Don't stop the potatoes from growing! Planting and growing according to Kartelev
In Russia, potatoes are respectfully called "second bread" and are grown on the vast majority of household plots. There are a lot of methods for cultivating it - sometimes professional agronomists and simply amateur gardeners with extensive experience offer rather unusual methods. V.I.Kartelev also has his own technology. The author promises consistently high yields regardless of the climatic conditions in the region.
The essence of Kartelev's technique for growing potatoes, its advantages and disadvantages
V. Kartelev is a professional agronomist with great experience. He has developed and tested on his own experience more than one method of growing potatoes. According to him, the yield when using them reaches from 400–450 kg from 1 hundred square meters with “grass farming” and 800–900 kg from one hundred square meters with “EM-grass farming”. So the author himself calls his methods of growing vegetables. Moreover, the fruits are leveled, large, marketable.
V. Kartelev will test his own methods in practice, proving their effectiveness by regularly collecting large yields of potatoes
General rules for Kartelev's methods:
- Widespread use of organic mulch. You will need a lot of it, so the author recommends, since autumn, mowing all the grass available on the site, drying it on the ground for 2-3 days, then collecting it in heaps. With the onset of cold weather, it is tamped tightly in a dry, dark place, where it is stored until spring. In principle, any other organic material can be used as mulch - straw, fallen leaves, sawdust, but the author insists on grass. In his opinion, this is the most effective natural fertilizer, providing the soil with the necessary macronutrients for potatoes, preventing moisture loss and protecting against weeds.
It is impossible to simply throw freshly cut grass into the garden bed - this is a very suitable place for many pests to live; mulch needs preliminary preparation
- Mulch can also be harvested during the summer, with the benefit of weeding weeds. But their roots need to be cut off.
Any weeds weeded out are also good for mulch, the main thing is to cut off their roots.
- Annual digging of the soil after harvesting is not recommended by the Kartelevs - in his opinion, this violates the natural structure of the substrate.
Deep digging of the bed, according to Kartelev, only harms the soil, the maximum that is allowed in his method is surface loosening with a flat cutter
- From top dressing, different types of fertilizers Baikal, Biostim, humus, ash are used, for the prevention of fungal diseases - the drug Planriz. The use of mineral fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, any means of non-biological origin is excluded.
Baikal EM1 is a microbiological fertilizer designed to increase the fertility of a substrate of any quality
- Any variety can be used. The author makes experiments on potatoes Santa, Tuleyevsky, Reserve.
Santa is one of the varieties with which V. Kartelev has been experimenting for a long time and successfully
Advantages of the technique:
- Versatility - Kartelev's technique is suitable for any region of Russia, climate and weather have little effect on yield, according to the author's experience.
- Less water consumption. Care according to the Kartelev method does not provide for watering (the plants have enough rain).
- Saving money spent on the purchase of fertilizers, chemicals to fight diseases and pests.
- The preparation of the beds consists in weeding and mulching them (in some ways). Time-consuming digging is excluded. In general, planting potatoes according to Kartelev requires minimal care.
- The absence of chemicals has a positive effect on the quality of the crop, the taste of potatoes improves.
The technique has only one drawback - it requires large quantities of mulch. It will have to be harvested throughout the season, and storage space will be required for the winter.
Video: harvesting mulch from grass
Different ways suggested by the author
According to Kartelev's method, potatoes do not need careful care. The main thing is not to interfere with his growth.
For growing potatoes, the author has developed the following methods:
- Null. The method does not provide for mulching and fertilizing; the beds also do not need to be digged. But you will definitely have to huddle them. Before planting the tubers, the plot is weeded, if necessary (if the potatoes are planted for the first time), it is processed with a flat cutter to a depth of 5–7 cm. Rows are marked on the bed with an interval of 70–75 cm, furrows are made with a depth of about 5 cm. Potato tubers are planted with an interval of 30 cm, in the middle between them are the seeds of the beans. They are abundantly powdered with wood ash, covered with humus. Using a rake, a mound is formed so that its top is above the potatoes. Hilling is carried out at the same time as in the "classic" cultivation of tubers.
