How to properly grow cucumber seedlings at home
Not every gardener succeeds in harvesting a good harvest of cucumbers. This culture is quite picky about the growing conditions, it is not cold-resistant at all. Sometimes she simply does not have enough warm days to present the owners with the harvest they expected. To avoid such disappointments, it is worth learning how to grow cucumber seedlings. Plant seeds at home, and then crispy cucumbers will appear in your garden much earlier.
The specifics of growing cucumber seedlings
It is possible to grow strong seedlings in an apartment, but only by creating the necessary conditions for it: by planting them in suitable soil, creating favorable light and temperature conditions, ensuring regular watering and feeding. And you need to start with good seeds.
Growing strong cucumber seedlings requires good care
Choosing seeds for planting
To get good shoots, you need quality seeds. The stores sell regular and granular.
The first ones are sorted, the small ones are rejected, and the selected ones are put in a strong saline solution - high-quality ones will sink to the bottom. They are washed with water, dried and prepared for sowing.
A good harvest starts with quality seeds
Granulated seeds have already been sorted, producers have provided them with a protective coat of antifungal, antimicrobial drugs and nutrients that give the initial start to sprouting. Such immediately, without processing, are planted in the substrate.
When choosing planting material, one should take into account where the seedlings will eventually move - under the open sky, in a greenhouse, or they will pour cucumbers right in the apartment. In the latter case, as well as for the greenhouse, parthenocarpic varieties are chosen that set fruits without pollination.
When to plant
Many summer residents are in a hurry to plant seeds as early as possible. This should not be done: the overgrown seedlings are stretched out, thinned out and, when planted in a permanent place, may die. If sowing too late, small immature plants will take root for a long time in the ground, the timing of the harvest, of course, will be postponed. The seedling period takes approximately 21-29 days. This should be guided by, taking into account the climate of your area and where the borage will be - in a greenhouse or in the open air.
Growing cucumber seedlings takes about a month
In addition, the timing of fruiting must be taken into account. There are early-ripening varieties that yield in 42–46 days after germination (Courage F1, German F1), there are mid-ripening varieties that come into fruiting in 48–52 days (Haley F1).
The formula for determining the sowing time: 3-4 days - for the emergence of seedlings, + 10-15 days - for the regrowth of the first true leaf, + 8-10 days - for the formation of two or three true leaves = time for sowing seeds - in 21-29 days before the planned disembarkation of seedlings.
Seedlings are usually transplanted to the site in early June, when warm weather sets in and the earth warms up well. Previously, this should not be done, since return frosts are possible until the end of May, fragile plants may simply die. In the southern regions, where planting is carried out at an earlier date, the preparation of seedlings begins at the end of April. In colder climates, seeds are sown in mid-May. Cucumbers are transplanted into greenhouses in mid-May, therefore, sowing seeds for this purpose is carried out in the twenties of April.
You can harvest fresh vegetables in early spring if you grow seedlings in a greenhouse equipped with heating and lighting. In this case, the seeds of early varieties Aprelsky F1, Zozulya F1 are sown in mid-February, Zelentsy appear at the end of March.
- It is believed that to improve germination, the seeds of all melons and gourds need to be warmed up. For example, you can put them on a battery, wrapped in a piece of paper, and let them rest there for a couple of months.
- Cucumber seeds have good germination. Before sowing, they are placed for disinfection in a solution of manganese for 15 minutes or boric acid for 2-3 hours.
Potassium permanganate will perfectly cope with disinfection of cucumber seeds before sowing.
- For 18 hours, cucumber seeds are soaked. It is very useful to use biologically active substances (Epin, Zircon, Humate, aloe juice and others), which accelerate germination, increase plant resistance to diseases and reduce the sensitivity of seedlings to unfavorable growing conditions. You can use a nutrient solution of Nitrofoska and ash (1 tsp per 1 liter).
- After that, the seeds are washed with water, placed in a damp gauze, napkin or piece of cotton wool and identified in a warm place, where they hatch in 3-5 days.
