard from prying eyes, and at the same time create a shady corner.

Playgrounds and tracks

In the front part of the courtyard, paving stones, hewn stone and concrete slabs look best. Often they are laid out so that the space between them can be filled, for example, with glass granules, sand or pebbles. Another design option is the planting of unpretentious low plants, including thyme, rejuvenated, saxifrage and others.

If you decide to decorate the yard in an informal style, you can make paths from wood cuts. The space between them is filled with crushed bark or sawdust. Such paths look attractive in the shady parts of the local area. If you need a more restrained and elegant composition, then it is better to fill the space between wood cuts with fine gravel, fine sand or gravel.

Wooden walkways

Often, narrow boards are used for paving paths, tightly connected to each other. This sidewalk is usually lacquered or painted. To simplify the installation of a path made of wood, you can use garden parquet, also called decking. The arrangement of the paths should be carried out in accordance with the plan drawn on paper.

The closer the paths are to the house, the more restrained they should be. Therefore, for their arrangement, it is better to use slabs, decking, paving stones or bricks. In other thematic areas, the paths can be more informal.

Landscaping

Sometimes, to create comfort and coziness in the yard, you just need to choose the right vegetation and plant it. If you have moved to the stage of landscaping the local area, then start by planting trees and bushes. With their help, you can make your garden more varied. In addition, trees and shrubs will protect certain areas from wind and sun.

Do you want brightness in the yard? Then you cannot do without planting brightly flowering plants. So, you can create a beautiful monochrome or multi-colored landscape.

If you are landscaping a small area of ​​a private house, then give preference to plants that bloom continuously - one after another. Such a flower bed will be attractive all season.

Blooming courtyards are attractive, but landscapes with decorative leafy plants such as ferns, heucheras and hosts look no less beautiful. Lawns are becoming more and more popular. Although it seems that the grass is unpretentious, the lawn also needs to be looked after. The grass needs to be sown and trimmed regularly. In dry summers, it needs to be watered daily.

Lawn

If you are ennobling a summer cottage, then perhaps it is better to make it fully paved. Such a yard is easy to keep clean. For landscaping such a yard, you can use flowerpots. This will allow you to settle any exotic in the yard for the summer, for example, lemon, cypress, pomegranate, etc.

Vertical gardening can create a relief volume of the garden. This is especially true in a small local area. Fences, gazebos, tree trunks and pillars already erected in the courtyard can serve as supports.

Lighting

You can create a harmonious landscape with the help of garden lighting elements powered by solar panels or from the mains. In addition to their functional purpose, they will add a special charm to the exterior of the courtyard.

As a rule, paths, ponds, plants and sculptures are highlighted. Floating lights create the feeling of a blooming oasis on the water. LED lights will help you create the effect of a starry sky under your feet. Pole lights can also be used to illuminate the paths.

One thing is clear - well-designed and well-thought-out lighting will decorate the territory of a private house.

We use decorative elements

Garden decorations bring special and unique accents to the courtyard, helping to create a directional style of landscape design. Outdoor areas and patios can be used for sculptures or a fountain.

In our area, garden figurines made in the form of fairy-tale characters and animals are very popular. But here it is important not to overdo it. Otherwise, you can turn the yard into a playground.

If you care for animals and birds, you can place feeders, birdhouses and squirrel houses in the yard. If you make them original, then you can use them to decorate the yard.

Artificial reservoirs

Ponds are designed for aesthetic enjoyment. For their arrangement, the dug pit is laid out with a polyvinyl chloride film. If you want to make a pond as close to natural as possible, then decorate its banks as naturally as possible. Lay them out with natural stones such as pebbles. Around you can plant moisture-loving plants such as water mint, sedge, marsh iris and, of course, reeds. At the bottom of the pond, you can plant lotuses, urut, water lilies and other aquatic plants.

Often, ponds are complemented by waterfalls and fountains. The sound of the water soothes and relaxes, promoting a wholesome relaxation. Reservoirs are great for arranging recreation areas.

The original body of water

We hope that the recommendations outlined in this article will help you make the courtyard of your dreams. If you have any questions on the topic, then ask them in the comments to the article.

Video

If you decide to make a pond in the yard, then we offer you a good technique for making it in your summer cottage:

Rest zone

Hanging bridge

Waterfall

Modern design

Original track

Small pool in the yard

A place to relax body and soul

Playground in the yard

Blooming corner

Rock garden


List of interesting decorative trees for landscape design

Today, plants with a bright crown shape, unusual color, and picturesque contours are especially popular. The garden favorites of recent years rightly include:

