Onions: growing in the garden, storage, varieties
Plant onion (Latin Allium) - a genus of perennial and biennial herbaceous plants belonging to the subfamily Onion family Amaryllis and numbering about 400 species growing in the nature of the Northern Hemisphere in the steppes, forests and meadows. In Iran, China and the Mediterranean, the onion was known 4000 years ago, but it came to Russia from the banks of the Danube at the beginning of the 12th century. All translated from Celtic means "burning" - apparently, that is why Carl Linnaeus called the bow allium. Or maybe the Latin name comes from the word halare, which means "to smell."
In culture, different types of onions are grown, but most often Allium cepa, or onions, and its many varieties, as well as shallots, onions, onions, onions, leeks and others. The vegetable onion is also interesting as an ornamental plant: landscape designers use such types of onions as inclined, Aflatunsky, Dutch, giant, Karatavsky, round-headed, Schubert, Christoph and others to decorate flower beds.
Planting and caring for onions
- Landing: sowing seeds in open ground - in the first ten days of May, planting seeds in the ground - in spring, at the same time as sowing seeds, planting wild oats in the ground - before winter (from 5 to 20 October).
- Bloom: the appearance of a flower arrow is allowed only if seeds are needed.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: dry, rich in organic matter, with a pH value of 6.5-8.0. Sour soils under onions are lime.
- Watering: on average once a week with a consumption of 5-10 liters of water for each m².
- Top dressing: when preparing the site, organic matter is introduced, before sowing or planting - complete mineral fertilizer. In the future, they are fed only if the leaves grow slowly. 2-3 additional fertilizing with organic fertilizer is allowed. The latter is when the bulbs reach the size of a walnut.
- Reproduction: seeds, sets (small onions) and wild oats (small sets).
- Pests: onion moths, flies and lurkers, sprout flies, bears, scoops (garden, cabbage and winter crops), tobacco thrips.
- Diseases: white and gray rot, jaundice, peronosporosis, fusarium, smut, rust, tracheomycosis, onion neck rot, viral mosaic.
Read more about growing onions below.
Plants of the genus have a large spherical flattened bulb covered with purple, white or reddish coats. Leaves are basal, belt-shaped or linear, fistulous, swollen stem, thick, up to 1 m in height. The flowers are inconspicuous, small, located on long pedicels and collected in umbellate inflorescences, reaching 40 cm in diameter in some species and clothed in a cover that persists until the flowers begin to open. The ovary is unilocular or three-celled. The seeds are round or angular.
Onions bear fruit in August or September. In a garden culture, onions are most often grown. In this article, we will tell you how to plant onions, how to water onions, how to fertilize onions, when to dig out onions, how to store onions and which varieties of onions for outdoor use.
Planting onions in open ground
When to plant
The onions are planted in spring, in the first ten days of May, in a well-warmed soil: if the soil temperature is less than 12 ºC, the onions begin to shoot. The principle of growing onions in the open field is as follows: in the first year you sow seeds in spring, and by autumn you grow small onions called sets, and by planting sets next year in spring, you will have full-fledged bulbs by autumn. But the fact is that it is difficult to preserve the seedlings until spring, since this requires a special temperature and humidity regime, therefore, the seedlings are sown in the ground in the year of ripening before winter.
Soil for onions
Onions are a light-loving plant, and prefers open, dry and sunny areas rich in organic matter, with a pH in the range of pH 6.4-7.9. If you have acidic soil in your garden, you will have to lime it under the onions. The place is prepared in advance: in the fall, soil for onions is dug to a depth of 15-20 cm with peat-manure compost or with rotted manure (fresh manure is harmful to onions, since it provokes the growth of greenery, which is why the bulbs do not ripen).
Dolomite flour or wood ash, or ground chalk, or limestone is added to the acidic soil. In the spring, before sowing, all you have to do is to add 60 g of superphosphate, 10 g of urea and 20 g of potassium chloride to the soil for each m² and fill the fertilizer into the soil with a rake.
Then you can plant onions
The best predecessors for onions are potatoes, cabbage, beans, peas, siderates and tomatoes, but after crops such as garlic, carrots, cucumber and onion itself, you can sow onions on the site only after three years, and even better after five years.
How to plant in the ground
Onions can be grown in three ways:
- in a two-year culture, pre-growing sevok;
- in an annual culture from seeds;
- in an annual culture with preliminary cultivation of seedlings.
Let's consider all three ways.
