Effective weed control measures
A season without tiresome weeding
Pumpkin on a film on a compost heap
The most tedious event for a gardener is weeding the beds from weeds. And the terrestrial part of the weeds, growing rapidly (and the germination period of weed seeds is many times shorter than that of cultivated plants), takes up living space, depriving cultivated plants of sunlight, and they grow by leaps and bounds.
Many weeds are a favorite treat for pests such as snails and naked slugs. They love dandelion, nettles, thistle. Initially, these pests eat the leaves of the weeds, and then move to cultivated plants, nullifying the hope of a harvest. In addition, many plant diseases initially appear on weeds, and then spread to cultivated plants. For example, this season powdery mildew first appeared on plantain, and then moved on to roses, phlox, and melons.
Weeds are unusually fertile, and their seeds ripen quickly, then retain their viability in the soil for many years. One has only one time not to weed out the garden in time and allow the weed seeds to be in the soil, as weeding for many years to come. For example, the seeds of medium starlet (wood lice) remain viable for 30 years, shepherd's purse - 35, field bindweed - 50 years!
Garlic, perennial onions and sorrel on film
Seed germination is extended over a long period. One weed plant produces several types of seeds. Some of the seeds will germinate in the year of their ripening and will have time to give more than one offspring before winter, others will sprout next spring, and still others in a year. As a result, the period of germination of weed seeds will stretch for many years. If you do not have time to weed out wood lice once, then every year it will appear in the garden - and so on for the next 30 years.
And you do not need to think that, having cut the garden bed once qualitatively, in the future you will not need to weed it. Weed seeds will stay in the soil for many years and wait for their germination year. In addition, some of the weed seeds will fly to the beds by air, and even more of them we ourselves bring into the garden with manure, compost, peat, hay (when mulching). Weed seeds are very viable. Even after passing through the digestive system of the animal, they do not lose germination.
Most weed seeds germinate better if they are at a depth of 0.5-3 cm.Therefore, if it is not enough to water the beds abundantly, sparing strength and precious water, wetting only the upper layers of the soil, we ourselves create good conditions for the germination of weed seeds.
I water my beds no more than twice a week, but abundantly, sparing no water, so that moisture gets to the bottom of the roots of cultivated plants. I check the quality of watering by touch. Such watering is especially necessary for root crops. Many gardeners complain that they do not grow large and high-quality root crops. And the reason often lies precisely in the poor-quality watering of these plants.
If the weed seeds are at a depth of 12-18 cm, then they will not sprout. Therefore, in the fall, I dig the soil under the ridges on a shovel bayonet (so that the weeds are at a sufficient depth) and do not break it, but leave it in a layer. As a result, some of the weed seeds will freeze in winter.
Trying to reduce the number of weeds in my beds, I have developed and strictly every season I spend at my dacha the following activities. I carefully dig the plot outlined for the ridges in the fall, choosing the roots of perennial weeds (if any). I bring in manure and compost. I water the garden bed with a microbiological fertilizer, such as Extrasol or Baikal EM-1, as these preparations have shown themselves very well when used together with organic matter. Then I sow this area with white mustard. In mid-October (if the autumn frosts do not happen earlier), I bury the mustard together with the grown annual weeds into the ground, after chopping them with a shovel. Until April next year, I no longer approach this site.
Marking black spunbond for planting vegetables
In early April, as soon as the soil dries slightly from moisture, I dig the soil there again on an incomplete bayonet of a shovel. I water it with the same microbiological fertilizer. As a result, weed seeds are at a fairly deep depth, and they will need to expend a lot of energy to germinate, and many of them will not germinate at all.
But overwintered weed seeds that are in the upper soil layer will sprout in 7-10 days. I again dig this area onto the bayonet of a shovel and water it with microbiological fertilizer. I repeat the same operation for the third time. I dig up the soil only in sunny weather, which means that some weed sprouts, once on the surface of the soil, will die. By the beginning of May, the entire section for the ridges is ready. I make ridges and sow root crops there. I water them again with microbiological fertilizer. I close the ridges with dense spunbond.
When the first shoots of root crops appear, there are almost no weeds in the beds. Experienced gardeners know that this is especially true for carrot crops. After all, its seeds germinate for a very long time. And usually, by the time of its emergence, the weeds are already large enough, and it is difficult to detect carrots when weeding. I was convinced more than once that such repeated tillage and control of weed shoots at an early stage then significantly reduce the time for weeding and contribute to an increase in yield. Under melons and gourds, I dig the soil in the spring once. I water it with microbiological fertilizer and cover it with a black film. Until May 20, the soil under the film warms up. Then I make round holes with a diameter of 20 cm in the film and plant the seedlings of squash and squash in them. I water the plants at the root - in the holes.