It is convenient to germinate cucumber seeds in moist cotton pads
A special role in the pre-sowing period is played by hardening of cucumber seeds, which can be carried out in a variety of ways. For example, after six hours of soaking in warm water, the seeds are placed in the cold, keeping them for 18 hours at 2 ° C, alternating these temperature changes throughout the week. In another method of hardening, the disinfected and treated with microelements seeds are kept in a damp cloth at room temperature for 1–2 days until they are completely swollen. Then they are placed in the refrigerator for one day. Seedlings after these treatments appear faster, more friendly and suffer less from temperature extremes.
How to plant correctly
The future harvest directly depends on how correctly the sowing is carried out. Each operation itself is simple and unpretentious, but they are all interconnected - you should not neglect any of them.
What kind of soil is needed
For planting, use ready-made soil for vegetable crops or prepare it yourself:
- 2 parts of peat and humus, 1 part of rotted sawdust. 1 glass of wood ash and 1 teaspoon of urea, superphosphate and potassium sulfate are added to a bucket of such a mixture;
- equally sod land, compost or humus. 1 glass of ash, 10 g of potassium sulfate and 20 g of superphosphate are added to a bucket of soil;
- 6 parts of peat, 1 part each of humus, sawdust, sand, mullein;
- equally sod land, peat, 1 part of humus, stale sawdust.
It is useful to fertilize the soil with Nitrofoskoy (1.5 tablespoons) and ash (2 tablespoons) per 10 liters of soil. Mix well.
For planting cucumber seeds, use garden soil with humus
Cucumber seedlings do not tolerate a transplant and get sick for a long time after it. Therefore, you should think carefully about the container suitable for her. The containers can be in the form of seedling trays with cells, long trays or small cups. Often, plastic bottles, eggshells, and wooden boxes are used for this purpose. The best option would be to grow in separate pots or cells so that the plants do not crowd each other and are well illuminated by the sun.
For seedlings, trays with cells are often used.
Advice! Better to use peat pots. In this case, the plant is planted in the ground together with the container without the slightest damage to the fragile roots.
The best option for fragile cucumber roots - peat pots
Sowing operations are performed in the following sequence:
- In the container, the soil is filled up by about 2/3 of its volume, the rest of the earth is gradually filled up in the process of plant development.
- Seeds with 5 mm sprouts are buried in the soil by 2 cm.
Planting depth - 2 cm
- Watered, covered with polyethylene and placed in a warm place with a temperature of +25 ° C.
A mini-greenhouse with sown cucumbers is placed in a warm place
- With the emergence of shoots loops, the shelter is removed and the newborn seedlings are transferred for 2-3 days to a cooler room (+ 19 ° C during the day, + 15 ° C at night) in order to avoid stretching the seedlings.
Newly appeared seedlings are transferred to a cooler room for 2-3 days
- Then they return to a warm and bright place.
Seedlings started well for the next harvest
Video: how to plant cucumber seeds for seedlings
Cucumber loves comfort
For seedlings, it is necessary to create comfortable conditions. Incorrect temperature conditions, lack of light, excessive moisture and dense sowing of seeds can lead to stretching of seedlings.
Violation of the rules of agricultural technology can lead to pulling out seedlings
When growing seedlings, the optimal temperature regime must be observed constantly: at night - not lower than 15 ° С, during the day - 22 ° С. When airing a too hot room, it should be remembered that fragile shoots are afraid of drafts.
Plants need light. In bright sun, backlighting is not needed, but in a dark room, cucumbers will fade and stretch. Weakened seedlings need additional lighting. For these purposes, fluorescent lamps are used. They are installed on top so that the plants are evenly illuminated. The first week of life, seedlings should be illuminated around the clock, then - 10-12 hours a day.
For uniform illumination of seedlings, fluorescent lamps are installed on top
Humidity of soil and air
Water the seedlings every 2 days, in the heat - more often. The soil should be constantly moistened, but in moderation - excess moisture can lead to root rot. After watering, the earth must be loosened: carefully, trying not to touch the roots. If the apartment is too dry, the air is humidified with a spray bottle, especially on hot days.
Excessive moisture in the air and soil contributes to the growth of vulnerable seedlings with a weak root system, which will hardly take root in the garden.
Cucumber seedlings are watered at least once every two days.
