How to get three crops of vegetables in a season
The hotbed worked all summer
Last year, completely unexpectedly for myself, I became the winner of the "Summer Season" competition and received from the firm "Life in the Country" greenhouse.
We must pay tribute to the organizers of the competition - they kept the intrigue until the last moment, and therefore, when almost all the participants were awarded, and they were very experienced and respectable gardeners, and only the main prize remained, I decided that they simply forgot about me - I did not even dream that I will become its owner.
Honestly, when deciding to participate in the competition, I did not think at all about the main prize - if only because we already had two greenhouses on the site, and, it seems, the third was useless. But, answering questions and preparing for the new season, I realized what I lack for happiness in gardening life - a hotbed!
The fact is that I prepare seedlings of vegetable and flower crops myself, and if available vegetable conveyor, which we arrange in our beds, it is required until the end of July. In addition, I grow many flowers, including perennial, which can be planted in open ground often only in the fall, but where should they be kept before that? I am already silent about the various cuttings, cuttings, processes that appear on the farm throughout the summer and also require space for growing.
When I went to classes at the Botanical Garden, our wonderful lecturer Yuri Borisovich Markovsky, speaking about the rooting of some plants, often suggested: "Yes, stick them in a cucumber greenhouse - they will take root there wonderfully," but by the end of the lecture cycle he remarked: "However, if you put it all there, then where will you be grow cucumbers? "So - the only way to save cucumber and other greenhouse plantings from the abundance of tenants is to make yourself a hotbed.
Of course, many will consider the creation of such a structure a pampering - not everyone will be as lucky as I am, which means that you need to make a frame, and you need to buy a film, in short, is the game worth the candle? What can you answer to a similar question? Naturally, if the gardener is only engaged in growing vegetables that are planted in spring or early summer and sit in the beds until the end of the season, and from flower crops he prefers annuals, then a hotbed for him is not so necessary, but for everyone else?
First of all, the nursery is very convenient for everyone who is fond of seed reproduction of perennials. It's no secret that planting material is quite expensive, but if you suddenly wanted to make a border along the path from geyhera or you need delphinium wall along the fence, can you imagine how many plants you will have to buy and how much to spend? Of course, only growing from seeds can help in this case.
In addition, the seeds of many plants are much easier to get than cuttings, and shipping them is cheaper. Unfortunately, many perennials develop rather slowly, the seedlings of some species are very small, and, of course, it will not be possible to plant them immediately in a permanent place - first you need to let them grow. Even a seedbed will not help here - it is good for growing rooted cuttings or for fast-growing plants with large shoots.
Now about the benefits of a seedling greenhouse for vegetable growers. Our plots are small, and many cannot afford to cultivate large gardens with dignity, so it turns out that it is more convenient to take several crops from a small area. But the summer in our area is short, and in order for the plants to please us with products several times per season, we have to grow seedlings, reducing as much as possible the time the culture stays in the garden. After all, the area required for the development of seedlings is small, it has enough space in a box or other container, and already grown plants will be planted in the garden, which will yield the harvest in the shortest possible time.
Thus, even here you can get up to three harvests from one area. But in order for such a conveyor to work properly, it is necessary to have grown seedlings of another by the time of harvesting one crop. Of course, vegetables such as root celery, peppers, tomatoes, early cabbage varieties, leek and onion they have to start growing from nigella in an apartment, but then, as soon as the weather permits, they all move to a nursery. Last year, cold-resistant onions, cabbages, salads settled in the nursery in the last days of March, however, we have heating means in case of frost. And the last seedlings of daikon, Chinese and Peking cabbage went to the beds in the second half of July.
With such a seal crop rotation we get such sequences of vegetables. For example, as soon as the soil will ripen, we plant spinachfollowed by seedlings of soil standard tomatoes, after which radish will still have time to grow at the end of summer. Or, first we sow early carrots for summer use, and behind it, in the second half of June, we plant beet seedlings for winter storage. Or - radish, followed by seedlings of early potatoes, after harvesting which we plant seedlings of daikon or Asian (Peking, Chinese) cabbage. In general, if you think and experiment, you can find many options. Here everything becomes fundamental - both the soil conditions of the site, and the specific tastes of family members, and the possibilities of caring for the plants, and the availability of conditions for storing the vegetables obtained.