Growing onions from seeds in one season is possible only in areas with a long summer, and sweet and semi-sweet varieties of onions are cultivated in this way. Presowing seed preparation involves stratification or laying in wet gauze for a day for swelling. Then onion seeds are sown in the soil filled with mineral fertilizers and spilled with a solution of copper sulfate at the rate of 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water to a depth of about 1.5 cm according to the scheme 13x1.5 cm, abundantly water the area with water through a divider and cover the sowing with a film. As soon as seedlings appear, the film is removed, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving a distance of 2-3 cm between the seedlings, after which the site is mulched with humus. The next thinning is carried out in three weeks, and as a result, the distance between the seedlings should be 6-8 cm.
Seedling method is used to grow semi-sharp and sweet onion varieties. Prepared (stratified or swollen) seeds are sown in boxes 50-60 days before planting seedlings in open ground very densely to a depth of 1 cm, leaving a distance between rows of about 4-5 cm. Onion seedlings are unpretentious, but before transplanting seedlings into open ground, leaves and it is better to shorten the roots by a third.
If you live in a climate with a short and cool summer, you are unlikely to be able to grow a full-fledged turnip bulb from seeds in one season, so you will have to grow onions in a two-year culture: in the first year, grow seedlings from seeds, and in the second year - turnip. This is the best way to cultivate spicy onions. The principle of sowing seeds for sowing is the same as for growing a turnip. The next spring, at the beginning of May, the seedlings are planted to a depth of 4-5 cm in the soil with an interval of 8-10 cm and with a distance between rows of 30 cm, preparing the site as already described. But pre-sort, calibrate and warm up the planting material well in the sun for a week, otherwise it will start to shoot, and just before planting, hold the seed for 10 minutes in a solution of a teaspoon of copper sulfate in 10 liters of water.
By the way, if you are going to feast on a young green onion, planting onions in the ground is done denser - after 5-7 cm, and then you will break through the rows until there is a distance of 8-10 cm between the plants.
Planting onions before winter
In one of our articles, we already wrote about how to plant onions in the fall. Before winter, it is best to sow a small seed - oatmeal, since it does not form an arrow. If you want to eat green onions from the garden in the spring as early as possible, then plant a little large set for this before winter.
In general, planting winter onions has many advantages:
- firstly, it is not necessary to store the seedlings until spring, since it, as a rule, dries quickly if you do not create special conditions for it;
- secondly, when an onion fly appears, damaging spring plantings, a winter onion, already strong enough, is not terrible;
- thirdly, you will have an early harvest - already in July;
- fourthly, in the area freed from onions, you can still have time to grow something.
Cold-resistant varieties are usually sown before winter - Arzamassky, Danilovsky, Strigunovsky, Stuttgarten. As for the choice of a site, the requirements for it are the same as for spring sowing, except for one detail: plant onions where snow melts first and water does not stagnate. Onions are planted in the fall from October 5 to 20, under the most frost, but still in warm ground.
Before planting, the seed is sorted out, calibrated, heated and planted in grooves 5 cm deep at a distance of 6-7 cm between the bulbs. An interval of 15 cm is maintained between the rows. After the first frost - but not earlier, otherwise the onion may dry out - the area is covered with spruce branches or straw, which are harvested in the spring when the snow begins to melt.
Growing onions in open ground involves timely regular watering, after which it is imperative to loosen the soil and remove weeds from the site so that it does not strangle the young shoots of the plant. In addition, onions need additional feeding, and in cases of infection with diseases or pests, it will need to be treated with fungicides or insecticides.
It would be easier to say that onions need to be watered once a week, spending 5 to 10 liters per 1 m², but one summer is not like another: in one year it can get dry, and you will have to water the onion almost daily, in another year it can rain every other day, and the onions will start to rot from waterlogging. Therefore, just make sure that the onion does not dry out and does not suffer from excess water: with a lack of moisture, the feathers become bluish-white, and with excess, the greens acquire a pale shade. In July, watering is reduced as the bulbs begin to ripen, unless the summer is too dry.
As we already wrote, in the fall, when preparing the site, organic fertilizers are applied to the soil, and in the spring, before planting, a complex of mineral dressings. Subsequently, if the leaves grow slowly, fertilize the onion with an organic solution (a glass of bird droppings or urea, or mullein per 10 liters of water) at the rate of 3 liters per 1 m². After two weeks, feeding can be repeated, and when the bulbs reach the size of a walnut, a third feeding is carried out according to the same recipe.
Very often, beginners ask how to process onions in order to protect them from diseases. In horticultural practice, the norm is the preventive treatment of onion leaves from fungal diseases when its feathers reach 15 cm in height with a solution of copper sulfate - a teaspoon of the drug per 10 liters of water. To prevent the liquid from draining off the leaves too quickly, you can add a tablespoon of grated laundry soap to the solution.
