Sowing vegetables in open ground in April: scheme, timing, care of crops
For gardeners and truck farmers, April is a troublesome month: you need to prepare the soil for sowing seeds, rake the garden beds dug up in the fall with a rake, and those that were not cultivated in the fall should be dug up with the introduction of ash, superphosphate and compost into the soil. In April, flower seedlings that have grown on the windowsill are planted in the open ground, as well as seedlings of tomatoes and seedlings of peppers - vegetable seedlings that have grown stronger and hardened so that there is no need to fear for it. In April, it is time to sow the seeds of cold-resistant crops in open ground.
In this article, we will talk about what vegetables can be sown in the garden in April, when and how vegetable seeds are planted, and we will also inform you about April auspicious days for planting vegetables.
Vegetable planting dates in April
In the first half of the month, if the air temperature in the garden stably freezes at around 10 ºC or higher, and the topsoil also warms up to above-zero temperature, such vegetables are planted in the ground: melon, watermelon, onion, garlic, peas, watercress, etc. other types of lettuce, beets, pumpkin, squash and squash, carrots, corn, sunflowers, spinach, cilantro, dill, radishes and potatoes. Towards the end of the month, it is time to plant cold-resistant vegetables, such as ground tomatoes, for example.
We offer you the dates on which, according to the lunar calendar, it is best to sow the seeds of certain vegetables into the ground:
- watermelon and melon - April 8 after 9.30, April 9 to 12.30, April 12 after 11.00 and April 13 all day;
- beans, beans and peas - April 8 after 9.30, April 9 before 12.30, April 10 after 9.00, April 11 and 12 after 11.00, 13, 17 and 18 after 15.30;
- onions on a feather - April 12 after 11.00;
- salads - April 8 after 9.30, April 9 until 12.30, April 10 after 9.00, April 11 and 12 after 11.00, 13, 17 and 18 after 15.30, April 19 after 14.30;
- beets and carrots - April 1 to 19.40, April 4.5 to 13.30, April 23, 24 after 15.45, April 25, 26 after 18.50, April 27, 28, 29 after 10.00;
- sowing on a turnip - April 1 before 19.40, April 24 after 15.45, 25, 26 April after 18.50, 27, 28, 29 April after 10.00;
- nigella for sevok - April 1 until 19.40, April 4 and 5 until 13.30, April 23, 24 after 15.45, 25, 26 April after 18.50, 27, 28, 29 April after 10.00;
- dill and parsley - April 8 after 9.30, April 9 until 12.30, April 10 after 9.00, April 11 and 12 after 11.00, 13, 17 and 18 after 15.30;
- garlic - April 1 before 19.40, on April 23, 24 after 15.45, on April 25 after 18.50, on April 27, 28, 29 after 10.00;
- pumpkins and cucumbers - April 8 after 9.30 am, April 9 until 12.30 pm, April 12 after 11.00 am;
- radishes and radishes - April 1 to 19.40, April 4.5 to 13.30, April 23, 24 after 3.45, April 25 after 18.50, April 27, 28, 29 after 10.00.
What vegetables are sown outdoors in April
We have already written about sowing crops such as beets, carrots, onions, dill, parsley, lettuce, spinach, beans and radishes into the ground. But we will tell you about sowing the rest of the vegetables now.
Tomatoes are affected by the same diseases as peppers, potatoes and eggplants, so you do not need to sow them in areas where nightshades grew last year. Preliminary preparation of tomato seeds consists in disinfection and germination. Without germination, the seeds can sprout in a week, and the germinated ones sprout on the fourth day. But before germination, the seeds are soaked for 12 hours in a growth stimulant solution, if this does not contradict the instructions on the package with seeds - some manufacturers sell seeds already prepared for sowing.
If you decide to sow your own collected seeds, then after processing in Epin or Heteroauxin, dry them, wrap them in three layers of cloth and put them in the vegetable box of the refrigerator for a day or two, after which you can proceed directly to germinating seeds: they are placed in a saucer in three layers cloth or gauze, on top of the seeds are also covered with three layers of cloth, soak this sandwich with water, put in a plastic bag and put in a warm place. After a couple of days, the seeds will sprout 2-3 mm long, and they can be sown in the ground.
Wells for tomatoes 3-4 cm deep and up to 40 cm in diameter are arranged in rows, keeping row spacings 60-70 cm wide.The distance between the holes is 30 cm.A liter of a warm and weak solution of potassium permanganate is poured into each hole, and after the water is absorbed, put 3-4 seeds, distributing them in the hole at a distance from each other, fill the holes with soil and compact it.