  • hornbeam, whose best compact varieties up to 10 m high adorn with a strict cone-pyramidal crown, are suitable not only for hedges, but also for bright single parties, and their ability to grow in the shade, and in partial shade, and in the sun is completely unique
  • dwarf and undersized varieties ash white, capable of revealing beauty in secluded lighting. It conquers with a rich, bright color of leaves with a pyramidal or rounded crown, fragrant flowering and an autumn orange parade
  • European beech - one of the most powerful ornamental trees, whose new compact varieties with purple leaves, weeping branches or a pyramidal crown become a dark-leaved magnet for eyes and set a strict mood for the entire design
  • medium-sized tree forms dogwood, which, when formed not into a bush, but into a tree, will delight you with a beautiful pattern of branches in a rounded crown, spectacular bark, bright flowering and fruiting
  • all varieties of decorative cherries from sakura before finely sawed cherries, with a huge selection of double varieties and unique pink flowers that turn twigs into dense pink clouds before the leaves bloom
  • compact varieties rock oak with variegated leaves or the usual giant forms, famous for the beauty of the bending of branches, dark bark, curly leaves and a stunning tier of the crown
  • romantic miracle - bean, better known as "golden rain" and famous not only for its complex leaves, but also hanging golden clusters of inflorescences
  • expanding in width, unstoppable, but limited to only 4-5 m in height vinegar tree with its carved, in some varieties resembling a fern, leaves, flashing in the fall with a red-orange fire, with red candles of inflorescences and unusual fruit
  • compact, up to 5-8 m varieties robinia pseudoacacia with a transparent crown, twisting twigs, amazing bark, complex feathery leaves and drooping clusters of inflorescences that offer varieties with unusual spirally twisted branches or golden foliage
  • re-emerging varieties rowan a columnar or pyramidal shape with unique curly leaves, a slender silhouette, an elegant crown and bright clusters of red fruits, which are tied after the lace cords of the inflorescences
  • starting a new gardening career and perfectly molding heart-shaped linden with its dense, heart-shaped foliage, elegant yellow-light green bloom and amazingly strong aroma
  • hybrid varieties mountain elm with a weeping shape and a crown that seems to hang in all directions, massive leaves, dark smooth bark and the effect of a green cascade.

Among the favorites of recent years, which have clearly declared themselves at landscape exhibitions, include other plants.

See the top five for deciduous ornamental trees on the next page.


Tips for beginners or how to avoid mistakes

It can be difficult for a novice farmer to equip the territory of the yard and plant his first park of fruit trees. These tips will help beginners avoid mistakes and create a beautiful garden with their own hands.

Beautiful garden photo

Planning

Arrangement of the garden should start with planning. In the plan-scheme, indicate the house, outbuildings, future and existing plantings. In order for the garden and buildings on the site to create a holistic picture, it is necessary to maintain a single style for all design elements.

Zoning the garden will help hide flaws or emphasize advantages, highlight special plants and decorative elements. As a result, thanks to clear planning and visual division into zones, the site will look like a painting and look unusual.

Features of the landscape

Perhaps your site has some landscape features that are worth beating. It can be an unusual relief, a body of water, unique plants. For example, on a hill, equip an alpine slide, in a ravine, you can create an artificial reservoir. Be sure to take them into account when creating beautiful gardens with your own hands.

Beautiful garden photo zoning of differences in the landscape with the help of stairs

Tracks

The next point to consider when creating a beautiful garden is designing paved paths. Their shapes should emphasize the landscape of the site. The most successful solution would be if all equipped tracks merge into a single route.

The garden area will look more creative when they are made of different materials. By decorating the paths with a floral border, you will add grace to your garden. Thyme, lungwort, marigolds are perfect for this purpose.

Zoning

Zoning is an important step in creating a beautiful garden. When the site is divided into functional zones, it will be as comfortable and harmonious as possible. Visual boundaries between zones should be symbolic.


Gardens of the world and landscape zoning

You can use decorative objects, unusual trees and plants, garden vases and boulders. Correct zoning will help to make the most of the entire area of ​​the site.

A place to rest

If, when creating a design, it turns out that you have a favorite place in the garden, then you should pay special attention to it. You might want to install a gazebo or bench for family fun.

Change of seasons

Experienced gardeners advise, when designing the final image, to remember that the garden should delight with its appearance not only in the warm season, but also in the cold season.

Therefore, it is necessary to thoroughly approach the choice of plants that will be there. For example, if you plant conifers and shrubs, they will decorate your garden all year round.

Soil preparation

If you know that the soil on the site is poor and depleted, then it is better to renew it with fertile soil. Also check if it is waterlogged. If the fear is confirmed, it is necessary to apply drainage, as many plants will rot.

Planting

Many budding gardeners make the mistake of trying to plant as thick as possible. You should be aware that the distance between trees, shrubs and other vegetation determines their growth in the future.


Beautiful gardens photo

If you plant them rarely, the garden will look empty and uncomfortable. In this case, you can correct the oversight by using fast-growing bushes and ferns.

Lawn

Perhaps you or your family members are supporters of outdoor activities, then it would be wise to include a place for a lawn in the garden plan. It is perfect for family games and spending time together.

The choice of lawn depends on many factors. This is the appearance (as you imagine it), and the place where it will be located, and its purpose.

Please also note that each type of grass grows best in its climatic conditions. It will be right to carefully study its purpose and planting conditions before buying this or that variety. In order for the lawn to always be beautiful and tidy, it requires careful maintenance, which is much easier to carry out with the help of special equipment. How to choose an aerator or scarifier can be found in this article.

Choosing plants for the garden

Having prepared a plan for your garden, having decided where the paths and plantings will be, it is worth picking up plants. Try to make the vegetation differ in color, texture and size. After all, it is the variety that attracts attention and makes your garden unique.