Top dressing should be applied carefully, strictly following the instructions. Excessive application of trace elements can adversely affect the development of seedlings. Fertilizers are applied in the morning, preferably in liquid form. With the appearance of the first leaf, the plants are fed with mineral or organic fertilizer (infusion of chicken droppings - 1:15).
Fertilizers should be applied strictly following the instructions.
A few days before planting in open ground, the seedlings are fed with a complex fertilizer (10 g of urea, 15 g of potassium sulfate and 35 g of superphosphate per 10 L of water).
If the cucumbers were nevertheless planted in a common planting container and grow very densely, they must be thinned out. In order not to damage neighboring plants, the discarded seedlings are not pulled out of the soil, but are pinched off or cut off. In spacious conditions, young shoots will quickly gain strength.
If the cucumbers are growing too densely, they must be thinned.
Care before planting in the ground
Seedlings are planted in the ground when 2-3 true leaves appear. Plants are hardened 5-7 days before moving to the garden. It is taken out on a warm day to the loggia, first for half an hour, gradually increasing the time spent in the air up to 4 hours, always shading. When the plant gets used to the new environment, it can be planted in the ground.
Seedlings are planted in the garden when 2-3 true leaves appear
Reviews of gardeners: it is possible and necessary to grow cucumber seedlings
It is quite possible to grow cucumber seedlings at home. Planted on a plot under favorable weather conditions, with good care, it will quickly grow and very soon will give caring owners a rich harvest.
Many people ask themselves the question "when to sow cucumbers for seedlings?" The difficulty in timing is that it can be missed very easily. Otherwise, the seedlings of cucumbers can "stand", which will significantly reduce its survival rate when transferred to a new place of growth. To correctly determine the time for planting cucumber seeds, you need to know a simple rule - you can transplant seedlings to the garden bed only two to three weeks after you have sown the seeds.
At the same time, you should definitely know the climate of your region, because cucumbers are thermophilic plants. Therefore, in planting cucumbers for seedlings, air and soil temperature plays an important role. The soil temperature for cucumber seedlings should be at least +15 degrees. However, the indicator of +15 degrees is not the most optimal, on the contrary. Seedlings at this temperature will germinate very slowly. At this temperature of the soil for seedlings of cucumbers, the seeds will grow only during the day under the influence of sunlight, and at night they will freeze.
Approximately, planting is carried out in mid or late spring (late April or early May). By correctly timing the sowing of cucumbers for seedlings, you will ensure yourself a guarantee of an excellent harvest in the future.
To sow cucumber seeds for seedlings, it is necessary to prepare in advance the seeds themselves, the soil mixture and containers in which the seedlings will spend a month of their life. Regarding the containers, everything is unambiguous: it is impossible to grow cucumbers in common boxes, they categorically do not tolerate a transplant with a violation of the root system. Therefore, they require individual cups. Their volume should be from 300 to 500 ml, however, some gardeners grow cucumber seedlings even in eggshells.
And yet, to get high-quality seedlings, you should not be limited in the size of the cups. Their design should be such as to allow the seedlings to be removed without damaging the soil coma. Reusable cups with a retractable bottom are perfect in this regard, but peat pots that are buried in the garden along with all the contents are ideal.
Each plant has its own personal cup
Light, acid-neutral, moisture- and air-permeable soil is placed in the pots. Since it may not come to top dressing in a month, the soil should immediately contain a sufficient amount of nutrients. When growing a dozen seedlings, it is easier to buy ready-made soil in the store, but it should be designed specifically for cucumbers. There is no need to rush to the cheapest options: unfortunately, in such packages, land is still often sold “from under the fence”. It is not required to prepare additional soil from a serious manufacturer.
In the case of self-preparation of the nutrient mixture, the best option is sod land, good compost, peat and sand (ratio 2: 2: 1: 1). Of course, options are possible: the farm does not always have everything you need. Sawdust is also used as components of the mixture, sand is replaced with vermiculite, etc. Good compost or humus has a sufficient amount of fertilizers, but if these components cannot be obtained, any soil must be flavored with wood ash (glass on a bucket of soil) and add about 50 g azofoski.