It is not necessary to water the crops before germination. For safety reasons, it is better to sow sprouted seeds in half with dry ones - those tomatoes that sprout earlier may die from frost, then after a while seedlings from dry seeds will germinate, which will not fall under frost.
They grow watermelons in sandy loam sunny areas, protected from strong winds. Groundwater should not be too close to the surface, and the pH of the soil should be in the range of 6.5-7.0 units. As a pre-sowing treatment, the seeds are warmed up in the sun for 10 days - the temperature should reach 55 ºC if the seeds are dry, and 30 ºC if the seeds are wet.
Instead of warming up in the sun, you can put the seeds in a cloth bag and keep them near a central heating radiator for a month. Then, the seed is poured with water for half an hour to determine which of the seeds are suitable for sowing - the floating ones will have to be thrown away, and the drowned ones should be filled with hot (50-60 ºC) water, changing it each time after cooling until the seeds hatch. Before sowing, hold the seed for half an hour in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate, then dry.
Seeds are sown into the ground, warmed up to 16 ºC, to a depth of 7-8 cm at the rate of 10 seeds per one running meter. Keep in mind that large watermelons grow from fresh seeds, while old ones only make small ones. After sowing, the garden bed is watered with warm water. The first shoots may appear within a week.
For growing melons, seeds that are three or four years old are suitable, since fresh seeds, although they will give strong plants, may not be fruit on them, since the flowers on them will be male. Large seeds of appropriate age are placed for 12 hours in a solution of boric acid with zinc sulfate.
Seeds are planted in the ground when the topsoil warms up to 13-15 ºC. Dig holes 5-6 cm deep in the soil at a distance of 1 m, keeping a distance between the rows of 1.5 m. Put 4-5 seeds in the holes, cover them with soil. It is best to sow melon seeds in damp ground immediately after rain or watering. If you are planting melon in dry soil, water the wells after seeding with warm water. Under favorable conditions, germination can be expected in a week.
Soak beans in 70-80 ºC water for 5-10 minutes before sowing. To keep it from cooling down quickly, place the seeds in a thermos. After the beans swell a little from hot water, they are placed for disinfection for half an hour in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate at a temperature of 20-30 ºC, then the seeds are dried and sowed.
Bean seeds are sown at a distance of 15-20 cm into grooves 4-5 cm deep, located at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other, after which the grooves are sealed and watered abundantly with warm water. On top of the site, mulch with a layer of sawdust 4-5 mm thick, which is also watered with warm water. Then a film is thrown onto the garden bed, which is removed on sunny days. After the emergence of seedlings, the film can be removed completely.
Immerse the pea seeds in a solution of 30 g of salt in 1 liter of water: the floating seeds are not suitable for sowing, and rinse the seeds that have sunk to the bottom in running water, hold for 5-7 minutes in a solution of 1 g of boric acid in 5 liters of water and then dry.
A few days before planting, make furrows 5-7 cm deep on the bed at a distance of 50-60 cm from one another, add a layer of ash and compost mixture along the entire length, and sprinkle a layer of fertilizer with soil on top so that the depth of the grooves is 3 -5 cm. Pea seeds are sown at a distance of 6 cm from each other at the rate of 15-17 pieces per linear meter of the bed, then the furrows are closed, lightly tamped the soil surface and watered. In a week and a half, shoots can be expected.
Before sowing, pumpkin seeds need to be tested for germination: take a few seeds and germinate them. If the seeds do not germinate or the germination rate is too low, you need to purchase other seeds before it is too late. If the seeds are viable, start preparing the seed for sowing.
To speed up the emergence of seedlings, the seeds are heated in the sun for a week, then soaked in a solution of potassium humate or sodium humate for a day, and then wrapped in a damp cloth for a couple of days, maintaining a moist environment all the time. The room temperature should be at least 22-23 ºC. Before sowing, soak the seeds for half an hour in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, then rinse and dry them.
Seeds are sown according to the scheme 1x1.5 m: the holes are spilled with warm water, 3-5 seeds are laid in them, trying to ensure that they are at different depths - if it suddenly freezes, then not all crops will die. The planting depth of seeds should be at least 8-10 cm, because otherwise they appear from the ground together with the seed coat, and birds will peck them out, mistaking them for seeds. Cover the crops with foil until shoots appear, and when they appear and grow, leave no more than two plants in the hole.
The best squash produces seeds that are two or three years old. They are placed in a thermos and filled with water at a temperature of 50-60 ºC for 5-6 hours. Then the seeds are washed and dried.
On a bed prepared in the fall, holes are made, at the bottom of which compost is placed, which is sprinkled with a layer of earth. When the soil temperature in the holes rises to 28-30 ºC, you can start sowing. Cover 2-3 seeds per hole to a depth of 6 cm if the soil is light, and 3-4 cm if the soil is dense and heavy. The distance between the holes should be about 1 m, and between the rows - 1-1.5 m. Mulch the surface of the site with peat.