Hilling of potatoes is obligatory only in several methods of its cultivation invented by V. Karteelv
- Dung and trench. It also does not require mulching and digging of beds, hilling is desirable, but not essential. The method is suitable not only for potatoes, but also for any root crops. The site is cleared of plant debris, rows are formed with an interval of 70 cm. In them, after 30 cm, holes are dug to the depth of a shovel, organic fertilizers are applied. Potatoes and beans are planted in the same way as in the first version, they are covered with earth on top. But the beds should occupy 30% of the garden area. The remaining 70% are not processed this season.
Beans planted interspersed with potatoes saturate the soil with nitrogen
- On mulch. The beds are not dug up, mulching is necessary. When growing potatoes in this way, the author notes the absence of the Colorado potato beetle and late blight, the highest yields. The method was successfully applied by him on dry and heavy soils, in lowlands. The area of the bed is mulched with grass (layer about 20 cm), it is marked with a cord (row spacing - 70 cm). A layer of earth 3-5 cm thick is poured over the cord. Use a stake to make holes for potatoes and beans. On top of the planted tubers and seeds, humus mixed with ash is poured and a layer of soil about 5 cm thick.
A thick layer of mulch on the garden bed protects the potato roots from overheating, prevents moisture evaporation and prevents weeds from growing
- "Lazy". Potatoes do not need hilling. The author notes that planting in this way increases plant immunity and productivity, recommends using it on hills with a light, insufficiently nutritious substrate. You need to act as in the first method, but after planting, the tubers are covered not with humus, but with a layer of mulch with a thickness of at least 15 cm.
- Alternation. It is assumed that potatoes are sequentially grown by each of the four methods described above in a vegetable garden, divided into separate sectors. Since both organic fertilizers and mulch are used, soil fertility is constantly maintained at the level necessary for potatoes, it contains enough macro- and microelements necessary for tubers.
- Dung-trench with mulching. Duplicates the second method. After planting the tubers, the entire area of the garden bed is mulched (a layer with a thickness of 15 cm).
Video: gardening technique according to Kartelev in relation to growing potatoes
Kartelev's method is not suitable for everyone, there are both positive and negative reviews about the technology. But the author proves its effectiveness by his own practice. He has even created more than one way of cultivating potatoes, a common characteristic is simply not to "interfere" with him with his own obsessive care. The essence of Kartelev's methods is organic farming without the use of chemicals and mineral fertilizers.
Selection of tubers and preparation of potatoes
In autumn, seed is selected and subjected to gardening - a procedure that increases the safety of tubers. Potatoes are left for a week in a lighted place, periodically turned over. Tubers become hard, do not lose moisture, mice do not touch them in storage, wounds heal faster. They are stored at a temperature of + 4 ° C and an air humidity of 60-65%. An increase in performance leads to the premature appearance of sprouts, and a decrease in performance leads to freezing of the material.
20-40 days before the intended planting, the harvested potatoes are taken out of the cellar and taken out into the sunlight. Then they are re-sorted out, rejected unsuitable for planting, calibrated and washed under running water to remove the remnants of the earth and pathogenic bacteria.
Before germinating potatoes, the planting material is treated with disinfecting solutions:
- 10 g boric acid per 10 l of water
- 10 g of copper sulfate, 2 g of potassium permanganate, 10 g of boric acid per 10 liters of water
- wood ash for dusting
- "Fitosporin-M", "Prestige" according to the instructions on the package.
Additional processing increases the plant's immunity to fungal diseases and insect attacks.
Healthy tubers with hatched eyes are suitable for germination. Practice shows that the best result can be achieved when planting tubers weighing 100 g.
In large potatoes, the supply of nutrients is greater than in small specimens. After planting, the tops grow rapidly until the reserves contained in the tubers are exhausted. The development of the rhizome lags significantly behind. After the tuber gives up its reserves, the underground part will not be able to fully meet the needs of the green mass. The situation will return to normal once the balance is restored.