I would like to share my experience in planning and organizing a family garden. I want to say right away that I got most of the useful ideas, principles, technologies from the books of N. Kurdyumov, T. Ugarova, N. Zhirmunskaya, as well as from articles in various periodicals. But no matter how well the book is written, applying any advice on your own land makes adjustments, that's what I want to tell you about.
First of all, we streamlined the territory of our garden - we laid out the beds and outlined them with a croaker. The soils on our site are clayey, before a spruce forest grew here, the fertile layer is small, with any digging out the poisonous podzol is turned out, so the beds had to be lifted, or rather, to create them from compost, grass, manure and any organic matter that could be found. For potatoes, a separate plot was prepared (about 0.25 ares), in addition, the garden includes two greenhouses 6 meters long, each with two beds. After we decided on the size of the garden, the question arose of what to plant on it. Of course, each owner has his own preferences, but I want to say about our considerations in this regard.
First of all, we refused to grow cabbage for pickling, because our agricultural enterprises now grow it perfectly, in the season it is very cheap, and we have stopped taking up space for it in the garden. But with the early, which we collect in June, we are busy, despite the difficulties with growing seedlings, because in the summer the whole family lives in the country, and early vegetables are more than relevant for us. It's the same with potatoes - we grow very early (which we dig in June) with seedlings, in addition, we plant a few early varieties, but in the usual way, we buy the rest in the fall, when potatoes are cheap. From other crops, we plant first of all everything that gives early production - radish, spinach, watercress, perennial bows, leaf salad, kohlrabi, early ripening varieties of turnips, in the greenhouse "under the barrel" to the tomatoes we sow early carrots.
Like any gardener, I have my favorites - these are Bell pepper, carrot and pumpkin - I always grow them, even if it is not profitable, simply because I like these plants, however, I usually do not have to complain about their harvest.
In addition to the listed vegetables, parsley, celery, peas, dill (in the company with cucumbers), beets (ordinary and Swiss chard), parsnips, sweet corn (a favorite children's delicacy), onions grow in our garden, swede , beans, Chinese, Japanese and Chinese cabbage, spicy herbs (cilantro, catnip, hyssop, cumin, etc.). We plant a little zucchini - they quickly become boring, and when stored, the pumpkin is much tastier. We plant radishes, turnips and daikons quite a lot - they do not leave our table almost all year round. Well, in greenhouses, in addition to the peppers already mentioned, tomatoes of all kinds of colors and sizes and cucumbers reign, to which more exotic neighbors often settle - eggplant, melons other. As I already mentioned, we are always trying to grow something early, so we plant some of the cucumbers with seedlings, and some with seeds (their fruits will go to salting), in addition, we grow several bushes of overgrown (10-12-week-old) tomato seedlings - with their red fruits can be obtained as early as June.
And finally, a few more words about the nursery, which has now firmly taken its place in the gardening industry. In our small greenhouse, we have installed tables with lattice top, on which there are boxes and other containers with seedlings and crops. Moreover, on the one hand, the tables are stationary, and on the other, at the beginning of June they are removed, because at this time most of the seedlings go to a permanent place and space is freed up for another garden bed under the roof. In early spring, the ends of the nursery were covered with two layers - a non-woven covering material and a regular film. After the threat of frost passed, we removed the film, which significantly improved the thermal regime of the greenhouse.
And in conclusion, I would like to once again thank all the firms that provided prizes for the participants of the "Summer Season" competition, since all their gifts did a great job on our sites last season, and I hope they will work more.
N. Aleksandrova, gardener, winner of the "Summer Season" competition, 2003
First crop in the greenhouse
To take the first crop as early as possible, you need to prepare the greenhouse for the season at the end of autumn. To do this, the top layer of soil is removed from the ridges (on a shovel bayonet or slightly less), after which the greenhouse is washed, disinfected and aired. To replace the soil that can be taken out into the garden, the same volume of compost and rotted manure is placed in the ridges, dug up and leveled. You can immediately apply complex mineral fertilizers to the soil so that in spring the land is completely ready to receive seeds and seedlings. In winter, you need to come to the site several times (preferably after snowfalls) in order to clean the snow from the roof and walls, and at the same time throw it into the greenhouse. So in the spring, the soil will quickly become saturated with moisture, and you will not have to arrange additional watering.
In the new season, the preparation of the greenhouse begins in March, as soon as the first sunny days come. The soil on the ridges needs to be covered with a black film or geotextile so that it warms up faster. Usually, in such conditions, on April 1, you can already start sowing the first crops.