Presowing preparation of zucchini seeds is carried out, as well as preparation of squash seeds. Actually, since these two vegetables are very close relatives, the preparation, sowing and caring for them are not much different. You can add compost to the holes, as we just described in the section on sowing squash, or you can use when sowing both squash and squash in this way: add a tablespoon of liquid mineral fertilizer to each hole before sowing and mix it with the soil, after which pour a liter of an aqueous solution of the following composition into the hole: 1 tablespoon of Agricola-5 per 10 liters of water.
Otherwise, the order and scheme of planting vegetables of the Pumpkin family is practically the same.
This crop is sown when the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm reaches 10-12 ºC. You need to sow sunflower in fertile soil and it is advisable to change the site every year. Before sowing, the seeds are calibrated and pickled in an infusion of garlic and onion peels: 100 g of garlic are chopped, mixed with onion peels, poured with two liters of boiling water, infused for a day, then filtered through cheesecloth and infused with sunflower seeds overnight before sowing. In addition to disinfection, this method of processing protects the seed from pests and rodents.
Sow 2-3 seeds in a nest to a depth of 8 cm, keeping a distance of 75-90 cm between specimens of large varieties, and 45-50 cm between specimens of medium-sized sunflower varieties.
Vegetables are planted in the spring in warm soil, and corn is no exception, which is sown when the temperature in the upper soil layer is at least 12 ºC. The seeds are preheated at 35 ºC for five days and then soaked in warm water to swell.
Swollen seeds are sown in rows, leaving a distance between specimens within 40 cm with a row spacing of about 60 cm.In each pre-moistened hole, 3 grains are placed, then they are sealed and the surface of the plot is mulched with dry soil. Seedlings appear by the end of the second week. Sometimes for growing corn, a conveyor sowing method is used, when varieties of different ripening periods are sown at intervals of two weeks.
Before sowing, cucumber seeds are heated for 2 hours at a temperature of 60 ºC, then placed for 12 hours to swell in a solution of 10 g of potassium nitrate, 5 g of superphosphate and 0.2 g of manganese sulfate in one liter of water. If the spring in your area is unpredictable, sow swollen seeds mixed with dry ones: in case of unexpected frosts, early shoots sprouting from swollen seeds may die, but there is still hope that the harvest of cucumbers will provide later shoots from dry seeds.
Cucumbers are sown only in moist soil. Seeds are placed at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other in grooves spaced at intervals of about half a meter. Seed consumption is half a gram per 1 m², the depth of their planting is 1-2 cm. Seedlings will appear in 10 days. Thin them so that there is a distance of 8-10 cm between plants of early varieties, and 12-15 cm between later varieties.
For planting potatoes, tubers the size of a chicken egg weighing from fifty to seventy grams are suitable. Potato tubers intended for planting are sorted out, rejecting spoiled, diseased or deformed ones. Selected Seed material is germinated two weeks before planting at a temperature of 10-12 ºC, spread out on the floor in front of a window and turned weekly to achieve uniform development of the shoots. Sowing is started when the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to 8 ºC.
The distance between tubers in the furrow or planting holes about 15 cm deep depends on the variety, but on average it is 30-35 cm, and the distance between the rows of early potatoes should be at least 50 cm, otherwise it will be difficult for you to spud the bushes later. There are several potato planting technologies, and we will describe them in a separate article.
Go through and feel the chives intended for sowing, remove damaged, soft, small, irregularly shaped or have lost their dry shell, and 2-3 weeks before planting, lay them for stratification in the vegetable drawer of the refrigerator. Then place them for two hours for disinfection in a strong solution of potassium permanganate or in an ash solution: 400 g of ash are poured into 2 liters of water, boiled for half an hour with stirring and cooled. After disinfection, the teeth are wrapped in a damp cloth, then placed in a plastic bag and germinated in warmth for 2-3 days, although this may not be done.
Garlic is sown into grooves 7-9 cm deep, when the soil warms up to above-zero temperature to a depth of 5-7 cm.The distance between the cloves in the furrow should be 6-8 cm, and between the rows 20-25 cm.Place the cloves vertically, bottoms down, turning the rib to the south - this is how the feathers of garlic will receive the maximum of the spring sun. Garlic shoots are not afraid of frost.
Sowing onions on a feather
To do this, use a large seed with a diameter of 3-4 cm, after cutting off the necks of the bulbs by the shoulders and soaking the seed overnight in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Onions are planted in rows to a depth of 2-3 cm from the shoulders. The distance between the bulbs is 5-7 cm.