Experienced farmers recommend cutting large potatoes into pieces 3-4 days before planting, leaving at least three eyes on each piece. During this period, the cut will have time to cork, blocking the access to pathogenic fungi and bacteria.
Planting small tubers will not provide you with a rich harvest. You will have to put 2-3 potatoes in the holes to make the most of the space. It will be inconvenient to dig such nests because of the risk of damage to the tubers with a shovel.
Reference. Some certified elite varieties have small planting tubers, which give a full-fledged bush of selected potatoes.
Preparing potatoes for planting
Tubers need to be prepared for planting to get a good harvest. It is recommended to do this in 2 steps. The first stage is spraying with a biostimulant to improve germination (2-3 days before planting). You can use Epin.
The next step is the treatment with chemicals directly on the day of planting the tubers in the ground (fungicides and insecticides), which can be replaced with folk remedies. Fitosporin-M, copper sulfate can be used as effective fungicides. If there is a suspicion that the seed is not of very high quality, it is better to treat it with complex preparations (Prestige, Tirana).
Main rules, terms, fromfeatures and schemes planting potatoes
Can you imagine the life of a Russian person without potatoes? Difficult ... It is the basis of many delicious dishes, including dietary ones. Of course, you can go to absolutely any grocery store or hypermarket and buy this vegetable there. But nothing beats the taste of young potatoes grown on their own plot!
When to plant potatoes in open ground: optimal timing
When choosing the optimal timing for planting potatoes, it is very important to maintain a balance. If the event is carried out too early, return spring frosts may return and destroy the potatoes, and the cold earth can provoke rhizoctoniasis (a fungal disease in which black growths form on the tubers). And with too late planting, you can get a harvest in a smaller volume, because due to the end of the warm season, it will not have time to ripen in full.
When is it better to plant a crop outdoors in 2020, in what month? First of all, when choosing the time for the procedure, you need to focus on the weather and temperature conditions. The threat of return spring frosts should pass, the soil should warm up to 8-10 degrees Celsius, and the air temperature during the day should be stable at 15-20 (and more) degrees Celsius.
Advice! If you are in doubt and think that recurrent frosts can return in the spring, then it is better to postpone the procedure a little.
In different regions of our vast country, the weather and climatic conditions are very different. And this means that you need to plant potatoes at different times, taking into account climatic features:
- In the middle lane (Moscow region) - planting is optimal in the second half of May.
- In the South (Krasnodar Territory (Kuban), North Caucasus) - early in mid-April.
- In Siberia, the Urals, the Leningrad region - it is better to plant at the end of May or even at the beginning of June.
By the way! If you are interested in early planting in the spring, then you can perform the procedure earlier for one or two weeks of the optimal time, and then install arcs and cover with a film.
Planting dates for potatoes according to the lunar calendar 2020
A very good assistant in gardening affairs is the cycles of the moon, with their help you can determine the most accurate time when you can and cannot plant anything in the garden. Thus, the timing of planting potatoes in open ground according to the Lunar calendar 2020:
in June - 1, 2, 7, 8, 12, 13, 17, 18.
in June - 5, 20, 21, 22.
Dates of planting potatoes according to folk signs
Folk trick! Some experienced gardeners have adopted the experience of their ancestors and, when choosing dates, are guided by folk signs.
It is believed that potatoes can be planted when:
- birch leaves will be the size of a 1 kopeck coin
- dandelion has faded
- the flowering of bird cherry is over.
Preparing potato tubers for planting
Preparation (that is, vernalization) of potatoes for planting in open ground is very important, because if dormant tubers are planted, they will hatch for a long time. It is recommended to buy and start preparing the material a month before the event. If you plan to plant potatoes grown and harvested on your site, then you should get them out of storage in a month.
Examine the planting material carefully. If you see tubers with damage, cracks, mold, signs of rotting, disease, then they need to be discarded. The best option is healthy, clean, medium-sized tubers.