Pests and diseases
To organize proper care, it is important to know what the onion is sick with and what insects can harm it. Of the diseases for onions, cervical, gray and white rot, as well as jaundice, fusarium, downy mildew (peronosporosis), smut, rust, mosaic and tracheomycosis are dangerous.
White rot develops on acidic soils, so try to lime the acidic soil on the site. In addition, excess nitrogen in the soil contributes to the development of the disease. Sick specimens must be removed from the garden, and before laying the bulbs for storage, they are powdered with chalk for prophylaxis.
Gray rot causes fungus, and wet and rainy weather contributes to the spread of the disease. Sick bulbs must be removed, and as a preventive measure, strict adherence to agrotechnical conditions and spring treatment of onions with a solution of copper sulfate give good results.
Onion jaundice - a viral disease that deforms flowers and forms chlorotic spots on the leaves. It is impossible to cure a viral disease, therefore, it is necessary to immediately remove from the site not only specimens with its symptoms, but also keep the beds with onions and aisles clean, removing weeds as soon as they appear. And, of course, observe the crop rotation.
Downy mildew (downy mildew) manifests itself on leaves and stems with light oblong spots with a gray bloom, which gradually turn black. Bulbs affected by peronosporosis begin to germinate early during storage, diseased plants do not form seeds. To eliminate the causative agents of downy mildew, the collected bulbs are warmed up for 10 hours at a temperature of 40 ºC before being stored. To avoid disease, make sure that the onion plantings are not too thickened.
Fusarium manifested by yellowing of the tips of the feathers, since rot and tissue death develop in the area of the bottom of the bulb. This is a fungal disease that is especially active during hot seasons. The cause of fusarium can be damage to the plant by an onion fly. As a preventive measure, warming up the seed before planting is used.
Smut symptoms they look like convex translucent dark gray stripes, on which tissues crack over time, releasing fungal spores outward, and the tips of the leaves dry. To protect the stored bulbs from disease, preheat the bulbs at 45 ºC for 18 hours before laying. As a preventive measure, remove weeds in a timely manner and do not sow different varieties of onions in the same area.
Rust manifests itself as brown-red swellings on the leaves of the onion with the spores of the fungus contained in them. As a preventive measure, heat the harvested bulbs at 40 ºC for 10 hours before storing them. Monitor the density of the beds and promptly remove specimens with symptoms of the disease from them.
Tracheomycosis is a consequence of fusarium: rot begins from the lower tissues of the bulb, gradually rising higher and spreading to the entire bulb, causing the roots to die off and yellowing of the onion feathers. Remove plants with symptoms of tracheomycosis, follow the rules of agricultural technology and crop rotation.
Onion neck rot manifests itself as a dense gray mold on the outer scales, eventually turning into black spots. The disease manifests itself after harvesting the bulbs, and subsequent symptoms appear after two months. Late varieties are especially susceptible to infection. The disease develops when onions are grown in unfavorable conditions, therefore, the main rule should be compliance with agrotechnical conditions, as well as warming up the seedlings before planting and the harvested bulbs before storage at a temperature of 45 ºC.
Mosaic turns onion leaves into flat, corrugated patches with yellow stripes, onion inflorescences become smaller, seeds become smaller, the plant stagnates. This is a viral disease, and you can only fight it prophylactically.
All fungal diseases They are easy to treat with fungicides, but before processing onions, think about the fact that bulbs tend to accumulate not only nutrients, but also poisons, so we do not recommend that you use chemicals in the fight against diseases.
Of the insect pests, the most dangerous for the plant are the onion proboscis, moth and fly, sprout fly, bear, cabbage, garden and winter scoops and tobacco thrips.
- Against the caterpillars of scoops, treatment of plants with a 1% solution of Bitoxibacillin or a half% solution of Gomelin is effective.
- Treatment with Actellik or Karbofos (0.15%) helps against tobacco thrips.
- The lurking proboscis is destroyed with systemic insecticides.
- The larvae of the sprout fly die during deep autumn digging of the site.
- The onion fly is afraid of the smell of carrots - alternate rows of onions with rows of carrots, and the onion fly will fly around your area.
- In the fight against onion moth, it is necessary to remove weeds from the site in a timely manner during the season, and at the end of the season - all plant residues, observe the rules of agricultural technology and crop rotation.
- Medvedka ordinary is lured with traps: they dig in several places a half-meter deep hole, put horse manure in them and cover with boards made of boards. When the bears climb into them to warm up, they are destroyed.