If the land is taken directly from the garden, the soil must be disinfected. The easiest way is to water it generously with a pink solution of potassium permanganate a week before sowing the seeds. If suddenly it is not, you can replace it with copper sulfate. After drying to a state convenient for work, the soil is poured into cups, placing a centimeter layer of drainage on the bottom, and allowed to settle for a day.
Sowing cucumber seeds for seedlings
There is no exact date when to sow cucumbers for seedlings. Sowing dates depend on several factors. When choosing, they pay attention to the varietal characteristics, the climate of the area, the recommendations of the lunar calendar, and the particular conditions. The cultivation of cucumber seedlings is carried out at home or in a greenhouse.
The choice of the term depending on the variety
On the packaging with seeds, the manufacturer always marks the cultivation features and offers a photo of the crop. The early maturity of the selected type of cucumber determines the readiness for fruiting. When choosing a date, take into account the period required to achieve technical maturity, as well as the time required for the emergence of seedlings (3-5 days).
|Early maturity of the variety||Period to ripening, days||Estimated sowing date|
|Late||60-70||End of April|
Sowing depending on the region
On average, planting of cucumbers for seedlings in 2021 is carried out from the end of March to the second decade of April. The choice of a more specific date depends on the weather conditions of the area. In open ground, cucumbers are transferred after the likelihood of night frosts disappears.
- In the Moscow region, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don and other cities in the middle lane, seedlings are planted in early May. Therefore, they are engaged in sowing seeds from the beginning of March (for greenhouses) and the beginning of April (for open ground).
- The Leningrad Region is characterized by a colder climate than the Moscow Region. Sowing seeds for seedlings is performed no earlier than mid-to-late March, since in this area the transplantation dates are postponed to the second decade of May in protected ground. You can plant cucumbers on open beds only in late May - early June.
- The climate in Siberia is very harsh. Sowing seeds for seedlings in greenhouses is performed from mid-April. It is not worthwhile to delay the planting of cucumbers too much in this area, since the fruits will not have time to ripen by the onset of the autumn cold.
- In the Urals, cucumbers are grown exclusively in seedlings. In greenhouses and at home, sowing seeds begins in early April. In order to have time to harvest, early ripening varieties are chosen.
- Thanks to the warm climate in the Kuban, in the Krasnodar Territory and other southern regions, seeds are sown from the end of February. Planting seeds in open ground is done in early May.
- The climate of Ukraine and Belarus is similar to the weather patterns in the middle lane. They have been sowing seeds since the end of March. For open ground, cucumbers are planted in mid-April.
In colder regions, it is advisable to grow early cucumbers at home using seedlings. And in the southern regions, cucumbers manage to form fruits even if seeds are immediately planted in open ground.
Lunar calendar recommendations
Auspicious days to plant cucumbers for seedlings in 2021 are looked at according to the lunar calendar. In each month, you can choose the optimal sowing period in order to get strong seedlings at the right time.
|Month||Auspicious days for planting cucumbers||Unfavorable numbers|
|February||22, 26, 27, 30, 31||6, 10, 23, 25|
|March||13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 26||4, 7, 17-19, 27|
|April||15, 16, 20, 21, 24-25||9, 10, 17, 19, 20, 26|
|May||4-7, 13, 14, 18, 23-25, 28||8, 11, 17, 19, 27, 30|
|June||6, 8, 10, 13, 18, 23, 25-27||5, 9, 12, 17, 28, 30|
|July||9, 13, 16, 19, 21, 24, 27-28||5, 7, 14, 17, 23, 27|
All other days that are not indicated in the calendar are neutral. During this period of time, the Moon does not pay any attention to plants.
Seed preparation for sowing
Preparatory measures before sowing are aimed at awakening seeds and improving their germination. The preparation itself includes several stages. Before proceeding further, you need to calibrate the available seeds so that you do not waste your efforts in vain. Cucumber seeds are large enough, so the smallest of them are easily visible, irregular in shape, with an unnatural color, spots or dots. Such seed must be discarded.
Your own seeds or those that someone gave you, as well as purchased in unverified retail outlets, need to be disinfected. To do this, use a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, in which the seeds are immersed for 20 minutes. Then they are washed with filtered water. You can also use special store-bought preparations for disinfection - seed treaters.