I also plant pumpkin seedlings on a black film, but not in a garden bed, but on a compost heap (see photo). The advantages of such a planting of melons and gourds are not only that these beds do not need to weed from weeds, but also that the plants under the film do not need to be watered often (moisture does not evaporate there for a long time), the soil under the plants is much warmer than not covered garden bed. In addition, the crop does not get dirty there, and there is no need to put stands under the zucchini and pumpkins so that they do not rot from contact with wet soil.
In the autumn, when the soil in ordinary beds cools down in the evening, it is always warm under melons and gourds. Slugs and snails do not crawl onto such ridges, since the film heats up in the sun, and they cannot move along the hot surface. Consequently, the crop is not affected by these pests. The yield of melons and gourds with this method of planting is much higher than on a regular ridge.
Strawberries on film
By the same principle, I tried to plant perennial onions and sorrel (see. Usually, first of all, we all weed the beds with the most important crops for us, and as a rule, we don’t reach the perennial onions and sorrel. So they quickly overgrow with weeds. Here, instead of a black film, I used black spunbond, since these plants do not form dense thickets quickly, and the film heats up very much in the sun, and the plants wither. Instead of round holes, I made cruciform holes (see I do this so that as the plants grow the incision could be easily enlarged.Over the summer, once for 5 minutes, I weeded these plantings from small weeds that appeared around young shoots. Then the plants grew, and weeding was no longer necessary. One drawback of such a planting is frequent watering of these plants (in ordinary I did not water perennial onions and sorrel in the ridges.) Plants on such ridges felt comfortable, even despite the heat in July, and pleased with the harvest until late autumn and. I don’t take off black spunbond for the winter.
I also plant strawberries on black spunbond. I tried to plant it on a black film, but in hot daytime weather the plants wilt badly, and they come to their senses only after sunset. The harvest also suffers from this. Therefore, the black film was replaced with black spunbond. With this method of planting, strawberries are always clean (see Mustache do not have time to take root quickly, and it is convenient to remove them.
Peppers on film
This year I tried planting on black spunbond and bell peppers. I made a hot bed. I dug a hole in the size of the ridge. A layer of sawdust was laid on the bottom of it. I poured them with Extrasol (20 ml per 10 liters of water). I put a layer of hay on a layer of sawdust and also poured it with the same preparation. On top I put a layer of half-rotted horse manure (manure with sawdust). And she also poured the drug. I placed the removed layer of soil on top, having previously mixed it with compost. She watered the entire bed abundantly and covered it with black spunbond. Two weeks later (on the twentieth of May) I planted seedlings of peppers on the garden bed (having previously made cross-shaped cuts in a spunbond), poured them with the same preparation. I covered the bed with a thick film.
The seedlings have taken root well. I fed the plants once every 14 days with liquid manure with the addition of Extrasol to it (I first got acquainted with this drug, having received it as a prize for participating in the editorial competition "Summer Season - 2011". I really liked its effect on plants, and then I still bought it more than once in gardening stores). I didn't apply any mineral fertilizers. And only in the second half of September, feeding with organic fertilizers was replaced with feeding with nettle infusions (once every 7-10 days) and HB - 101.
In summer, in hot weather, the greenhouse was opened from the ends for ventilation. I watered the plants twice a week. During the season, I have never weeded the plantings, since there were no weeds there. The peppers bore fruit until early October. In autumn, at temperatures below 15 ° C, I did not open the greenhouse. In the cold autumn weather, I checked the soil under the peppers - it was warm. And there is nothing surprising here: the ridge was heated from below (from the heating of sawdust, hay, manure) and from above - from a spanbond heated in the sun. The peppers grew large, the harvest was excellent (readers can see this in the photo). From each of the eleven bushes, I collected an average of 15 kilograms of juicy fruits.
We also keep potato plantings clean, without weeds. To do this, we add manure and compost in the fall and plow them. In the spring, when the soil dries up, we cultivate arable land with a walk-behind tractor. After 10-14 days, we repeat the cultivation. After planting potatoes, it usually happens on May 15, a week later we rake the soil (always in sunny weather). After another 7 days, we repeat this procedure. As a result, we do not have weeds on potato plantings. Of course, it is easier to deal with annual weeds than with perennial weeds. But you can find justice on them too.
The most difficult perennial weeds to yield are runny and thirsty. If the runny crawled into perennial plants, then during the entire warm season we cut off its leaves, preventing them from growing large. From this, the weed is gradually depleted and dies.