Cleaning and storage
Harvesting of onions begins in dry weather, when new leaves cease to form, feathers lodge, and the bulbs acquire the shape and color and volume characteristic of the variety. This usually happens from mid-August to early September. Try not to skip harvesting times, as the onions may regrow and become unusable. The bulbs are dug up, folded in a garden bed to dry, then they are cleaned of air-dried earth.
Before storing onions, dry them in the sun or in a well-ventilated dry place. Experienced gardeners dry onions in the oven: first at a temperature of 25-35 ºC, then for about 10 hours at a temperature of 42-45 ºC. After that, the bulbs are examined and palpated, revealing signs of decay and disease. Bulbs that are tainted or remain unhulled are not suitable for storage. After drying, the leaves of the bulbs are cut off with scissors, leaving a neck 4-6 cm long.
It is best to keep ordinary yellow onions for storage: they have a dense shell, they are not as whimsical as others. Onions grown from sets are stored better than those from seeds, as well as bitter varieties that last longer than sweet and semi-sweet ones, which are more susceptible to diseases due to too thin husks.
A dry cellar with a temperature of about 0 ºC or slightly higher is most suitable for storing onions, but potatoes, beets, carrots and other vegetables that require high humidity should not be stored nearby. They put the bulbs in boxes, bags made of fabric, nets, baskets or oversized stockings - dry air must be available to the bulbs, therefore, in order to avoid the appearance of rot, it is not necessary to put the onions in containers in a thick layer. Stored in a dry cellar or basement, onions are sorted from time to time, revealing rotten or sprouted bulbs. In order to increase the shelf life, the roots of the bulbs are burned. You can store onions in an apartment at a temperature of 18-20 ºC away from hot radiators by making them braids, but then you do not need to trim dry onion leaves before storing.
Types and varieties of onions
The most common type of onion is onion. Its history goes back more than 6,000 years - it is mentioned in ancient Egyptian papyri. It is a perennial plant up to 1 meter high with a spherical-flattened fleshy bulb up to 15 cm in diameter with outer scales of yellow, white or purple color, tubular bluish-green leaves, greenish-white flowers on long pedicels, collected in a dense globular umbellate inflorescence. The arrow of the onion is hollow, swollen, up to one and a half meters high, the fruits are spherical.
Onion varieties by taste are divided into:
- spicy and bitter, containing from 9 to 12% sugar;
- semi-sweet varieties with a sugar content of 8-9%;
- sweet varieties in which sugar is from 4 to 8%.
Sweet varieties, oddly enough, contain less sugar than bitter ones, but they also contain less essential oils, so they seem sweeter than bitter ones. Bitter, semi-bitter and spicy varieties are used to prepare first and second courses, and salads and desserts are prepared from sweet varieties.
We offer you an acquaintance with the best varieties of onions:
- Alice Craig - Perfectly stored tasty onions for all dishes with white top scales:
- Feng Globe - large onions of soft taste with yellowish scales, suitable for any dishes and long storage;
- Sturon - medium-sized juicy bulbs with yellow scales, intended for hot dishes and long-term storage;
- Stuttgarter - sweet, large bright yellow long-term storage bulbs used for preparing first and second courses;
- Long Red Florence - red, sweet and soft onions similar to shallots. Used for making sauces and fresh. Unfortunately, this bow is poorly stored;
- Red Baron - large red, pungent-tasting bulbs, suitable for long-term storage.
Of the salad onions, the most famous are the red onions Furio and Redmate; Gardsman with long white stems; the high-yielding greenhouse variety White Lisbon, and the perennial, bunch-like, highly branching Prince of Wales variety whose leaves can be used as chives.
Or pearl bow from the Mediterranean, has been known since the times of the ancient states - Greece, Rome and Egypt. It is a biennial plant with lanceolate, waxy leaves that fold along a median vein - they are similar to garlic, but much larger in size. Leeks are extremely picky about soil care and moisture.
It is grown in Central Asia and the Middle East, it is distinguished by early maturity, the color of the bulbs of this species is the same as that of onions - yellow, white and purple. In addition, shallots are multi-nest and keep well. French chefs value shallots because their onion flavors are less pronounced, and they are perfect for making sophisticated sauces.
The best varieties:
- Picasso - a variety with pink pulp, which has an excellent taste;
- Yellow moon - an early variety of shallots, resistant to shooting and perfectly stored;
- Golden Gourmet - a perfectly stored variety of excellent taste with large bulbs.
