What to do in the garden and vegetable garden in April
The second spring month has come - what must be done by gardeners in April
April - a responsible month. Stagnation of water is especially dangerous in plantings of raspberries, strawberries and in a flower bed with clematis.
At the beginning of the month, it is necessary to remove spruce branches from young plantings of strawberries, roses, irises, clematis, lilies - especially from oriental hybrids, since under a warm shelter they will quickly grow, and their flower bud may freeze during recurrent frosts. But do not rush to remove boxes from roses and clematis.
Feed with nitrogen fertilizer (3 tablespoons of urea per 10 liters of water) lovage, rhubarb, sorrel, raspberries. Instead of urea, you can use an infusion of manure or poultry droppings diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 or 1:20, respectively. Covering these plantings with lutrasil or placing arcs over them and stretching the film, you will be able to provide yourself with the first greens by the beginning of May.
If your compost heap is located in the sun, then you can sow early greens (chervil, watercress, cilantro, parsley, lettuce, spinach, dill) and early carrots, as well as radishes on it. To do this, you need to spill last year's pile of compost with hot water, pour a layer of soil about 7-8 cm high on top of the compost and sow seeds. I usually do it this way: I mix one teaspoon of seeds with half a glass of sand and sow in the furrows in such movements as sprinkling salt on food. You can use special seeders, in which the hole is adjusted according to the size of the seeds. In this case, the seedlings will not thicken. From above, the crops can be covered with foil until shoots appear. Heat and moisture are retained under the film, and crops appear faster.
After the emergence of seedlings, the film must be removed, otherwise they may "burn" under the film. If you cover the crops with lutrasil or spunbond, then the covering material can not be removed until the plants grow up, but before the seedlings appear, the crops should be watered directly over the material, if the weather is dry or windy, so that the hatched seeds do not dry out in the upper drying layer of soil.
At the beginning of the month, pre-grow weeds on vegetable beds, covering the soil with an old film and securing it so that the wind does not blow away. Weeds will quickly grow under the film. As soon as they appear, remove the film and loosen the beds, leaving them open for a day. Then cover with plastic foil again and repeat the operation. Now there are no weeds in the top layer of soil in the garden bed. It is important not to dig up the soil, but only before sowing to loosen it with a Fokin flat cutter, then make a furrow for sowing with its sharp end.
In open ground, all of the above green and vegetable crops can be sown at the time of flowering coltsfoot, that is, in late April - early May, focusing on the lunar calendar of the gardener and gardener.
To get early strawberries, cover at least one bed with plastic wrap or double thin lutrasil directly over the bushes.
At home, water the seedlings of tomatoes and peppers sparingly so as not to overmoisten the soil. Remember that plants need good lighting. As a top dressing, I use a weak solution of Uniflora-growth (1 teaspoon per 5 liters of water), which I water the seedlings with instead of water.
Do not forget to spray tomato and eggplant leaves with a very weak solution of a copper preparation (the easiest way is to use copper oxychloride - HOM, dissolving one fifth of a teaspoon of the powder in 5 liters of water). The solution may stand, you will use it two more times about every two weeks. This is a good preventive measure against late blight. But the often recommended spraying with a manganese solution can not be done, since it does not save from late blight, and other diseases rarely appear on tomato seedlings.
A solution of potassium permanganate can be sprayed with pepper, especially if it is annoyed by aphids. Pepper is difficult to protect from aphid attack if there are indoor plants in the same room where the seedlings grow.
It's time to take the potatoes out of storage, put them in hot (45 degrees) water. When the water cools down, add potassium permanganate until bright pink and soak the tubers in the solution for 15-20 minutes. Then rinse the tubers, dry and put them on vernalization in a bright and cool place. At the end of April, put the potatoes in cardboard boxes, layering each layer with newspapers, put them in a warm place so that the tubers give good strong sprouts. You will plant the grown tubers, thereby accelerating the ripening of the crop by two weeks.