Plants such as radishes, onion sets, spinach, lettuce and head salads, kohlrabi cabbage, dill, arugula and other green crops are not afraid of spring low temperatures and short daylight hours. After sowing, the soil should be watered with a growth stimulant, for example, HB-101 at the rate of 2 drops per 1 liter of water, and covered with spunbond. In the next couple of weeks, it is enough to regularly (every 2 days) irrigate with warm water so that the ground under the shelter does not have time to dry out. You can harvest the first crop as early as May 9 or a few days later.
For the fastest ripening, salads are best planted with seedlings, not seeds.
When to plant potatoes
Potatoes are usually planted in open ground from early April to late May in well-warmed soil and warm weather. The soil temperature should be ten to twelve degrees Celsius. Planting depth of potatoes is about ten centimeters.
The optimal planting time in central Russia can be determined by folk signs if you watch the trees. The signal for planting potatoes is birch leaves when they grow the size of a small coin.
Seed potatoes in winter and spring are sorted out once a month by removing spoiled tubers and cleaning the sprouts. The sprouting of potatoes retains the nutrients in the tubers, which are necessary for good emergence of the crop. Before planting, a preventive spraying of tubers with a phytosporin solution is carried out to exclude fungal diseases and treatment with growth stimulants. And also sprout potatoes before planting.
Potatoes are planted according to the scheme at a distance of 40 centimeters from each other.
The row spacing is 50 - 70 centimeters. This planting pattern ensures good plant nutrition and sufficient sunlight for optimal plant development. After the end of planting work, care is needed to obtain a high-quality high yield.
The blueberry harvest takes place from early summer to early autumn. First of all, the timing of harvesting depends on the type of plant. In addition, blueberry itself is one of those plants on which the fruits ripen unevenly. So it turns out that every week and a half, starting from June, the owner of blueberry bushes has to collect dark blue berries covered with a bluish bloom.
The dark purple fruits removed from the bush will actually ripen after a week. It is strictly forbidden to pick berries, otherwise they can be easily damaged. To prevent this from happening, each fruit must, as it were, be rotated around its axis, holding the berry with two fingers - thumb and forefinger. If the crop is provided with zero temperature, it will remain fresh for about a month and a half.
There is another effective way to keep blueberries fresh for a long time.
- We take glass bottles with a wide neck and rinse them thoroughly under running water.
- We heat the oven and send a dry container into it for calcination within two hours.
- In the meantime, we clean the blueberry berries from adhering leaves, twigs and other debris.
- We put the harvest in glass vessels, cork them with corks, and fill them with candle wax on top.
Rest assured: bottles filled with berries and stored in a dark, well-ventilated room will keep the crop fresh for several months in a row.
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The comb-bed, as one of the types of high beds, is suitable for the following soils:
• wet soil with a close (up to 1 m) groundwater table
• clay soil with spring water standing
• shallow (up to 15 cm) arable fertile layer
• there is no possibility to carry out normal drainage of the site
• the soil becomes waterlogged in summer and autumn during heavy rains.
In areas with a close location of groundwater, a high bed prevents the formation of "swamps" and allows you to get a good harvest.
The device of the ridges improves the heating and ventilation of the soil, ensures the drain of excess water. In addition, by stringing the ridges, it is possible to increase the fertile layer due to the soil removed from the furrows and paths. It is best to plant seedlings of tomatoes, cabbage, eggplants, cucumbers on the ridges.
For the device of the ridge, they dig up the soil and cut with a shovel or a hoe ridges 50–70 cm wide with a slope at a slope of 45–50 °.
The height of the ridges from the bottom of the furrow can be from 20-25 cm or more, and their width in the upper part is about 18 cm. For beets, carrots, parsley, the ridge is leveled to a width of 30 cm.
The edges of the ridge will dry out strongly in drought, therefore, on light soil, its slopes are made gentle, on heavy soils, steep ridges are possible.
The rows and grooves on the ridges are for the most part located longitudinally in their direction. On a flat surface, the ridges are oriented from north to south for thermophilic crops, for all others - from south-east to north-west. On gentle slopes, the ridges are located across the slope.
The ridges are best cut in the fall when digging the soil. Before sowing, the soil will be sufficiently compacted, capillarity will be restored in it. The soil under the ridge should be compacted so that it does not sink under the weight of an adult.