Beautiful garden do it yourself photo

The period of flowering and life of each plant is different. Some will need to be disposed of at the end of the season, while others will delight you for many years. You need to choose flowers and shrubs in this way so that the flowering of some gradually turns into others.

An excellent solution would be if you plant coniferous trees on the territory of the site - about a third of the number of all trees. Then your garden will look "alive" at any time of the year.

Flower beds

Now let's pay attention to the brightest and most elegant element of the garden - flower beds. It often happens that gardeners plant plants of various colors, and as a result, unimaginable variegated thickets are obtained, because any blooming ones tend to grow. Therefore, there are so few tasteful flower beds.

You need to choose which colors will prevail. Then you can proceed to the selection of colors. It is better to buy your favorite plants and plant 2-3 species in one flower bed. Pick flowers that match color and compatibility. Since some of them do not get along well together.


Choice of style. Who lives well in an oriental garden

Choice of style. Who lives well in an oriental garden

What is a garden? This is harmony. Harmony of the combination of trees, shrubs, flowers, grass and human effort. A garden is a kind of human play with nature. Always different and invariably charming. Long gone are the days when the presence of a summer cottage was, if not a factor of survival, then a serious help, when a kilogram of potatoes or tomatoes was easier to grow than to buy. The era of total scarcity is a thing of the past, at dachas we stopped growing vegetables and fruits on an industrial scale, and finally the concept of "dacha" acquired its original meaning: a place of liberation of the soul and body from the urban bustle. Although you should not go too far, giving up practical goals completely: in the country, of course, you need both a garden and a vegetable garden. They will never disappear completely. Moreover, they can be aesthetically transformed. Beautifully designed plantings of vegetables and aromatic herbs are always relevant.For example, beds alternating in color: green onions, burgundy beets, tender salad and - huge yellow pumpkins - are quite in the stated style. But you can grow the daikon, so beloved by the Chinese and Japanese, and other radishes with radishes, and ginger, and celery, and other useful and tasty things. But fruit trees and shrubs are also very decorative, both in bloom and strewn with fruits, especially if they are given a beautiful shape by pruning.

How to make your garden experience enjoyable? It is necessary that the style of the landscape corresponds to the structure of your thoughts, corresponds to your mood and lifestyle. The culture born in the Celestial Empire, as well as the culture of the Land of the Rising Sun in matters of relaxation, harmony and recuperation, of course, have high authority. Everyone (at least theoretically) knows about the ancient Chinese and Japanese systems of physical and spiritual practices of harmonizing body and soul, concentration and relaxation. But not everyone practices wushu or taijiquan.

Thematic gardens: Japanese, Chinese, English, French - are known all over the world. Thanks to the unique combination of nature, cultural heritage, the desire of rulers and the art of gardeners, we can admire the blooming cherry blossoms among the stones, a whimsical pagoda by a murmuring stream, a labyrinth of shrubs and neatly trimmed trees reminiscent of the era of Louis XIV.

The process of creating a garden requires painstaking and labor, it takes from several years to many decades. Will you do it yourself or entrust it to professionals, but at the beginning of the journey you will have a choice of style, image of your personal plot. How do you know if you should take on the creation of a garden in Chinese or Japanese style? Or maybe it is better to direct your efforts into the bosom of the classic regular style or a country garden, or a romantic or fashionable nowadays "gardens of smells", or ... But you never know styles and trends! After all, the history of ornamental gardening has more than one millennium. Descriptions, picturesque and graphic images of the most famous gardens have come down to us. All of them, in modern terms, are exclusive, author's models, expressing ideas about the beauty and harmony of a landscape artist-designer, corrected by habits, tastes, wealth and status of the customer. The art of growing gardens has evolved and continues to evolve along with the evolution of human ideas about beauty and harmony. In addition, there are many more prosaic factors that cannot be ignored: climate, soil, relief, size and configuration of the site. When planning a future garden, it is necessary to take into account how it will fit into the surrounding landscape. Just as it is impossible to find two completely identical faces, so it is impossible to find two identical gardens.

Is there a fashion in landscape design? Or is it style, taste and originality that is the main thing in garden design? Of course, landscape design is a part of cultural life, and, naturally, there are fashion trends in it. However, fashion may change in a year, or maybe in a few years, but the garden is not created in one year. Fashion in landscape design is set by the peculiarities of the mentality plus all sorts of external influences. Often people bring ideas for decorating their gardens from trips to exotic corners of the planet, or, on the contrary, does such an idea become the embodiment of a dream about a trip to the Land of the Rising Sun when you know that it will not come true? Create a rock garden in your country house. Eclecticism is also popular - a mixture of different styles. But mixing should be done very carefully. It is better to make the basis of some one style that is close to you in spirit, and already introduce elements of others into it.