If you haven't done the pruning earlier, you can still do it at the very beginning of the month. Start with blackcurrant, gooseberry, and honeysuckle bushes. Cut the black ends of the branches, rejuvenate the bushes by cutting out the old branches, cut out all the young shoots growing in the middle of the bush from the gooseberry. Only those that grow along the edges of the bush should be left. In red and white currants, the tops of the branches are not cut off, but only old branches and those branches that branch into the crown are removed. In honeysuckle, pruning of thickening crown or broken branches is done.
Do not rush to prune cherries and plums, wait until freezing after wintering becomes clearly visible, or even better - leave pruning them for the fall. The same goes for apple trees. After this harsh winter, the ends of the branches could freeze, but some of the branches will be able to recover from the buds on the bark, so do not rush to prune them, leave pruning at the end of summer. Frozen wood has a light brown color on the cut. Start pruning from the end of the branch and, gradually moving from the end to the skeletal branches, you will get to the place where the cut is light - starting from this point the tissue of the tree is alive, and there is no need to cut further.
At the very beginning of the month, while the buds have not yet awakened, you can have time to spray with iron vitriol (1 teaspoon without top per 100 g of water) to destroy lichens on tree trunks. In addition, you can still spray against wintering pests with a urea solution (700 g per 10 liters of water). Spraying should be done along the ends of branches, along branches and skeletal branches, along the trunk and near-trunk circle along the soil. Towards the end of the month, you should spray those plants in which the scales of the buds have moved apart and a green cone of leaves has appeared, since the first pests lay the larvae there at this very moment.
April is a good time for vaccinations. You can cut the cuttings for grafting at the beginning of the month, wrap them in newspaper, put them in a plastic bag and dig in the snow on the north side of the house, but so that they are not flooded with melt water. At the end of the month, you can use them for vaccinations.
At the end of April, sow the seeds of annuals that are not afraid of frost (poppy, escholzia, cosmea, cornflowers, Iberis, catchment, forget-me-nots, marigolds) directly into the ground in a designated place. The rest of the flowers can also be sown directly into the ground, even such as tobacco or petunia, but their crops should be covered with a film stretched over small arcs. Arcs are easy to make yourself from willow twigs, from which you should immediately remove the bark. The willow grows along the ditches.
At the end of the month, you can remove the shelter from all ornamental plants, except for clematis. It is better to cover their growing shoots with at least lutrasil.
What work in the garden or vegetable garden should be done in April
So the height of various and, at times, unforeseen gardening works has come - April in the Kuban. This month not only inspires us to do good deeds, but arranges, as it were, an exam-test of our readiness for the next summer cottage season.
In the garden, for example, the planting of fruit trees is nearing completion. Strawberry beds, cleared of old overwintered leaves and peduncles, are gaining strength. At this time, one must not forget to add (however, as well as under berry bushes, perennial flowers) one of the nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, carbamide, potassium nitrate) at the rate of 15-20 g per 1 sq. m of soil under the plants.
Particular attention should be paid to such a pest as a leaf roll. Spraying plants is best done in the evening. Why in the evening? Young caterpillars manage to hide in young leaves during the day. By nightfall, they will go out to damage the ovaries, leaves and ... meet with pesticides.
If someone did not manage to process the peach before budding against curliness, you can turn to Horus. But they can be sprayed only after flowering. After flowering (against the honeydew and other pests on the pear), any insecticide can be used, but Fufanon, Iskra - against the gall mite.
The same drugs are used on the apple tree against the Californian scale insect, honeydew, aphids, ticks, weevils, flower beetles.
April does not spoil us with warmth now, therefore, those who did not have time can still sow such cold-resistant crops as cabbage, radishes, carrots, lettuce and others on the beds. A little later, you can sow zucchini, cucumbers, tomatoes, beans in open ground. And then pumpkin, melon, beetroot, if the soil has already warmed up to 12-13 ° C at the depth of seeding.
A few words about the flower garden. In the first half of April, such annuals as calendula, kosmeya, godetia, escholzia, and ornamental grasses are sown in open ground. At the same time, bulbous plants (tulips, daffodils, hyacinths and small-bulbous (crocuses, scillas, muscari, others)) urgently require feeding.