Or chives, skoroda onions are grown throughout Europe: while it is young, it is used fresh for salads, and the filling for pies is prepared from mature stems. Leaves of chives are spicy, similar to the feathers of onion, but smaller in size. Chives are frost-hardy and resistant to diseases and pests.
Grown in China for the preparation of Asian dishes, especially those that are combined with soy and fish sauce. It has flat leaves with a pungent garlic aroma. This species blooms in the second silt for the third year with beautiful honey-bearing inflorescences 5-7 cm in size with a pleasant aroma, which is why the species got its name.
It also grows in China and is used to make side dishes, salads and condiments. Pickled onions of this type are delicious, used with fatty meats. Tiered onions are considered to be the most rich in vitamins and phytoncides.
It exists in three forms - Chinese, Japanese and Korean. It is used in Asian dishes, which are cooked in a wok, in salads with seafood or fish, in marinades. Korean and Japanese onions are more delicate in flavor.
It grows naturally in Southeast Asia and is an ingredient in Korean national cuisine, and when fresh is used for soups, salads and kimchi.
Or drooping bow - perennial, common in Siberia and the European part of Russia. He got his name for the viscous juice, similar to mucus. This species is frost-hardy, resistant to diseases, and has a high taste. The leaves are linear, flat, juicy, and have a slightly pungent taste. This species does not form bulbs. They use slime as a dietary product, fresh and canned.
In addition to the species described in the article, Regel's, Suvorov's bows are also known, stalked, giant or gigantic, blue, bearish, oblique, Aflatunsky, Christophe or the Star of Persia, bowed or wild, yellow, karatavsky, round-headed or Drumsticks, Maclean's, Mole or gold, Sicilian or Honey garlic and others.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Amaryllidaceae family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Garden plants Honey plants Amaryllis Plants on L Onions Bulbous vegetables Stem
Leek - a biennial plant with a height of 40 cm to 1 m.In the first year, a root system is formed with a false white bulb up to 12 cm long and up to 8 cm in diameter.In the second year, a peduncle up to 2 m long with white or pink flowers develops, the seeds ripen in August -September. The seeds remain viable for two years.
Leek grown from seeds and seedlings. In the southern regions, seeds are sown in open ground. In the northern and central regions, they are grown from seedlings. Leek is a cold-resistant culture, demanding on moisture.
Leek grows well in areas where legumes previously grew: beans, peas, soybeans and other white cabbage, tomatoes, green manure, potatoes. Do not plant in an area where any type of onion has been grown.
Onions: growing in the garden, storage, varieties - garden and vegetable garden
MOON AND ZODIAC SIGNS
There are four phases of the moon, the strength of its energy in each of them is not the same. This is due to the different distances between the Moon and the Sun. The closer she is to the heavenly body, the more dependent on him. Since ancient times, the four phases of the moon have been associated with four elements: earth - new moon, water - first quarter, air - full moon, fire - last quarter. The beginning of the lunar cycle is the new moon. For the entire cycle, the moon passes through twelve signs of the zodiac.
The change in the phases of the moon from new moon to full moon and again to new moon occurs in 29.5 days - the lunar month, which is shorter than the solar one and is called synodic. Lunar days, on the contrary, are longer than solar ones and are 24.5 hours. And, of course, the rising and setting of the moon do not coincide with solar time.
During the period of changing the phases of the moon, we experience four lunar seasons: spring - from new moon to first quarter, summer - from first quarter to full moon, autumn - from full moon to last quarter, and winter - from last quarter to new moon. The lunar month is a miniature solar year. If during a solar year the Earth makes a full revolution around the Sun, then for a lunar year - the Moon around the Earth. This occurs as a result of the influence of the Moon's gravitational belt, which causes changes in temperature, atmospheric pressure, the Earth's magnetic field, and the earth's biosphere. Not only living organisms as a whole or their individual parts are influenced, but also the soil.
It is well known that in spring, plants acquire foliage, they grow upward. Their vital energy is greatest in summer, on the full moon. Then there is a decline, the juices rush to the roots, etc. That is why greens, berries, fruits and vegetables growing above the ground acquire the highest taste closer to the full moon, and roots - to the new moon. In the first case, "tops", and in the second, "roots" are maximally saturated with vital juices, vitamins, mineral salts.
The Moon also affects humans, animals and all living beings, depending on its phase.
Many people, especially those who are weak, have symptoms of malaise, agitation, joint pain, headaches, etc. on the days when the phases of the moon change.
The change in the phases of the moon and plants are also perceived. Therefore, for example, the energetic roots of plants, damaged during the waning moon, are difficult to recover.