The most fashionable can be called a garden, in which the plants are selected in such a way that the garden never remains "naked", without a color scheme.Whether it be the greenery of conifers, the colors of flower beds, or bright patterns and overflows of gravel dumps, specially selected shades of marble chips, maybe sea or river pebbles. They try to fit the garden into the landscape, as if emphasizing the beauty of the surrounding area: do not remove the boulders, but regroup them, do not bury a puddle-swamp on the site, but transform them into a pond, do not make continuous paths, abandon abundant paving, but make paths from tiles laid out in gap, "one step of the foot." A path or platform paved with limestone, paving stones, granite, etc., is artificially "aged" by the grass that has sprouted between the tiles. It is good to emphasize such a path with a stylish stone lantern.

Theorists highlight the characteristic details inherent in the gardens of certain eras, styles and countries. The totality of these details evokes in the observer very specific associations associated either with pictures of real life, or with images created by the imagination. Landscaping when landscaping a site is the use of characteristic details to create a garden in the chosen style. For most people, the main thing is the appearance of the garden, and not its botanical, collectible value.

As a rule, plants play a leading role. For example, landscape gardens widespread all over the world recreate the nature of a particular region through the use of plants appropriate for a given climate (the success of creating such a garden directly depends on the quality of plant material and professional skills of gardeners). But many plants that are widespread in the world do not survive in our open field. Is it possible that we can only dream of Chinese gardens fragrant with azaleas and jasmine, of thin bamboo by a stream in a Japanese garden? Of course, there are exotic species that require special care, but there are specialists for this. Even though many azaleas do not winter here, evergreen rhododendrons (which grow well even in the Far North) feel great in our climate. If you dream of a real Japanese garden with "Japanese" plants, but do not live on the southern coast of Crimea, then you can resort to little tricks. For example, non-wintering bamboo can be replaced with some of the willow species, delicate jasmine - with an unpretentious mock orange, and irises and chrysanthemums have perfectly acclimatized in our conditions. Mediterranean-style outdoor gardens are also possible in our climate. We replace olives with sea buckthorn, cypress with thuja, junipers with yews, etc. The main thing is to create the right atmosphere. The style of the garden, in addition to plants, can also be set by accessories. Water gardens, Art Nouveau gardens, architectural or romantic gardens are, in fact, the quintessence of the author's imagination, where certain stylistic solutions are created using decorative elements made in the appropriate style - vases, sculptures, garden furniture, sundials, etc.

Let's take a look at the general layout and architectural features of the most famous ornamental gardening styles. Each of them, as a rule, is close to some type of human temperament and temperament.

Rural gardens- small size, the presence of a well-groomed garden (as the apotheosis of the style is the Dutch garden, it is distinguished from other rural gardens by pedantic neatness and well-groomed). Distinctive features: the garden is divided into two unequal parts by the house. The front, front part of the garden is usually separated from the street by a low, transparent fence: it does not obscure the pretty view of the flower garden in front of the house. Just behind the house is a neat small vegetable garden, and then in tiers - fruit trees and stunted perennials. There is usually only one path - from the gate to the threshold of the house. Sometimes they arrange an additional path around the perimeter of the site in order to have access to all the plants in the garden. It is used occasionally, so colored gravel or pebbles can be used for paving.The rustic garden is decorated with the attributes of a peasant life: a wooden wheelbarrow with flowers, a tub or trough with water, "forgotten" among colorful buckets of flowers, a simple wooden bench, an old cast-iron column-crane, a toy mill or a painted weather vane, clay sculptures of domestic animals.

Romantic gardens- this is an abundance of lush vegetation and the presence of secluded corners with gazebos and benches. The gardens of many countries of the world can have a romantic mood: the house and the fence are entwined with ivy, climbing roses or grapes, narrow paths and paths winding among the overgrown trees. Of particular note Italian romantic garden.In our climate, it can be recreated on the sunny side of the site. It is better if the site has a natural slope, then the task is simplified. It is enough to make two small terraces. Pave the top with, for example, Italian mosaic tiles, natural flagstone or pseudo-natural stone. There will be a light table with chairs for family tea, surrounded by flowering annuals and perennials in portable containers. On the lower terrace there is a reservoir with a small fountain, along the perimeter of which low bushes, such as park roses, are planted. A romantic garden can also be a landscape garden, if the architectural details in it will not stand out, being an addition to the landscape, if the reservoirs (by no means fountains!) Will be decorated like natural ones, and a well-thought-out system of paths will lead a route that opens a change in landscapes. Do not forget that the paths in this case are made of natural materials: wild stone, sawn trunks or tree bark, resistant to trampling the lawn. Add to this a close-cropped dense green lawn, artistically framing groups of plants, clumps of exotic shrubs and grasses, and in front of you - english gardenin the typical style of the period of romanticism. For the British, a garden is a joy, a pride, a hobby, a sport, even a way of life. If the Englishman is not in the garden, then he reads a gardening magazine, discusses seedlings with a neighbor, or goes to a gardening exhibition. In terms of gardens, England is perhaps the most inventive country. Take, for example, yew labyrinths or figures: sheared boxwoods in the form of peacocks or a barberry snail, and always with horns. The English garden is full of fun: behind the green walls there are "rooms", and in each of them there is a surprise. For example, a garden of fragrances. You go and smell, gently rubbing the leaves and flowers with your fingertips. Here is lavender, and this is thyme, mint, lemon balm.