In spring, snow melts faster on the ridges, the ground warms up earlier and the vegetation of plants begins. The soil on top of the ridge is loosened just before sowing seeds or planting seedlings. If necessary, the quality and height of the ridge are corrected. Between the ridges in early autumn, you can grow those crops that will later be used as mulch and green fodder.
In the dry season, the ridges, especially along the edges, dry out quickly - this is their significant drawback. Therefore, they are not suitable for places with dry climates and low rainfall.
It is beneficial to plant potatoes in the ridges, the soil warms up faster here and planting can begin earlier. Sown in the ridges, many garden plants suffer less from recurrent frost, since their seedlings appear later. When planting potatoes in the ridges, you no longer need to dig up the soil and huddle the plants three times.
Since the ridge moves to a new place every year, the soil is less depleted. In winter, the ridges freeze well, so there are almost no pests left in them. It is important that the tubers in dry years in the ridges are larger, and the yield is higher when compared with potatoes planted on a flat surface.
The combs are also good for planting seedlings of various garden plants. To do this, pits are made in each groove directly under the ridge using a cylindrical metal probe with a diameter of 12 cm.
Seedlings are planted into the holes formed, removing the 2 lower leaves, sprinkle with soil and compact it a little with your hands. If not enough fertilizer was applied for digging, then you can add humus or compost to each planting hole.
The distance between the planting holes depends on the plant variety:
• undersized varieties are planted on both sides of the groove, placing the plants in a checkerboard pattern at a distance of 35–40 cm
• medium-sized varieties are planted on one side of the groove at a distance of 35–40 cm
• tall varieties are planted on one side of the groove at a distance of 45-50 cm.
The stem of the planted plant will grow from under the very ridge, if you sprinkle it with soil a little, then additional roots will form on it. The ridges successfully protect the plants from the spring winds. In addition, the ridges heated by the sun retain heat longer, so the planted plants quickly take root, grow well and give a harvest 5-7 days earlier.
The bottom of the groove is well leveled during formation so that during irrigation and fertilization, the liquid is evenly distributed along its entire length, since watering is carried out directly into the groove. The ends of each groove are raised and trimmed to the height of the ridges.
Immediately after planting the plants, watering is carried out with a hose directly into the groove with a gentle stream so that the water does not wash out the soil. You can also place a two-layer cloth bag over the end of the hose to contain the force of the jet.
The ridges retain moisture for a long time, so the roots of plants are well nourished, which significantly reduces the risk of fungal diseases. The property of the ridges to retain moisture for longer allows for longer intervals between waterings.
Planting plants in the ridges makes it easier to feed: a solution of organic or mineral fertilizers can be poured directly into the groove, so all plants are fed evenly.
Digging up the soil
The preparation of the beds-ridges begins with the autumn or spring digging of the soil simultaneously with the introduction of the necessary fertilizers. Each season, the comb is re-formed using a large hoe. During the season, there is no need to dig up the ridges, and therefore the weeds are removed by hand, since it is difficult to use a hoe as the plants grow.
When caring for plants or harvesting, it is convenient to move along the grooves, so that the ridges remain loose.
Low-growing varieties of tomatoes growing in the ridges do not need to be tied up, they rely on the ridges themselves. Medium-sized and tall varieties of tomatoes are tied up, driving in stakes along the edges of the ridges near the groove after about 1-1.5 m. Then, a wire is pulled between the stakes at a height of 50-60 cm and bushes are already tied to it.
A mound-shaped bed is another type of tall beds - usually an earthen mound 80–90 cm high in its central part and up to 190–200 cm wide. Everyone makes the length of the beds according to their wishes and the allowable area of the site. Along the edges of the beds, which seem to slide to the surface of the ground, they lay tiles or make a small border so that it does not creep.
The advantages of such a bed are in the loose structure of the soil, high content of nutrients - no need to apply additional fertilizers, uniform illumination of the sun and a temperature increased by 6-8 ° C inside the bed due to the slow decomposition of organic material. This allows some early crops to be planted long before regular beds are ready for planting.
In addition, hilly ridges, warm from the inside, warm up rather quickly in spring, which gives them a significant advantage in cold regions.
Another advantage of the mound is that its lower layers are well ventilated. Airing is favorable for the growth of roots and the development of the soil microenvironment, contributing to the rapid decomposition of organic matter.