Carrying out certain work in the garden and vegetable garden, taking into account the movement of the moon, without additional effort and material costs, you can increase the yield by 20% and get products of higher quality. Plants planted in a favorable period acquire immunity, are less affected by diseases and pests.
You will be rewarded for your work, the golden rules of which were: sowing seeds, planting seedlings of plants growing above the ground (tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, strawberries, onions on a feather, leaf parsley, etc.) with the growing Moon of plants with fruits and the ground ( beets, carrots, potatoes, onions for a turnip, etc.) - with the waning moon.
A feature of growing plants is that on the new moon, on its peak three days - the day before the transition from one rhythm to another, the peak day and the day following it (if it is necessary to sow when the moon is growing, then two days) nothing should be planted and sow. 11e are the best for planting vegetables, berries, bushes, etc. and peak days of changing other phases of the moon.
Do not engage in any agrotechnical activities on Satanic days, the energy in which is unfavorable for humans and for all life on Earth, including plants. They do not sow even when the moon is visible in the sky, in the first hours of its rising and setting. Relax during this time. Sow, plant when the moon is over the horizon.
The growth and productivity of plants also depend on what sign of the zodiac the moon is in at the time of landing. Astrologers in the distant past came to the conclusion that the signs of the zodiac have different effects on the growth of plants, the safety of their fruits. They subdivided signs into productive and unproductive.
Productive signs of the zodiac - this is Taurus, Cancer, Libra, Scorpio, Capricorn, Pisces. Of these, the most productive is Cancer. But it has a bad effect on fruits intended for snoring. The fruits collected in this sign, as a result of the active development of microorganisms, have poor keeping quality, they quickly rot.
Unproductive signs - Aries, Gemini, Virgo, Leo, Aquarius, Sagittarius. Of these, they are sterile, which should not be planted at all - Aries, Leo, Sagittarius, Aquarius. True, there is also a small individual peculiarity here. With the Moon in the sign of Aries, you can plant lettuce, spinach in the sign of Virgo - ornamental plants in the sign of Leo - trees and shrubs. But it is better not to take risks, but to engage in planting in productive signs.
For planting various crops, the best signs of the zodiac are recognized: tomatoes and cucumbers - Cancer, Pisces, Carrot Scorpio - Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Libra, Goat and garlic, pepper and onion - Scorpio potatoes la - Cancer, Scorpio, Taurus, Libra, Capricorn cabbage - Ra k, Scorpio, Pisces, Taurus, Libra of courgettes, pumpkins and eggplants - Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Libra.
It is recommended to plant trees immediately after the full moon with the Moon in the signs of Capricorn and Leo.
When choosing zodiac signs for planting, please do not forget about the phases of the moon. But what about when the landing time has come, and the Moon and the sign of the zodiac do not coincide, that is, either the sign is unproductive, or the Moon is in the wrong phase? In these cases, give preference to the zodiac sign.
The best period for watering crops is the time when the Moon is in the signs of Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Libra.
Plants are fed with fertilizers on a full moon or with a waning moon.
Trees should be pruned in productive signs and with a waning moon, and if it is necessary to increase the growth of shoots - with a growing moon.
Grafting and re-grafting trees in the first and second quarters with the Moon in Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Capricorn.
Cuttings are prepared for grafting trees during the growth of the moon.
They fight against pests and diseases of plants in barren signs - Gemini, Virgo, Aquarius - with the growing moon. At the same time, they are engaged in weeding the beds and destroying weeds. Weeding can also be carried out during the waning moon, but you need to be careful not to injure the root system of plants. And yet the best period for the destruction of weeds, pests, cutting of dried and diseased branches, shoots is the peak period of the new moon (three days).
An important point of work in the garden and vegetable garden is not only planting and growing plants, but also the period of fruit picking, berry picking, vegetable harvesting, which gardeners and gardeners often neglect. And on this depends the safety of the crop, its usefulness, taste, saturation with vitamins, microelements, etc.
Vegetables and fruits intended for storage in fresh and processed form are harvested during the waning moon for consumption immediately after picking - with the growing moon, closer to the full moon, when they are most saturated with juices.The best signs of the zodiac for harvesting fruits during the waning moon are Aries, Leo, Sagittarius. Unsuitable for harvesting is the period when the Moon is in the signs of Virgo, Cancer, Pisces. The fruits collected at this time quickly deteriorate, they are watery, of low taste.