Regular gardens- the prerogative of large areas of six acres, which most summer residents have, alas, are not very suitable for this, but elements of this style are quite possible here. Regular planning involves planting trees and shrubs along the pathway, emphasizing the symmetry of the garden. The viewpoints located at the intersection of the alleys are carefully thought out: stone, wooden or cast pavilions, gazebos, benches around fountains, sculptures, etc., installed there, are placed there for calm contemplation. When choosing plants, preference is given to species that lend themselves well to haircuts and retain their given shape for a long time (evergreen, slow-growing, small-leaved). Bosquets are widely used - geometrically correct and symmetrically located small areas, framed by a sheared boxwood hedge. Inside the bosquets, trees, shrubs or flowers are regularly or freely planted. Form Italian regular gardenis created on a large area with hills. The main building is erected on the highest or central one. The garden is planned as a continuation of the open-air house - in the same style.The main attention is paid to the front part in front of the facade of the building, as a rule, visible from the entrance to the garden: there can be terraces, a water cascade with fountains, a grand staircase with sculptural groups, and a central flower bed. Remote garden “rooms” can resemble the secluded inner gardens of castles or fortresses.

French regular gardenperfect for flat terrain and temperate climates. It is distinguished by a broad main perspective and subordinate secondary ones: radial and diagonal alleys leading from the center into the depths of the garden-park. Typical features are the alternation of detailed, often very complex, stalls. The parterres, framed by clipped hedges, include ornamental pools, ponds, canals and fountains, decorated with exquisite flower beds and arabesques with decorative fillings using colored sand and marble or brick chips. There is where to hide - in the shade of sculptures and sheared box-trees, gazebos are hiding, and it seems that just about here a favorite of some Louis will look in her own person, arm in arm with her patron. The French garden is impeccable in everything, symmetry and order rule in it. It is a proud garden that admires itself and resembles a good restaurant where everything will be offered to you and everything will be served. Here you are, taste this great lawn or these lush flower beds. And now you can retire among the fragrant roses.

Whatever the size of your regular garden, before laying it out, you need to take care of laying an intricately branched hydraulic system. An error in calculations can lead to waterlogging of any, even the most beautiful garden, as has happened more than once in the history of the royal gardens. Paths and platforms in the French garden are covered with granite cuttings, crushed bricks or small river pebbles. Garden furniture in light pastel colors is arranged symmetrically in special hedge niches or dead ends of garden paths, from where a beautiful view of one or another part of the garden opens. It should be borne in mind that the fence of a French garden cannot be a blank brick wall, which contradicts the very ideology of the garden - a demonstration of the showiness, splendor of style.

Roman garden.It is arranged in a small patio. It is inconceivable without water, it can be a small reservoir-bath of the correct rectangular shape, a stone fountain or a spring. Sculptures, arches, arches and columns in the antique style will be located around. An abundance of light marble and limestone in the walls of the house and a high fence, large slabs of paving free from plantings will serve as a background against which shades of greenery and flowers will play brighter. If the walls of the house and the high fence are folded or finished with massive stones of a dark shade, it makes sense to turn to images medievalor monasterygardens. In the first case, Roman architectural elements will need to be replaced with medieval Gothic: worn chipped stone, pointed arches and massive cast iron. In the center there is a well, a pool or a fountain of old boulders, next to it there are several rosehip bushes, a stone bench covered with turf, flower beds in stone drinkers, several fruit trees, usually apple trees. The image of the monastery garden is defined by perpendicularly intersecting paths in the shape of a cross. At the place of their intersection, a crucifix or an altar was previously erected, now a well or a fountain, but the presence of flower beds of medicinal or spicy herbs remained unchanged. The large monastery garden can be divided into "rooms" by brick walls or hedges. Inside the "rooms" there are sheared boxwood and yew bosquets, a collection of herbs or flowers.

If your relatively small patio is on the sunny side of the garden and you would like it to serve as an additional outdoor room, then the idea of ​​turning it into moorish garden.This style originated in the medieval castles of Spain, under the influence of the Arabs, and absorbed the features of medieval romance and oriental bliss. Usually such a garden is framed by galleries and covered avenues entwined with grapes and roses. Much attention is paid to water, and it can be presented in a variety of forms: a calm mirror surface, streaming and flowing ribbons, falling jets, scattering splashes. Trees are planted regularly, but not trimmed, flower beds are framed with mosaic paving. Interestingly, a garden in this style does not have to be compositionally related to the main building.

Spanish garden.Its chamber style, intended more for relaxation and not for demonstration to outsiders, is emphasized by a high stone fence or a sheared hedge of dense small-leaved bushes. On the periphery, fruit trees are planted, the trunks of which are covered with ornamental shrubs. The central part is occupied by a shallow raised reservoir of the correct form. The calm surface of the water mirror is emphasized by the banks, decorated with stone tiles. The rose garden, laid out around the reservoir, includes straight paved paths along the perimeter. Garden furniture is simple and comfortable. She is an attribute of the garden, not its decoration. The accents are shifted towards paving, bright flower beds, shorn shrubs. Massive stone sculptures and old stone create the atmosphere of an ancient aristocratic castle.