Before the procedure, it is recommended to germinate potato tubers at home.... Put them in boxes (one layer) in a dark room out of direct sunlight. The optimum temperature for germination is 13-16 degrees during the day, 10 degrees at night. It will take three to four weeks to germinate, during this period good sprouts should grow.
It is recommended to warm up - a week before planting, arrange the tubers at a temperature of 20-22 degrees Celsius.
Choosing a place and soil for planting potatoes
The right place and suitable soil for planting and growing potatoes is very important.
When choosing, you should be guided by the following rules:
- The place should be open, well lit by the sun during the day.
- The plot must be level, without slope.
- It is recommended to avoid lowlands in which moisture accumulates, as well as excessively waterlogged areas, places with a high groundwater table.
- The soil should be loose, fertile, nutritious.
- The culture prefers light loamy or sandy loamy soils.
- Heavy, clayey soils are not suitable, since this culture needs a lot of oxygen for normal growth and development, and such soils have poor air permeability.
Good and bad predecessors
For successful cultivation and a good harvest of any vegetables, you need to follow the rules of crop rotation (that is, the alternation of crops in the area in time and on the territory).
Crop rotation rules for this crop:
- The potatoes themselves are recommended to be planted annually in a new place.to prevent soil depletion and the accumulation of pathogens and pest larvae in the ground.
- Good predecessors, after which it is recommended to plant potatoes: corn, cabbage (and other representatives of cruciferous plants), garlic, onions, various root vegetables, pumpkin crops (zucchini, cucumbers, pumpkin), legumes (beans, peas), cereals (wheat, rye), various siderates - mustard, radish.
- Bad predecessors: other members of the nightshade family (peppers, eggplants, tomatoes, physalis). The fact is that potatoes and their other "relatives" have the same diseases, for example late blight.
Site and soil preparation for planting
Before planting potatoes, it is very important to prepare the site and the soil. Manipulation will help you get a higher quality and quantity of the crop.
It is recommended to prepare in advance:
- It is recommended in the fall (or at least one month before) to dig up the area with a shovel bayonet (or to dig up the soil with a cultivator).
- And already a week before planting in the spring, you need to prepare holes or ridges.
Important! It is imperative to increase the fertility of the soil.
There are two ways to fertilize the soil:
Fertilizers for autumn or spring when digging:
- Potassium sulfate (25 grams) + superphosphate (20 grams) + urea (30 grams). Proportion per 1 square meter.
- Or, you can apply a mineral complex fertilizer that contains nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus in equal proportions, for example, Nitroammofosk (20 grams per square meter).
- Compost or humus (one bucket per square meter).
Important! Potatoes are very fond of the combination of organic and mineral fertilizers. Therefore, it is important to combine them.
Fertilizers before planting:
In each well (or furrow) - 4 grams of nitroammophoska or 3 grams of potassium sulfate and superphosphate.
Adepts of organic farming can be poured into the hole (or furrows) wood ash (50 grams for one potato), humus or compost, onion husks.
By the way! There are ready-made complex fertilizers specifically for potatoes. They can facilitate the preparation procedure, because you do not need to select fertilizers, but you can simply use a specific preparation. For example, Fertika or Fasco for potatoes.
Methods, schemes and rules for planting potatoes in open ground
It is very important to know at what depth to plant potatoes.... Planting depth depends on various factors: the type of soil in your area, the size of the planting material. On average, this indicator varies from 8 to 12 centimeters. It is very important to maintain the optimal depth, because if the depth is too shallow, the tubers can appear on the outside and turn green, which means that you will get a poor quality crop.
Planting depth depending on the type of soil:
- For heavy, clayey soil, plant should be shallow - 8 cm.
- With light, sandy - the planting depth should be greater, about 10-12 cm.
- With cultivated loamy soil, the optimum planting depth is 10 cm.
Note! Also, the planting depth of potatoes depends on the size of the tubers: large specimens need to be buried deeper, and small ones, respectively, less.