Since microbes in barren signs are on the decline of biorhythms and during this period they have little activity, it is better to harvest roots in the signs of Aries, Gemini, Leo, Sagittarius, Aquarius. As for potatoes, remember: harvested under the Moon in Scorpio, it is not only poorly stored, but also loses its taste. Don't dig it up in Cancer and Pisces.
Take care of preserving the fruits during the waning moon, closer to the new moon, in the signs of Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces. Fruit should not be preserved in the sign of Virgo, as the resulting products are prone to mold.
And most importantly, remember that like humans and animals, seeds and sprouts are sensitive to your state of mind. Therefore, under stress, irritability, one should not engage in sowing seeds, planting seedlings, planting trees, bushes and berry bushes. You can ruin the case. Relax, calm down and only then communicate with all living things.
Aries is a moderately productive, if not sterile, sign. The ruler is Mars. When the moon passes through it, plant and sow only fast-growing and immediately consumed vegetables: sorrel, lettuce. You can plant onions, garlic, peppers, gooseberries. It is good to carry out weeding, spraying, cultivation at this time. You can pick fruits and root vegetables.
Taurus is an earthy, productive sign. The ruler is Venus. Moon in Taurus has a good effect on cabbage, carrots, beets, radishes, onions, potatoes, garlic, green crops, trees. It is good to plant something that will winter. Plants gain more endurance.
Gemini is an airy, barren sign. The ruler is Mercury. You can plant climbing plants, harvest medicinal herbs, cut trees, bushes, cultivate the soil.
Cancer is a watery, productive sign. The ruler is the Moon. It has an especially good effect on crops saturated with juices: cucumbers, pumpkin, zucchini. It is more expedient to use the grown products fresh. You can sow and transplant vegetables that are not intended for long-term storage, harvest herbs. Good for watering, grafting. It is best not to plant potatoes and vegetables growing in height.
Leo is a fiery, moderately productive sign. The ruler is the Sun. The sign requires special attention to the care of plants. You can weed, control pests, prune and cut trees. Only trees and shrubs can be planted with abundant watering.
Virgo is an earthly, unproductive sign. The ruler is Mercury. You can plant medicinal herbs and flowers, do weeding, cultivation.
Libra is an airy, unproductive sign. The ruler is Venus. Different plants can be planted, they will be resistant to diseases and unfavorable climatic conditions, but their productivity will be inferior to those planted in fertile signs. There he gives beauty and aroma. Especially favorable for planting plants during the waning moon.
Scorpio is a watery, productive sign. The ruler is P luton, but to a greater extent depends on the energy of Mars. Suitable for planting most crops. This sign gives good growth and strength to the stems. Plants will be disease resistant. With this sign, it is necessary to exclude the treatment of plants with pesticides. Inadmissible injury to plants. It is not recommended to harvest ai, cut and dig in trees.
Sagittarius is a fiery, unproductive sign. The ruler is Jupiter. You can sow only fast-growing vegetables, as well as vegetables with a spicy taste: onions, garlic, peppers. You can harvest fruits and roots, weed plants, cultivate the soil, but avoid using sharp tools.
Capricorn is an earthly, productive sign. Similar to Taurus, but drier. The ruler is Saturn. Plants with a well-developed root system are planted: onions, beets, carrots, potatoes, cabbage, gooseberries, currants. Plants acquire endurance, resistance to diseases and adverse conditions. Trees will be hardy and bear fruit for a long time. Grown products are well preserved in the off-season. The bulbs are planted with the waning moon.
Aquarius is an airy, sterile, sterile sign. The ruler is Uranus. During this period, it is good to deal with weeds and pests, to collect fruits and roots.
Pisces is an aquatic, productive sign. The ruler is Neptune. All plants are planted, but they require careful maintenance, the crop is poorly stored. The sign is similar to Cancer, Taurus, but is associated with a secret, therefore crops, planting should be done alone, unnoticed from "black" eyes.
Onions: growing in the garden, storage, varieties - garden and vegetable garden
Because it was not properly stored. Onions should be stored at temperatures between 4 and 12 ° C or above 18 ° C. At a temperature of 12 to 18 ° C, he lays a flower arrow. But the reason may be different: the onion was frozen during storage, or after planting the sample or large bulbs, they were frozen. Small frosts are not terrible for small seedlings, since it does not have flower buds. ... Read more "
At the same time, at the same time, the leaf curls slightly (this is especially noticeable on the leaves of garlic). In this case, you need to make a potash top dressing. Onions and garlic tolerate chlorine quite well, so you can use potassium chloride or any other potassium-containing fertilizer (3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water) - 1 each. Read more "
Onions are deficient in copper.