Muslim garden.If there is an abundance of sun on your site, abundance allows you not to deny yourself anything, and the contemplative peace of Eastern philosophy is close to your soul, then this garden style is for you. On its basis, the styles of Spanish and Moorish gardens were born. But the splendor of the decorations (bright flowers, marble of fountains, birds in golden cages) is at the forefront of the Muslim garden, and not the desire for solitude. The Muslim garden is designed to amaze the imagination and associate with heaven on earth. They lay it, focusing on the strict canons of Islam: its basis is a clear square, divided into four parts, the so-called "chor-bagh" ("four gardens"). This shape of the garden, apparently, is a reflection of the legend about the Garden of Eden, from which four rivers flow in four directions, and perhaps the prototype of such a layout was the ancient shrine located in Mecca. Be that as it may, the strict geometry of the squares of the layout is emphasized with the help of paths, plants and channels of water. The main decoration of the entire garden is small fountains or pools, located in the centers of the squares, lined with marble, multi-colored ceramic tiles and glass.

And if the above styles did not make the strings of your soul tremble or do not correspond to natural conditions, then, finally, we can proceed to the topic of our book - gardening art of East Asia and the Far East.What is Japanese or Chinese style landscaping? It is based on the religions and philosophy of the East.

The Chinese character for "nature" literally means "to be by itself." But this is precisely the goal of garden art in China and Japan. The cult of the absolute naturalness of the landscape, but at the same time it is unacceptable that it was noticeable what kind of work this naturalness is worth!

Japan and China are close by and have long-standing ties. Japanese culture has taken a lot from the Chinese - but still, along with elements of similarity, there are striking differences between the two cultures. If the main feature of the Japanese style of landscape design is the unconditional value of any detail, any element of the system, then in China hierarchy comes to the fore, the subordination of some elements to others. Japanese and Chinese gardens are both very similar and radically different at the same time - like two sides of the same medal, like ikebana and a lacquer box.If in a Japanese garden emptiness is a necessary and indispensable element, sometimes it is even in abundance for a European view, then in a Chinese garden the space is masterfully filled with carefully thought out details.

Chinese garden.In Chinese, the word "landscape" corresponds to the hieroglyph "mountains and water", and the very process of creating a garden is like "digging up reservoirs and constructing mountains." It is said about Chinese gardens that "two identical ones cannot be found in the whole of the Celestial Empire." In them we see pagodas lined with jasmine, gazebos, bridges and the famous Chinese lanterns, and we feel the overwhelming heady scent of peony. On the other hand, it should be noted that without the murmur of water, peonies would probably smell differently. Therefore, a Chinese garden is a combination of water, earth, plants and a fence.

The roots of this style go back to ancient times, when four thousand years ago the Chinese realized that the basis of a harmonious society is obedience to the laws of the Universe. The study of these laws, their systematization were later formulated as the laws of Feng Shui - the rules and principles governing human interaction with nature. Feng Shui has become popular again in the modern world. Feng Shui is the laws of harmony and balance. And we are talking not only about the harmony between the elements of the garden, but also about the harmony between the garden and people. We can say that a Chinese garden is a projection of the soul of its owner. This is what makes each such garden a unique work of art.

Common to all religious and philosophical teachings of China (Confucianism, Taoism) was the awareness of man as a part of the Universe. The Chinese know that the garden is meant to bring joy and peace. For this feeling, generated by garden harmony, during the time of Confucius, a special word was invented - "le". Le - garden joy, which reflects the smell of a peony, and the murmur of a stream, as well as the bend of the bridge and the scent of jasmine.

Unlike the Japanese garden, where there are no minor elements and any detail can be perceived as the center of the Universe, in the Chinese garden there is necessarily a central composition around which everything else is built. From this center, as a rule, the best view of the entire space of the garden opens, while being at any point in the garden, it is impossible to doubt where its center is. This is the manifestation of the hierarchy of the Chinese style.

The Chinese garden is both a creation of human hands and a part of nature. The landscape of the Chinese garden is characterized by the desire for the perfect balance between water and land, flat and elevated areas, vegetation and free space. The absolutization of the beauty of nature, obedience to its laws formed the basis of the landscape style of Chinese gardens, where free planning is combined with strictly symmetrical compositions of garden buildings. There are not many of them. Basically, these are characteristic curved bridges, gazebos, pagodas, zigzag stairs, painted in bright colors (red, emerald green, yellow). Almost every element of the East Asian garden - from a stone or a plant to a well and a lantern - has a semantic meaning, symbolizing one or another material object or abstract concept.

Japanese gardenslargely inherited Chinese traditions, further spiritualizing the artificially created landscape. The classics of the Japanese garden are the tea pavilion, chrysanthemums, bonsai and sakura. The flowering of any tree is an event, leaf fall is a holiday, the first snow is a reason to lay down the hokku, so the Japanese garden is a string of celebrations replacing each other. In the back of the garden, closer to the house, usually next to the terrace, there is a rock garden. Here you can freeze not so much in admiration as in meditation. Japanese gardens are always equipped in full accordance with the recommendations of Feng Shui. And in the right harmonious garden, energy flows freely, herbs and flowers remind of impermanence, and stones and sand - of peace and firmness.