Also, there is no stagnation of water on such a bed, due to the loose structure of the structure, moisture passes into the inner layers of the earth, where it feeds the roots of plants. In addition, the loose structure of the bed, like a sponge, absorbs rainwater, which is stored in the deep layers of the ridges and in the lowlands between them. But the hills themselves dry out quickly at the same time, forming dry and humid places.
The arrangement of hilly beds in a small area gives a significant increase in its productive area. The combination of high hilly and high flat ridges provides many intriguing options for gardening and landscaping. If necessary, with the help of high hilly ridges, you can create a windbreak belt by placing the ridges against the direction of the wind. It is also possible to slow down the freezing of the upper layers of the soil.
Usually, a hillock is laid in the fall so that it has time to settle down over the winter. A bed with a complex structure is laid out from several layers like a high bed.
First, sod and topsoil are removed from a designated area up to 190 cm wide, setting them aside. They dig the ground to a depth of 25–30 cm and line the bed of the future bed with a fine-mesh metal mesh to prevent rodents from entering. Various large wood waste is poured over the mesh along the middle line: brushwood, twigs and twigs with a layer of 40–45 cm and 60 cm wide. A free space 60 cm wide is left between the embankment and the long sides of the bed, the same distance is left to the end side of the bed.
Then poured in layers in the middle of the base:
• sawdust, bark, shavings with a layer of 15–20 cm
• all kinds of plant residues and sod with a layer of 20-25 cm
• unripe compost, food waste, dry leaves or straw mixed with rotted manure in a layer of 20–25 cm
• rotted compost and garden soil with a layer of 15–20 cm.
When laying, each layer is evenly moistened, but not flooded with water. The required degree of moisture can be determined as follows: firmly squeeze a handful of damp earth or other material that makes up the garden bed, while water should seep through your fingers (Fig. 2).
The soil is not compacted so that the root system of plants develops freely. The branches remaining after cutting the trees are laid along the beds, fixing them.
In practice, a garden bed is like a compost heap, inside of which organic components and woody core gradually rot, turning into humus. Therefore, such a bed should be high enough to increase the flow of oxygen inside, without which the process of decomposition of organic matter is impossible. In a flat bed, too slow decomposition of organic matter causes premature rotting of plants.
Figure 2. Scheme of the device of a high hilly bed: 1 - wire mesh 2 - large wood waste 3 - sawdust, bark, shavings 4 - a layer of plant residues and sod 5 - peat with the addition of manure 6 - garden soil mixed with rotted compost
For the winter, a high bed is covered with a thick layer of mulch from any organic material. In the spring, before the snow melts, the bed is covered with a film, which accelerates its warming up.
On a hilly bed, zones of a special microclimate are formed. They create good conditions for various plants due to their location in relation to the course of the sun and the direction of the wind. Therefore, a thickened planting of plants is not dangerous on a hilly bed, since they are provided with good illumination on the gently sloping sides. A variety of crops are planted on a hillock bed: strawberries, cucumbers, peppers, tomatoes, eggplants, etc.
On such a bed, it is easy to organize a crop rotation of crops:
• in the first year, place first early crops, then zucchini, cucumbers and pumpkin
• in the second year - kohlrabi cabbage, cauliflower and tomatoes
• in the third year - eggplants, carrots, peppers and celery
• in the fourth year - parsley, radish, salad crops and spinach.
The disadvantage of a hilly bed is that plants that tend to accumulate nitrates cannot be planted on it in the first year. In the first year, nitrogen will be released as much as possible during the decomposition of organic matter. Therefore, it is best to leave the planting of cabbage, chard, radish, lettuce and head lettuce, beets and spinach for the 4th year after the creation of the garden.
In the spring, on the 5th year after the arrangement, the hilly bed must be fed with compost 2-3 cm thick and planted with legumes. In the 6th year, you will need to re-do a hilly bed in a different place.
Plants grown in a high hilly bed need more water than those grown on a regular flat bed.
For irrigation of a hilly bed, plastic bottles, cylinders and flasks are filled with water, placing them downside down at a distance of 60–80 cm from each other. The containers are slightly buried in the ground so that they do not fall. The frequency of filling the containers with water depends on the weather: if the weather is dry, you will have to fill the containers every 2-3 days. In any other situation, the water can be enough for 8-10 days.
Digging up the soil
In subsequent years, the top layer of fertile soil is poured onto the garden bed. A hilly bed does not need to be dug up either in the fall or in the spring. It is enough just to loosen it with a rake from above. Only in the third year, before planting vegetables, you can add a little ready-made compost.