This most often occurs on peaty soils or when using peat to create soil. It is necessary to water the soil under the plants with a solution of "Hom" (copper oxychloride), dissolving 1 teaspoon of the drug in 5 liters of water (0.1% solution). You can also use "Oxyhom", "Polykhom", copper sulphate or Bordeaux liquid. ... Read more "
Onions are deficient in nitrogen.
In this case, the leaves have not only white tips, but they themselves have a slightly yellowish or light green color. The fastest top dressing is spraying the leaves in our evening. Read more "
How to harvest onions in rainy weather?
If the weather is rainy when harvesting the onion, then the onion must be washed after digging, immediately peeled from the husk and feathers, the roots should be cut off, and the onion should be laid out to dry in a dry, ventilated room. After 2-3 weeks, the bare bulbs will put on a new golden shirt, just one layer. These bows are well kept in a box on the kitchen cabinet. It is clean, without excess husk. Cro. Read more "
When is the best time to plant onions?
Onion sets and turnip onions are planted during the flowering of the bird cherry.
Why does the bulb rot?
Like all bulb crops, onions do not like too much moisture around the bulb, so micro-drainage should be done. To do this, before planting, you need to make trenches about 5-7 cm deep and pour a layer of sand about 2 cm thick on the bottom of each of them. Place the bulbs on the sand at a distance of 12-15 cm from each other, placing one fertilizer granule under the bottom of each bulb. Read more "
Do I need to cut off the top of the turnip before planting?
If you plant onions to get greens, then cut them off, if for a turnip, then don't.
Can I cut a feather from an onion?
No, the pen cannot be cut or removed. If you rob the onion, taking the feather from it, you will not get a large onion. All plants first, as in a pantry, lay a supply of nutrients in the leaves, from which this supply is then taken to grow fruits, bulbs, root crops, and so on. By taking the feather from the onion, you force the onion to grow again to fill your pantries, and the bulbs are delayed. For greens, you need to grow onions separately, from. Read more "
Bessonovsky onions, like many other varieties of onions, can be grown in different ways:
- through seedlings
Seedling method is more time consuming, and sowing with seeds is the cheapest. But if the local onion set of the Bessonovsky variety is grown from seeds, then it will not be an overhead for the budget either. But in any case, a vegetable from your garden is much tastier. The main thing is that it does not contain any harmful substances, because most gardeners do not use chemicals on the site.
Growing Bessonovsky onions from seeds
Growing onions from seeds is the cheapest and easiest way to get a full harvest. For sowing, you will need high-quality planting material, which is called nigella. You need to buy seeds from trusted suppliers or get them yourself at home.
Although green onion needles are frost-resistant, you should not rush to sowing, you can do it only after setting positive temperatures
On a dug-up and well-fertilized bed, grooves are made with a depth of 2-3 cm at a distance of 15-20 cm. The seeds are placed in increments of 1.5 cm. Sprinkle with loose soil. Until shoots appear, you need to water the bed between the grooves.
It is easy to get a harvest from the set of Bessonovsky onions. It does not have to be planted as in seed beds. But before winter, it is not recommended to plant sets of this variety: the onions will simply freeze out.
The heads are planted on fertilized ridges to a depth of 4 cm; the distance between the rows should be at least 25-30 cm.
Karantansky leeks are grown from seeds that are planted at home or directly in open ground. A more reliable way is to obtain onion seedlings. The culture requires abundant watering, loosening the soil and applying fertilizers.
The variety is attractive for its good taste, which remains fresh even after processing. Leeks are rich in minerals and vitamins, useful for vitamin deficiency, exhaustion, overwork.
There are several ways to store leeks.
- In the basement, in a box or bucket filled with a 5-centimeter layer of wet sand, the stalks of leeks are placed vertically in rows, pouring a layer of sand between them 15-20 cm thick.The storage temperature should be in the range from +1 to -1 0 С , air humidity 80-85%.
- In the refrigerator in the vegetable storage section. The best plants are selected, cleaned, the roots are cut, leaving 1-2 cm, and the leaves are cut, removing the yellowed and dried parts, and cooled. Then quickly packed in perforated plastic bags. It can be stored in this form for up to 4 months.
Leeks keep well in freezers. It is cleaned of the upper leaves, cut off the roots, washed, cut into rings, placed in freezer bags and in the freezer.
A knot for memory. Frozen leeks do not lose their properties.
The stems and leaves are cut into any shape and dried in an oven or electric dryer. Store in hermetically sealed jars. Used when adding to soups, and for sauces, gravies and for breading, dried leaves are ground.