Distance between tubers and rows
It is necessary to observe the distance between the potatoes themselves and the rows. Thanks to this, the tubers will have a normal feeding area, you will be able to get a normal harvest. And it will also help in the future to take good care of the plant. And if you plant too close, without considering the optimal spacing, the plants will compete for nutrients in the soil, which will leave much to be desired.
The optimal spacing between rows (or ridges, furrows) is 70-80 centimeters.
When planting potatoes in open ground, you must maintain a distance:
- Between small tubers (30-40 grams) - 20-22 centimeters.
- Medium (60-90 grams) - 25-27 cm.
- Large (90 grams or more) - 30-33 centimeters.
Advice! It is recommended to make rows in the south-north direction.
Standard landing method ("under the shovel")
Shovel planting technology is the most common and popular among farmers and gardeners in our country.
Scheme of the classic landing under a shovel (in the holes):
Make holes 8-12 cm deep (their depth depends on the type of soil and the size of the planting material) at a distance of 20-33 cm (depending on the size of the tubers).
- If you have not previously fertilized the soil, then you need to fertilize the hole (the fertilization rules are described above).
- You need to plant the tuber sprouts up.
- Fill the holes with soil.
- Level the area with a rake.
Note! Despite the prevalence of this method, it has significant drawbacks: it will be difficult for the plant to receive sunlight, moisture, oxygen, nutrients. It is also inconvenient to take care of the bushes.
Landing in furrows
Or you can plant potatoes in the furrows. This option is similar to the technology described above, except that you do not need to make separate holes. To do this, you need to make grooves (that is, cut grooves) with a depth of about 10 centimeters (it is very convenient to make them with a walk-behind tractor). And plant the tubers at the bottom of the furrows, taking into account the optimal distance (on average 25 cm). After the procedure, you need to carefully fill the rows with a rake so that the surface of the earth under the tubers becomes even.
Dutch Ridge Planting Technology
Unlike the above method, for Dutch potato planting, you do not need to make holes. It is necessary to make furrows to form earthen rowing. Therefore, for this method, you will need a walk-behind tractor or cultivator, the manual method is not feasible.
This method is very fond of many summer residents, because thanks to this technology, you can get a larger harvest. And all due to the fact that the tubers fully receive oxygen, the sun.
Instructions for planting potatoes in the ridges using Dutch technology:
- Make grooves 15 cm deep, the distance between them is 75-80 cm.
- You need to plant potatoes on the ridges with sprouts up, the distance between them is 30 centimeters. Planting depth is 10-15 centimeters from the top of the ridge.
- You need to plant potatoes in different furrows alternately (first one furrow is planted, then another, etc.).
- Sprinkle soil over the tubers.
Picture-diagram of landing using Dutch technology:
Important! Do not walk on furrows and compact the soil.
Planting potatoes according to the Meatlider method
This method is suitable for growing crops in large quantities, for example, professional farmers or just large potato lovers. You need to plant in the holes in a checkerboard pattern. With proper planting using the Meatlider technology, you can not huddle the beds in the future. But you need to water and fertilize often.
Gulikh landing technology
There is also a Gülikh landing technology, which is based on the creation of a multi-tiered potato bush with the help of regular sprinkling of soil. It is optimal to plant in this way in small beds.
General rules and recommendations for planting
- In light, sandy soil, plant optimally in the soil without ridges, that is, "under a shovel".
- For peaty or heavy, clayey soils, it is best to plant in a ridge (Dutch method).
Regardless of the planting method, you cannot plant different varieties of potatoes next to each other, because they have different growth rates, therefore, faster growing bushes will shade the slow representatives of the later varieties.
Features of growing early potatoes
Growing early potatoes is not much different from the usual. However, in this case, there are some nuances that must be followed.
To grow it, you must follow the following rules:
- First of all, you need to choose a suitable planting material, namely early ripening zoned varieties suitable for your region. Each potato must weigh at least 60 grams.
- To get an early harvest, it is imperative to germinate the planting material in 20-30 days, the manipulation will speed up the processes.