Along the edges along the bed, a path is made of tiles, which facilitates the approach to the bed and its processing. Such a bed will last 5–6 years, during which time the layer of foliage, plant debris and woody core will completely rot. A layer of fertile soil, 35 cm thick, enriched with humus is formed on site.
High beds are becoming more common among gardeners. A special type of such a garden element is a high, stationary bed fixed in one place. It is an elongated or square or other shaped box without a bottom, corresponding to the dimensions of an overground garden bed. The box-box is filled with organic matter in layers: various plant waste (grass, straw, foliage) are piled down, then peat, rotted manure or compost are placed, fertile garden soil from the aisles is put in the top layer. If desired, you can spill the contents of the bed box with herbal infusions.
The need for such a bed is dictated, first of all, by the need for freer access when processing row spacings and growing vegetable plants by older people, since there is no need to bend low to the ground. Tall box beds are suitable for areas with rocky and barren soil.
A high bed can be used to grow most crops: cucumbers, tomatoes, strawberries, salads, etc. The walls of a high stationary bed-box, which has been in one place for several years, is made of bricks, logs, beams, boards, stone and slate. Tall, tightly knit beds have certain advantages:
• compost and mulch are placed in a box in several layers, and also periodically added from above, so the necessary organic substances constantly enter the ground
• a constant and optimal temperature for the vital activity of soil microorganisms is maintained in the box-garden
• inside the box it is easier to create and maintain a moist soil microclimate, comfortable for the life and effective work of microorganisms that create humus
• the microclimate of the bed-box provides the plants with the necessary nutrition and protects them from overheating in the hot season
• the mulch covering the soil surface is not carried away by the wind, it is better retained in the bed box
• in the soil of the box-bed there is a minimum amount of weeds, so unnecessary efforts are not expended on weeding
• here you can get the composition of the soil that is suitable for specific plants in a given bed.
To protect the wooden frame and other parts of the box-bed fencing from prolonged contact with permanently damp ground, you can use a dense plastic wrap, attaching it with a stapler.
A high bed solves many problems in those places where melt or rainwater periodically floods the site. To save the planting from this will help to raise the bed only 15-25 cm above the path.
The design of any high bed is very simple - it is just a box without a bottom, knocked down from any material. The walls of a relatively low bed are made of long wooden planks, even old ones, which prevents the raised bed from spreading. Boards are placed vertically or obliquely inward at any angle. For repeated use, the boards must be equipped with fasteners.
It is important that the bed of the high bed is not isolated from the ground on which the container stands, so the enclosure of the bed must not be installed on concrete slabs. In this case, worms and other beneficial soil organisms will freely penetrate into the garden and activate the process of organic decomposition.
A bed raised to a small height will require relatively little land. For early and early ripening vegetables, a not very thick (20–30 cm) layer of fertile soil is needed.
The width of such a bed can be 60–90 cm with a distance between the beds of 60–80 cm. The length is arbitrary. In areas with dry summers, the height of the portable bed is usually small, with sides protruding 15–20 cm above the surface of the garden area.
If possible, it is better to place a bed with a portable frame from west to east, and stretch the sowing rows across. In this case, optimal illumination of the plants is achieved.
The design of a high bed assumes the mandatory presence of a frame and a body, that is, walls, so that the soil does not creep outside the bed. This is the main difficulty of its arrangement.
It is convenient to make a removable portable frame, which will allow you to move the garden bed to a new place in the future in case of reorganization of the garden.The removable frame is made of sturdy wooden blocks, placed on the outside so that they do not have contact with the ground. A durable frame is made of metal corners or special metal profiles, connecting the structure in the corners by welding or powerful bolts.
Alternatively, the use of prefabricated fences and borders made of galvanized steel with a polymer coating. They can be of different colors and almost any geometric shape. With such a fence, the site looks neat and picturesque.
The advantages of such a fence are its relatively long service life. But we must remember that being in the soil, the metal quickly rusts and turns into dust. In hot weather, the metal heats up strongly and causes strong overheating of the soil. In addition, thin metal plates do not have sufficient stability, therefore, various additional parts are used to strengthen the fence. The sharp edges of the metal sides can injure your hands, so you have to isolate them.