In the uncultivated place of our site, dense thickets of snow have grown. I really wanted to plant raspberries there. I didn't have time to dig this weed, and I didn't want to waste energy on it. In early spring, she covered this piece of land with a very dense black film, well pressing its edges and central part with bricks. Dreaming disappeared in this place only two years later. We did not shoot the film for the winter.
After an early spring digging of this piece of land, I made sure that the earth was quite loose. I applied manure, compost, poured it with microbiological fertilizer and again covered it with black foil for a month. Then she planted raspberry bushes there. A week later, to prevent the appearance of annual weeds that got with manure and compost, she ripped through this area with a rake. In the first year of planting raspberry weeds were not there. In the second year, starting in spring, she harrowed the ground around raspberries in sunny weather. There were no weeds, we only had to fight the raspberry growth, which was striving to "run away" from the ranks.
Zucchini on film
The worst thing to do is fight a thigh. It is not possible to dig it up completely, since its roots go deep into the ground and are located there in several tiers horizontally, and a huge number of adventitious buds depart from them, from which shoots appear. I tried using a brush in July (when it is hot and there is no chance of precipitation) to apply a concentrated (not diluted with water) roundup solution. With this herbicide I smeared each leaf on the thistle plant. Thistle died, but a plastic bag must be put on the plant on which the Roundup is applied so that the herbicide solution does not get on the cultivated plants. The occupation is very laborious, and unsafe (after all, chemistry).
It is completely impossible to get rid of the thymus, since the wind now and then brings its seeds from the surroundings. Therefore, during the entire warm period, I pull out the sprouted sprouts of the thymus, thus trying to weaken it.
Although most weeds are medicinal plants, it is best to get rid of them. The only weed that I allow to grow (in the aisles of ridges, around bushes and trees) in the garden is nettles. Every week I cut off the top of this plant and the dry land with garden shears. By the end of summer, the nettle gradually begins to shrink. And I dig it up in the fall. With the infusion of this plant, I water the beds, rinse my hair with it, add nettle to soups and brew it into tea.
Proponents of organic farming believe that the growth of weeds in the garden should only be limited. But I think getting rid of weeds is a must. So we will be able to avoid the spread of pests and diseases on cultivated plants, we will get good harvests. The main thing is to do this not to the detriment of your health when you are trying to rid your beds of huge weeds. It is better to prevent the appearance of weeds on the site than to deal with them later. Working in the garden should be fun, not hard labor.
gardener, candidate of geographical sciences,
Photo by the author
Weed control methods
Asking eternal questions how to destroy the weed and which one is better to choose remedy for weeds in the garden, you should take into account all the most effective and common ways weed control:
- alternative (folk remedies for weeds in the garden).
Each of these methods has its own advantages and disadvantages. For a better understanding, we will consider them all separately.
This method is considered the simplest, most affordable, and most often used for how to destroy weeds in the country... The mechanical method includes not only weeding, but also the removal of old roots of weeds by digging the site.
This agricultural practice is carried out twice: the first time in the autumn, after harvesting, raising the soil in large layers, and the second time in the spring, digging up the site more shallowly and extracting the remaining rhizomes from the soil.
With regard to weeding, it should not only be carried out as weed control in the country, but also as loosening and peeling of the soil. The frequency of weeding directly depends on what other methods are used to get rid of weeds.
In general, modern agronomy strives to reduce the weeding of weeds to the local removal of single plants.
Another rather popular way, how to clear the area of weeds, - biological. Basically, it consists of mulching the soil.
As you know, mulch can not only retain moisture in the soil, but also significantly slow down the germination of weeds. All suitable products can be used as mulch: sawdust, cardboard, freshly cut grass, hay, straw, peat or special black agrofibre, which is most often used for growing garden strawberries and protected ground plants.
Usually, the largest foci of weeds are observed in vacant areas. Therefore, they need to be sown in a timely manner with useful vegetation - green manure. Such plants will serve not only as excellent garden weed remedy, but also enrich the soil with useful substances.
Phacelia, mustard, rye, legumes, etc. can be used as green manure crops.
Also, on the beds vacated after harvesting early crops, it is possible to carry out repeated summer sowing of seeds of fast-growing vegetables.
Not a bad solution how to deal with weeds in the garden, are also compacted landings. And here, what to plant, so that weeds did not grow, - choose based on the compatibility of cultures and their ability to "get along" with each other.
Alternative (using folk remedies)
In another organic way how to remove grass in the garden, is the use of folk methods. Most popular natural weed remedies in the country - solutions of various acids, soda and soap. Such substances have a detrimental effect on unwanted vegetation, but at the same time remain safe for humans and the environment.
To prepare an "acidic" solution, you need to combine table vinegar and water, taken in equal parts, adding 1 sachet of citric acid and 30 g of alcohol. The resulting mixture gives fairly good results in weed control in the garden.