The next step is to soak the seeds. To do this, a wet cloth or gauze is placed in several layers on the bottom of a container, pallet or saucer, on which the seeds are placed. Before cracking the shell, care must be taken that the substrate does not overcool, as this not only slows down the process, but can also lead to the death of the seeds. The containers should be located in a place with a sufficiently high temperature (up to 30 degrees). Periodically, as it dries, you need to spray the substrate with warm water. Soaking is not carried out with purchased pelleted seeds, they are treated with special protective preparations. Such seeds are immediately planted in the ground.
Pre-germinate those seeds, the quality of which is not certain. For example, bought from hands or stored for a long time. Germination allows you to make sure they are viable. To speed up the process, you can use high-quality growth stimulants, for example, the bio-activator "Bona Forte".
For beginners: When to sow seeds for seedlings - a month's guide
The growing cycle begins on the windowsill
The number of warm days in our latitudes is catastrophically small for the full vegetation cycle of plant species. Therefore, we start this cycle on the windowsill (planting seedlings), and do not immediately put the seed in the ground in the garden or greenhouse.
The growing cycle depends on the ripening rate of the variety
The duration of the growing season is different not only for different species, but also for different varieties of o. Specially bred early-ripening varieties - for cultivation in the conditions of a short northern summer (however, those who are impatiently waiting for the first tomatoes, they will also delight). So when should you plant seeds for seedlings? And how should they be planted?
Add three numbers
The timing of the stages of plant development also differ. It is important to know how many days it will take for the emergence of seedlings, whether it is necessary and when to carry out a pick, as well as the recommended age for planting seedlings. Usually this information, along with the total length of the growing season, is indicated on the seed package - for a particular variety. Everything is fine, but what if this is your first season - you have never planted tomatoes for seedlings before and you do not know about the timing of seedlings and the age of planting seedlings? And don't you understand, for your region, May 15 is early spring or is it already "late"?
Try to count the first year strictly based on the calendar.
It's not scary to be late
The seedling age is the most important characteristic. Moreover, it is better to plant seedlings slightly undergrown than overexposed. Overgrown seedlings are more difficult to tolerate a transplant, take root much worse, and are more susceptible to diseases in the process of adaptation. This is one of the reasons why the sowing time for seedlings should be calculated individually.
To determine when to plant seedlings (including sowing early tomato peppers), they usually count down from the expected date of planting seedlings in the ground: 80 days for peppers means planting seedlings in February, 60 for peppers and tomatoes - mid-March, 50 for cabbage - end of March and so on.
2. Where will you land
There is a difference - open ground, light greenhouse, summer or heated greenhouse. Although the latter, as a rule, are used for commercial cultivation, or in the northern regions. The timing of planting seedlings and sowing seeds in open ground and in a greenhouse usually differ by 30-45 days. The higher the bed, the sooner it warms up: you can plant in high beds 2-3 weeks earlier than in open ground at ground level.
It turns out that peppers for seedlings in a greenhouse should have been planted back in January, and before seedlings for open ground it is not too late to lay them in early March.
Sowing cold-resistant and slowly germinating crops (radishes, lettuce, carrots, parsley, dill, radish, cabbage, beets) in open ground begins when the soil at a depth of 5-10 cm warms up to 8-10 degrees during the day. At the same time, the first seedlings of heat-loving plants - peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers - can be planted in greenhouses. For the Moscow region, this period approximately falls on May 1. For St. Petersburg - May 10, for the Chernozem region - early April, for the southern regions - mid-March.
Tomatoes and seedlings of other heat-loving plants should be planted in open ground when the threat of return frosts has passed and a stable heat is established. Usually it is: for Moscow - June 10, for St. Petersburg - June 15, for the Chernozem region - the first decade of May, for the southern regions - the first decade of April.
Advice: open statistics for your city on Yandex, see the temperature based on data for the last 10 years. For example - Dmitrov of the Moscow region in April
Photo of the harvest of cucumbers:
To find out when to sow cucumbers for seedlings in 2020, you should calculate the planting time based on the cultivation region, favorable days according to the lunar calendar and the dates indicated on the seed packaging. Subject to all the rules, it will not be difficult even for a novice gardener to grow good fruits.