When constructing a frame, it should be borne in mind that damp earth is very heavy. It exerts significant pressure on the walls of the bed, expanding them in the middle. So that the long walls of the box do not collapse or deform under the pressure of the soil, after 1–1.5 m, screeds are made from a tightly stretched thick wire, cable or metal profile, strip. When constructing a wooden frame, crossbars are made from scraps of board, giving the bed the necessary rigidity. After that, the frame is sheathed with slate or old unnecessary boards 3-5 cm thick.
If the boards are 6000 × 150 × 30 mm in size, then 3 such boards go to one bed: 2 boards form long sides, and the third must be cut into pieces of the required length for crossbars. The length of the crossbars depends on the intended width of the bed. However, it is possible to construct beds of various sizes from a wide variety of boards. It is convenient to fasten wooden parts with 95 mm self-tapping screws. Previously, holes of the required diameter are drilled in the boards, where the caps of the self-tapping screws will enter. If the boards for the walls of the bed body are made of solid wood, then to facilitate screwing in with a thin drill, those boards are drilled into which the tip of the self-tapping screws enter.
A tree, even impregnated with all kinds of antiseptic agents, rots quickly enough when it comes into contact with the ground. Therefore, the wooden frame, despite the impregnation, will last no longer than 3-4 years. The linseed oil impregnation will increase the service life of the wooden frame. Ferrous metal also rusts quickly when it comes into contact with soil. Of course, this has some benefits for plants - they receive the necessary replenishment with iron salts, but the frame in such conditions will not last long.
Therefore, it is imperative to insulate the inner walls of the case with a thick plastic film, PVC film, scraps of linoleum, roofing material and other similar materials. The strip of film should be wide enough so that it completely overlaps the height of the plank walls of the portable bed body and goes down a little.
The most adventurous gardeners also use the aisles. Having strengthened the sides of the beds with boards and laid removable shields on top of them, they always get a dry and clean path between the beds. And under the shade of the shields, mushrooms grow quite successfully.
The selected area for the garden bed is precisely marked according to the dimensions of the portable housing, cleaned of debris and rhizome weeds. To improve the drainage properties of the soil, they dig up this place and remove the top fertile layer, setting it aside by 10-15 cm.
A bed or flower bed with a portable body is installed on the previously dug and leveled ground. The assembled frame can be easily carried by two adult men. Putting the frame on the dug-up ground, it is slightly buried and leveled, gently hitting with a sledgehammer. Having installed the portable case in its place, a metal mesh is laid to protect it from mice, moles and other rodents.
A layer of coarse permeable material about 10 cm thick is thrown over the mesh: slightly chopped branches after pruning trees, large wood debris, brushwood, tree bark, straw, algae and fallen leaves, garden compost, rotted manure or bird droppings with straw are placed on top (used litter from the chicken coop) with a layer of about 20 cm.If necessary, repeat the laying of both layers in succession twice, since the fillers in a high bed settle under their own weight. A 10-centimeter layer of fertile soil is poured on top, removed before installing the case. The layers are not mixed when filling the beds.
After filling, the garden is abundantly watered and left alone for several days - the soil in it should be slightly compacted. After that, seedlings are planted on the garden bed or seeds are sown. If the planting of plants is not expected in the near future, then the bed is covered with black garden material and carefully fixed at the edges. Also, be sure to close the garden bed prepared in the fall until spring.
For faster plant growth and better moisture retention, you can also cover the bed with black plastic film, it provides better warming up of a tall bed. Plants are planted by cutting cross-shaped holes in the film.
Usually, such a bed can last 6-10 years, during which time there will be a complete decomposition of its woody foundation. Then the contents of the beds must be leveled right there, and a new bed must be arranged in another place.
With the help of a portable cucumber cultivation bed, it is possible to improve the soil on the site. To do this, in the fall, outline the location of the future cucumber bed, remove all the soil to a depth of about 30–35 cm, that is, to the clay litter. Fill the hole tightly with all plant waste: stems, tops, grass, leaves. Tamp the packing tightly and cover with removed soil. Install a portable bed frame so that the soil does not crumble between the rows. If necessary, apply all the required fertilizers, depending on the fertility of the soil on the site. If during the winter the height of the beds decreases, in the spring it is necessary to add more fertile soil to the desired height. Plant cucumber seedlings in the spring and grow them as usual. In the fall of next year, repeat all these actions in a new place. So you can gradually increase the fertile soil layer on the site and significantly increase the humus content in it.