- Particular attention should be paid to fertilizing the soil before planting early potatoes. The fact is that for early ripening varieties during their growing season they will not have time to “feast on” organic matter in the soil. Therefore, it is rational and correct to fertilize the earth with mineral fertilizers (it is written about this a little above).
- The planting pattern for early potatoes is almost the same, only the distance is slightly shorter. It is recommended to observe the gap between the rows - 60 cm, and between the tubers - 30 cm.
How to care for potatoes after planting
Hilling is a very important care element when growing potatoes outdoors.... Thanks to the manipulation, the risk of green tubers will decrease, the bushes will develop a powerful root system, the bushes will stand stronger in the ground, they will be protected from the cold in case of a sudden cold snap, the air and moisture exchange near the roots will improve, and it will be much more convenient and faster to harvest. And also weeding will be done during hilling.
Important! If you have planted a crop under agrofibre or film, under straw, or are growing a crop in a region with hot and dry summers, then you do not need to huddle.
- You can huddle with a hoe (hoe), walk-behind tractor, cultivator, disc hiller, plow.
- It is better to carry out the procedure in the morning or evening on wet ground (for example, after precipitation or watering).
Below is a photo-diagram of the correct hilling of potatoes in the open field:
Note! Each hilling of potatoes must be accompanied by piercing of the weed beds.
Hilling potatoes is divided into 3 stages:
- First hilling produced two to three weeks after planting. The seedlings of the plant should be about 10 centimeters high. It is necessary to cover the bushes with earth, leaving two to three centimeters of the top of the shoot. Manipulation will stimulate the growth of the root system, protect plants from cold snaps.
- Second hilling not necessary, it is recommended to produce it with clay, heavy soil on the site. It takes place about two to three weeks after the first. In this case, the tops should have a height of 12-15 centimeters. The bushes are covered with soil, five centimeters of a green bush must be left above the ground.
- Third hilling potatoes are carried out at the moment when the bushes grow up to 30 centimeters, that is, in about a month. The bushes are huddled in such a way that the stem is covered with soil by 20 centimeters. At this stage, it is recommended to do hilling with a hoe with your own hands, that is, without using a cultivator. Because during this period it is impossible to damage the plant, the slightest damage can cause infection with destructive diseases. It is necessary to fill in the earth with high quality so that the tubers do not open, otherwise they will turn green.
Important! Potato bushes should not be disturbed too often (that is, too often hilling, loosening, etc.). Otherwise, you take more land from the mother root, which provokes lower yields, and also increases the likelihood of infection with scab and other infections.
Despite the simplicity and unpretentiousness of this crop, knowing the nuances of planting and growing will help you get a rich harvest. It is important to take into account the time and quality of the soil, select planting material, prepare the soil and choose a site. Not all garden plots have the right conditions, so fertilization and proper preparation will improve the condition of the land.
What difficulties can arise when growing potatoes
Potato planting is one of the most unpretentious. But they are also not protected from pests and diseases.
The most important thing is to be able to "diagnose" potato disease in time:
Any potassium dressing is used against the bronzing of the leaves. Counteraction to other diseases - the use of fungicide preparations: "Topaz", "Maxima", "Skora". Apply the chemical strictly according to the instructions, observing the dosage, harvest schedule and other conditions.
In order not to devote the summer to the fight against the Colorado potato beetle, be sure to bring a handful of wood ash into the holes when planting. Calendula insect repels - sow sunny flowers in the aisles. Another defense is mixed landings. The Colorado potato beetle does not like legumes - peas, beans. You can turn to baits, store prophylactic agents for the pest: "Aktara", "Prestige", "Confidor".
Another potato enemy is the wireworm (clicker larva). The insect is afraid of wood ash, eggshells. Traps are an effective remedy. Next to the affected potatoes, the pest's favorite treats are buried in the ground - chopped potatoes, carrots, beets. From time to time, the bait is updated, and the caught insects are destroyed. The cardinal method of control is chemical preparations against wireworms, garden pests in general.
the larva of the nut beetle, the big enemy of the potatoColorado beetle