Another remedy than can spray the weeds, - a solution based on soda. For its preparation 1 tbsp. a spoonful of soda must be dissolved in 2 liters of clean water and add 10 g of crushed laundry soap. Such a mixture will help not only clean the area of weeds, but also protect the plants from pathogens of fungal infections.
To prepare another effective weed control it is necessary to combine 200 ml of vinegar (15%), 30 g of salt, 1 ml of liquid soap and spray the area.
If the above biological methods using natural remedies are ineffective, you have to resort to a more aggressive solution and apply weed control chemicals.
This method is also irreplaceable when weed control in the garden using weeding does not give the desired result. As a rule, this happens when the roots of perennial weeds are located in the lower layers of the soil, and even the deepest processing is not able to destroy them.
There is no better way in situations like this how to treat the garden from weeds special preparations. The main feature of herbicides is their fast and effective action.
Before, how to deal with weeds on the site with the use of chemicals, their main characteristics should be examined. This will help you choose the right drug for you, and cultivation of land from weeds will be as effective as possible.
So, according to the type of exposure, herbicides can be divided into continuous and selective. Substances from the first group destroy all types of vegetation, both weed and cultivated. Therefore, they are mainly used during pre-sowing processing of the field.
As for the selective group of herbicides, these preparations are designed to kill weeds without harming agricultural plantings. Such substances are made taking into account the characteristics of each type of weeds.
In turn, this group of herbicides is divided into contact and systemic. Contact ones have a detrimental effect on unwanted vegetation only after they come into contact with weeds, and systemic ones are able to penetrate into plant tissues and move along their vascular-conducting system.
There are many different herbicides on the Ukrainian market, the most popular of which are: Antiburian, Antisapa Liquid, Vitalon Expert, Glyfovit Extra, Gold Star, Golf, Dual Gold 960 EC c.e., Mastak, Mastak + Mortal, Panther, Permaklin Liquid, Tivitus, Hurricane Forte 500 century r.c.
These drugs are capable of how to destroy weeds in the gardenand control weeds in large agricultural areas.
External features of wild oats:
- The root system is well developed, fibrous. Weed roots can penetrate deep into the soil to a depth of 1.3-1.6 m.
- The stems of the weed are thin and bare, they are much taller than that of cultivated oats and can reach 1-1.2 m in height.
- Leaves are wide, linear type, up to 25-30 cm long, with serrated crumb.
- The seeds are connected at the base of the "horseshoe", after ripening they acquire a rich dark, almost black shade.
- The oats have a knee-like bend and, as they mature, acquire the shape of a spiral, twisting around their axis.
The main breeding method for wild oat weed is seed. Its inflorescences are an oblong panicle, inside which is a caryopsis with flower scales. One plant can produce up to 800 seeds, which explains its extremely fast spread in crops.
Wild oat seeds fall to the ground gradually, over 3-4 weeks. This greatly complicates the fight against the weed, because it will not be possible to get rid of it with just one mowing - a certain part of the seeds will already be in the ground.
How to get rid of weeds with folk remedies
If the use of chemicals is not suitable for you, folk remedies for herbs and weeds will come to the rescue. True, you will have to spend time preparing the mixtures. But you can be sure that your lawn is safe to rest.
An excellent weed killer - vinegar and salt... For the mixture, take 5 tablespoons. vinegar, 2 tablespoons salt and 1 liter of hot water. Combine the ingredients and, without waiting for the preparation to cool, water the weeds. The result will surprise you!
You can also mix with vinegar citric acid in a ratio of 3: 1. Or simply dilute vinegar in water in a 1: 2 ratio and treat annoying weeds. For the recipes above, it is best to use 6 or 9% vinegar.
Regular salt will also help remove weeds from the lawn. Pour 1 tbsp for each plant. without a hill of salt, and after a while they will die. In weed control, you can also use rubbing alcohol or hydrochloric acidwith which you need to gently water each plant. It is better to dilute the alcohol before watering with water in a ratio of 1:10.
Any folk remedy for weeds on the lawn must be applied pointwise so as not to harm the lawn grass and cultivated plants. Also, do not forget about personal safety measures.
Soil mulching is another of the most effective methods of weed control. In fact, this unusual word means nothing more than covering the soil in places where weeds are spread with straw, sawdust, ash, tree bark or hay. For mulching, a special material "agroperlite" is also used, which can be purchased at any shop for gardeners.
You can cover the soil so that the weeds die without getting the sunlight they need, you can use any available means: pieces of cardboard, roofing material, linoleum or opaque plastic wrap. You can mulch the soil in autumn and early spring.