Each tree, stone, movement of water was perceived by the Japanese as something special, had its own history, soul and influence on people and became symbols. Therefore, the arrangement of individual elements in the landscape could not be arbitrary, but obeyed strict rules. Here are just some of the symbols used in Japanese gardens: a bridge over water - a rising or setting sun, curved tiles - clouds, a dragon - water, pine - longevity, cherry - stamina, camellia - caution. The choice and arrangement of plants also obeyed certain patterns. So, the oak, symbolizing strength, was in the center and emphasized the main composition, the red-leaved maple was in the west, so that the sun would illuminate its leaves at sunset.

The Japanese garden is an organic part of the entire Japanese culture, which is based on an amazing synthesis of the national Shinto religion and a special kind of Buddhism - Zen philosophy. For most Europeans, Japanese culture seems paradoxical and strange. And this is not surprising. After all, Zen gives preference to feelings and intuition, enlightenment and illumination, and here the rational approach characteristic of Europeans is inappropriate. Imagine what your face looked like when your father was not yet born - and you will understand what Zen is. Japanese art, Japanese poetry, Japanese ikebana and, of course, the landscape of Japanese gardens are built on this principle.

A Japanese garden with its own unique style is always unmistakably recognizable. Winding paths, compositions of stones on fine gravel, moss-covered boulders, stone lanterns, picturesque banks of water bodies. Maples, pines, bamboos and cereals, figuratively trimmed green spaces, the predominance of evergreens - this is a typical picture of a Japanese garden. But a Japanese garden can also consist of thirteen stones, one of which is always hidden from view. A Japanese garden can be just one tree. A Japanese garden can be several steps in length and width, and as you take these steps, you will step over the trees growing in it. They are widely known in the world as bonsai, and their cultivation is a difficult and painstaking work. Bonsai is a real tree, which in natural conditions could grow to a height of many meters, but the roots and crown cut in a special way turned it into a miniature - a small plant with bizarrely curved branches and graceful tiny leaves.

Japanese culture is generally devoid of striving for large forms and excess luxury. And in the landscape of a Japanese garden there is nothing too big, too bright and too pretentious. In a Japanese garden, you will not see a riot of vegetation and a kaleidoscope of colors and colors. But at the same time, there is nothing secondary here. We can say that each element of this garden is the center of a small universe. It is worth removing any detail - and the harmony will be broken.

There is a common belief that using a set of certain stamps, for example, placing a stone lantern next to a path of stone slabs and pebbles and planting a Japanese maple tree, we get a Japanese garden. This is not entirely true. Of course, everything that is meant by a Japanese or Chinese garden in our area is, to one degree or another, just a stylization for it. It is unrealistic to create Ryoanji Park, the princely garden of Gu Wang Fu or Tao Zhan Ting in the vicinity of Berdichev in a couple of years. A real Japanese (or Chinese) garden is a garden located in Japan (or China), and what we can create is a Japanese or Chinese style garden. But the main thing is to be beautiful and comfortable - “you can see the ocean in a cup of water”.

Japanese motives in design have not given up their positions for many years. Most likely, this is due to the exceptional practicality of the traditional design of the house and garden in the Land of the Rising Sun.And no wonder, because the Japanese appreciate every inch of living space and strive to reveal its beauty. And if this eastern path is close to you, then a Japanese garden can appear near your home. You can choose for yourself whether it will be a small and cozy place for relaxation and contemplation, or a spacious garden with gazebos, a place for meditation and a platform for observing the moon. If you decide to decorate the entire plot in a Japanese style, consult with other family members. The traditional Japanese garden seems gloomy to many, and besides, it is completely unsuitable for the usual dacha entertainments such as picnics with barbecue and dancing. Think about whether this creation will be a burden to your loved ones. If this is the case, limit yourself to some corner for your soul, which you design to your liking.

It is quite possible to create a garden with recognizable elements of the oriental style without the use of expensive materials, sophisticated technologies and rare plants. The main thing is to convey its very essence, a deep idea, so to speak. Imitation of nature, imitation of its best examples, thanks to modern materials and technologies, can now be done much easier than just 5-6 years ago. Therefore, and also because the wide range of plants and materials used makes Japanese and Chinese gardens infinitely diverse and easily changeable, their popularity continues to grow with us. But even a decade ago they were extremely rare to be found in our strip, just as, however, it was impossible to imagine a classic regular garden in private ownership.

To understand what the phenomenon of the oriental garden really is, you need to know the cultural context in which it arose and developed.

This text is an introductory fragment.


Garden design: essence and styles

Modern agricultural technology has reached such heights that growing vegetables and fruits in suburban areas is not at all problematic, and therefore, you can safely combine business with pleasure: plant garden crops for food, homemade preparations, but, at the same time, enjoy your rest in your free time from work ... And for this I want to refine my piece of land, create a beautiful design for a garden plot.

What are the different garden design styles?