Let's not forget about perennials that have wintered in the ground (peonies, phloxes, irises). In the first spring feeding, all of them are given only ammonium nitrate - 20 g per 1 sq. m. But for daffodils and hyacinths, another 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium sulfate are added to nitrogen fertilizers.
Clematis, fed with saltpeter (10 g per plant), loosen the soil, mulch with sawdust. Mulching for clematis is mandatory, since the root system of these plants does not tolerate overheating of the soil.
Used materials of the newspaper "Niva Kubani" - April 3 - 2015
Pruning trees and shrubs
In spring, trees and shrubs, as well as climbing plants and roses, are usually pruned. Remove diseased, dead branches and those that are poorly positioned. Try to do formative pruning before early May or a little later. In any case, you need to hurry so that you do not have to prune the tree with already blossoming leaves. Free conifers from shelters only at the beginning of May, when the soil thaws. While loosening, feed with SOTKA Coniferous (50-60 g / m2) or other complex fertilizer.
After digging, mulch the tree trunks and other perennials, mainly shrubs. Use sawdust or fresh compost as mulch.
In April, most of the seedlings move to greenhouses or hotbeds. In the southern regions - at the beginning of April, in the more northern - at the end. It seems that having got rid of all this lush greenery at home and continuous watering, picking, supplementary lighting, rearrangements from place to place, you can finally relax and get out!
Gardeners are incredibly happy about this moment, but not for long. After a day or two, the fate of the planted seedlings no longer seems as rosy as before. Questions begin to torment: will it freeze or not burn or not?
For peace of mind, it is advisable to stock up on additional covering and shading materials in advance. Nevertheless, our forecasts for 5 days are quite realistic. And it is better to additionally cover the seedlings with breathable covering materials during a cold snap - it certainly won't be worse! By the way, covering material will also save you from excessive heat in the greenhouse. And it will save you from light stress: there was no such insolation at home.
In most of the country, in April, different types of cabbage can be planted for seedlings in a greenhouse or greenhouse. In the south, it is already planted in the ground.
Who did not have time in March, it is not too late to plant annual flowers for seedlings: carnations, levkoi, marigolds, nasturtium, purslane, ageratum and others - whoever likes what.
In April, in the south - at the beginning of the month, in the middle lane and in Siberia - at the end of the month, you can sow cucumbers, pumpkins, zucchini, watermelons and melons for seedlings. Living in the Khabarovsk Territory, we tried to plant pumpkin seedlings in the last week of the month, so that they could germinate and grow stronger with hot central heating batteries.
For those who were too early to germinate tubers, bulbs and rhizomes in March, April is the right time. Gladioli, cannes, callas, dahlias, potatoes, sweet potatoes are examined, treated if necessary, germinated. What we have bought, and it is still too early to plant, we also grow at home or in a greenhouse.
Well, and the plants that were stored all winter in the basement, it's time to pull out into the light. They are usually all awake already. The best place for them is a shady one with a temperature of about 10 degrees.
Summer resident lunar calendar from 13 to 19 July: what to do in the garden and garden
July is not the easiest time for plants that suffer from high temperatures and are also susceptible to diseases and pests.
Gardeners and summer residents should know what is forbidden to do in the garden and garden on certain days of the month.
July 13.On this day, it is recommended to prepare the soil for sowing plants: you need to weed the ground, destroy pests.
It is not recommended to pick, graft, pinch, water and fertilize plants.
On this day, it is better to pick up roots, fruits, vegetables and berries for further drying.
the 14 th of July.On this day, the waning moon begins. Planting and sowing can already be started on this day. This day is favorable for sowing cucumbers, cauliflower, greens.
You can do flowers, plant them in the ground. In general, this day is favorable for working with plants - you can cut off shrubs, feed trees, tidy up the garden area.
Today it is already possible to start canning and freezing the fruits. It is not recommended to loosen the soil in the root zone on this day.
July 15.On this day, you can plant root crops, tuberous and bulbous plants and crops.
You can do fruit trees: feed or graft. July 15 is an auspicious day for weeding.
It is also a favorable time for harvesting crops for long-term storage, preparation of grown products for future use.
July 16.A good day to prune old leaves on zucchini, cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants.
On this day, you can transplant flowers, weed the ground, spray the plants with a pest repellent.
You can also go in for picking berries and vegetables, caring for bulbous flowers.
July 17th.Favorable time for sowing and planting melons, climbing plants, strawberries, beans and peas.
You can do hilling soil, spraying plants from pests and diseases, pinching, grafting.
Planting and transplanting herbaceous plants is not recommended.
July 18.A good day to start harvesting vegetables and herbs for future use.
Favorable time for canning, salting, pickling cabbage.
You can start making homemade wine.
July 19.Favorable time for transplanting plants and harvesting.
You can do hay mowing, plant pruning, composting.
Sowing, planting and transplanting of herbaceous, woody, tuberous, climbing and ampelous plants is not recommended. It is too early to harvest roots at this time.
Work carried out in the garden and vegetable garden in April
A hot and interesting time for summer residents and gardeners begins with the onset of the first warm days.There is a lot of work in the garden and vegetable garden in April, because early spring is the ideal time for preparing the beds, sowing seeds and seedlings. The volume of the future harvest depends on the timely work carried out during this period.
Work in the garden in April
One of the most important and time-consuming work in the garden in April is tillage and preparation of the soil. In many respects, the health and comfort of vegetable gardens, their protection from pests and disease vectors, depend on it in the future.
This paragraph usually provides for the implementation of such procedures as:
- - digging of thawed and slightly dried earth (in the old days, the time favorable for digging was determined as follows: they squeezed a lump of earth in a fist and if it crumbled into large pieces on an open palm, they got to work)
- - soil cultivation from pathogens and pests (often for these purposes, places for future plantings are spilled with a hot solution of potassium permanganate)
- - application of organic and mineral fertilizers to the soil (if this procedure was not carried out in the fall).
If fertilizers were introduced into the soil in advance, then they try to do the spring digging not too deeply. Light soils are dug to a shallower depth in spring than in autumn. Heavy clay soils - to the same depth as in autumn cultivation.
During digging, wet clods of earth will necessarily break, because when they dry and petrify, it will be very difficult to cope with them. After the earth is dug up, its surface is leveled with a rake to minimize moisture loss.
In the process of preparing the soil, organic and mineral fertilizers can be added to it - especially if this was not done in the fall. The calculation of the amount of fertilizers is made based on the type and number of plants, the type of soil and the degree of its cultivation, etc.
It is extremely important to check again the planned planting plan, to determine the places for crops, taking into account the crop rotation. On this plan, the location in the garden of ordinary, steam and high ridges, steam ridges, warm pits and heaps is often noted. In the future, such a detailed scheme will help save a lot of time when arranging places for future planting and sowing.
In addition to the above events, the main spring work in the garden in April include items such as:
- - planning the placement of crops on the site, taking into account the speed of their ripening (early ripening, mid and late ripening), calculating the area for each of the crops
- - seed preparation, calibration and selection of full-weight specimens for sowing
- - sowing seedlings of vegetable plants (leeks, cabbage of all kinds), sowing seedlings of pumpkin crops for film greenhouses - watermelons, cucumbers, melons, etc.
- - sowing radish and cold-resistant green crops in film greenhouses.
Approximately in the second half of the month, it is allowed to sow seeds of cucumber, squash and squash for seedlings for their further cultivation under temporary film shelters.
At the end of April (depending on weather conditions and the relative stabilization of the above-zero temperature), you can start sowing cold-resistant crops in the open ground - radishes, radishes, spinach, carrots, beets, turnips, onions, beans, lettuce, spring garlic. Their seeds are capable of germinating at a soil temperature of + 3 ° ... + 4 ° С, and the emerging seedlings can withstand short-term and mild frosts - up to -5 ° С.
Also, spring work in the garden in April involves planting early-ripening potatoes at the end of the month (often using film shelters) and sowing mid-season cabbage seeds under a film.