Leafing through colorful magazines on landscape design, looking through numerous pages on the Internet, we sometimes get lost. In what style to design a garden with your own hands? After all, there are different styles of design - for every taste, color and ... wallet))
  • Japanese style, where "universal tranquility" is expressed in the harsh laconicism of the landscape.
  • Chinese style, where everything is subordinated to the philosophy of feng shui.
  • Country is a rustic style, where there is no place for any exotic.
  • Colonial style with natural wood and chic stonework.
  • English style (landscape), the motto of which is the naturalness of the natural landscape.
  • Forest style, similar to landscape style, but involving huge areas.

You can choose one style or another to design a garden plot with your own hands, familiarize yourself with the relevant literature, do everything yourself or attract specialists - the choice is yours. But the pinnacle of design art when creating a landscape is the recreation of natural harmony on the site and at the same time - an expression of one's own individualism. The following publications will help you with this:

The essence of garden design

There is one extreme among our respected summer residents. Some believe that all the beauty of the natural landscape lies in flower beds, and they plant flowers in all the free space in the country. According to the principle: the more the better. Nice, no doubt, but the aesthetics of the composition is completely absent. After all, the essence of landscape design is not at all that we will plant many beautiful plants at once, but in how we will be able to group and combine them with each other.And with such a planting, even beautiful rose bushes are lost ... This photo clearly shows a successful grouping (composition) of garden flowers.

And now I present to you some practical tips for arranging the design of a summer cottage that will change its appearance beyond recognition.

Covering the soil with a lawn


Gray fescue

And there is a kind of "magic" grass, which grows massively in our summer cottages like a weed, but is ideal for lawn plantings. It does not require mowing and spreads along the ground with a soft carpet. it willow-borer, which reproduces by lateral processes, does not grow up, but crawls along the ground, forming fluffy thickets, which are very pleasant to walk along barefoot.

All she needs is a little moisture, and she divorces very easily. You can sow it with purchased seeds, it will grow quickly and does not require maintenance. Or you can take a ready-made piece of land with an already existing field grass, divide it into small bushes and plant them at a distance of 30-40 cm from each other in a checkerboard pattern. While the grass grows up, it needs constant moisture, an adult bent field is moistened only on the driest days. Thus, in 2-3 years after planting, you will receive a beautiful emerald lawn, which will cover all unsightly places in your country house with an elegant carpet.

For more tips on creating a green lawn on your property, see this collection of articles:

Grouping plants in an original way

You can, for example, arrange a decorative garden in a flower bed, planting vegetables along with flowers. For example, tomatoes and cucumbers are placed in the center of a flower garden, after digging in a grate that supports them, and beautiful flowers are planted around vegetable crops: irises, periwinkles, nasturtium and others. The size of the flower bed should be small - so that you can freely reach the bushes with tomatoes and cucumbers. You can plant a beautiful pumpkin on a flower bed surrounded by delphiniums, tulips and freesias, or beets next to marigolds and forget-me-nots.

Some savvy summer residents with small plots have even adapted to plant potatoes in wooden boxes installed along the garden paths. Experiment, too! Ideas and examples from publications will help you get inspired:

Harness the potential of climbing plants

In addition, equip those places that require a background with beautiful climbing plants: vines, vines, ivy, climbing hydrangea, tunbergia and others. Climbing plants located on pergolas and awnings look especially impressive.

And if you have a dead tree in your dacha that needs to be uprooted, think about it, is it necessary? Cut it off, leaving a stump 1-1.5 m high, and give this stump to decorative climbing perennials. Over time, they form a wonderful composition that looks very good against the background of the surrounding flower garden with a low mosaic border.

And the last thing. Do you know what is more important, perhaps, than anything else in matters of garden design? "Magic folder" with a schematic diagram of the suburban area, cost estimates, a list of urgent things, a list of plants that you are going to plant in the country, and other "little things" that will be needed to create beauty in your summer cottage.


Assortment of ornamental vegetable plants for borders

  • Amaranth
  • Badan thick-leaved
  • Common basil
  • Okra (dwarf varieties)
  • Marigold
  • Veronica spiky (varieties)
  • Garden carnation (dwarf varieties)
  • Sowing peas (undersized varieties)
  • White-felt Dubrovnik
  • Oregano (dwarf varieties)
  • Snakehead moldavian
  • Zopnik tuberous
  • Common hyssop
  • Calendula officinalis
  • Chinese cabbage
  • Collard greens
  • Cabbage
  • Iris
  • Spanish goat
  • Bell (dwarf varieties)
  • Sowing coriander
  • Catnip
  • Narrow-leaved lavender
  • Garden quinoa
  • Batun onion
  • Sweet onion
  • Drooping bow
  • Skoroda onion
  • Garden marjoram
  • Melissa officinalis
  • Monarda fistus
  • Mint
  • Common sedum
  • Perilla shrub
  • Curly parsley
  • Common tansy
  • Annual sunflower (dwarf varieties)
  • Rhodiola rosea
  • Medicinal rosemary
  • Rue
  • Beetroot ordinary table
  • Beetroot chard
  • Fragrant celery
  • Meadow core
  • Common beans (bush varieties)
  • Chrysanthemum
  • Savory garden
  • Nigella
  • Salvia officinalis
  • Garden spinach
  • Sour sorrel


Watch the video: Create Your Own Home Decor: Three Easy DIY Topiary Ideas: 2021