Sowing nigella for sevok
It is better to sow nigella on a set in an area where tomatoes, early cabbage, early potatoes or cucumbers grew last year. The best way to prepare seed is by bubbling for 18-20 hours at 20 ºC. This means that the seeds must be placed in water through which oxygen is passed - for this purpose an aquarium compressor can be used.If you are unable to bubble the onion seeds, keep them wrapped in a damp cloth until small sprouts appear, then dry the seeds in the shade.
Sow onions in wet soil: roll the surface of the garden bed, make shallow grooves along it at a distance of 8-10 cm from each other. If the soil is dry, then spill the grooves, sow seeds in them to a depth of 1.5-2 cm, seal them up and mulch the bed with peat or humus. If the seedlings are too dense, thin them with a rake across the rows.
Sowing seedlings on a turnip
Sort out the onion sets, rejecting diseased, dry, or deformed bulbs. A week before sowing, warm the seed at 35 ºC for 2-3 hours, then increase the temperature to 45 ºC and heat the seed for another 4-5 hours. It is possible, instead of heating, to disinfect the seed in a solution of potassium permanganate, but after soaking it gives roots, which means that it must be sown immediately.
Small sevok is not afraid of frost and almost does not shoot. The middle sowing is more demanding on temperature, so you should not rush to sow it. The same can be said about large seeding and sampling - under the influence of a prolonged cold snap, they can go into the arrow.
Level and lightly roll the surface of the bed, make grooves in it every 25 cm. If the soil is dry, be sure to water the grooves. Place small seedlings in the furrow every 5-6 cm, medium after 8-10 cm, large after 12-15 cm. The seed of varieties that form a small number of nests are planted denser, and the seed of multi-nested varieties should be placed in the furrow less often. Planting depth 1-2 cm from the bulb hanger. After embedding, the site is mulched with humus or peat.
Caring for sowing vegetables in April
Sowing schemes for vegetables
For gardeners with small plots of land, it is very important to learn how to use them with maximum density. Agrotechnical techniques such as mixed planting of vegetables in the garden or joint planting of vegetables, as well as compacted planting of vegetables, help in this. For dense plantings, for example, tomatoes can be supplemented with green crops that are sown before tomatoes.
Joint planting of vegetables involves, for example, sowing beets and lettuce in one furrow, alternating 10 root seeds with 1-2 seeds of a green crop. However, mixed planting of vegetables can only be justified if the crops are not antagonistic and compatible with each other. For example, tomatoes grow well in a garden with onions, herbs and cabbage, but are incompatible with kohlrabi and tall vegetables. Cucumbers do not tolerate the proximity of potatoes and herbs, with the exception of dill.
Onions and garlic do not grow next to legumes. Beets happily coexist with onions, lettuce and cucumbers, so they often combine crops of beets and onions on a feather, as well as beets and cabbage, lettuce and asparagus lettuce. And tomatoes and cucumbers are planted next to garlic and radish, which repels pests.
If you plant cabbage or zucchini next to tomatoes, the tomatoes will be able to protect neighbors from sawflies. Therefore, we strongly advise you to first think about how best to arrange crops in the garden, and only then proceed to such a responsible procedure as planting vegetables in the country. And keep in mind that the land for planting vegetables should be fertilized in such a way and to such an extent that each crop gets the minimum it needs.
After the planting of vegetables in the ground has successfully taken place, watering is not done until the emergence of seedlings, but when the seeds germinate and the young plants grow, you need to know how to properly care for them. Caring for each vegetable has its own nuances, but there are some rules common to all plants, such as, for example, not to water the plants with cold water, as this can cause artificial drought. The temperature of the water for irrigation should not be lower than the air temperature, and in order to heat it, the water is poured into a large container and left to stand in the sun for 2-3 days.
The best time to water your plants is early morning or after sunset. The best way to irrigate vegetables is by drip, carried out through hoses, which are inexpensive and are not in short supply today. Watering vegetables should be regular and sufficient.
Top dressing of crops
Planting vegetables in the garden in spring presupposes feeding the plants with nitrogen fertilizers soon. Root feeding is carried out after watering, the amount of nutrient solution for one plant is 1 liter. In summer, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied to the soil. Each culture has its own needs for elements and their quantities. Beets, onions and celery, for example, are fed up to 5 times per season, legumes 3-4 times, pumpkin 1-2 times, cucumbers, zucchini and squash 8-10 times, tomatoes and peppers 6-8 times.
For top dressing, both organic and mineral fertilizers are used. Organic fertilizers are poultry manure, manure, and mineral fertilizers are simple or complex formulations such as Nitrofosk, Ammophos. There is also a third type of fertilizers - organo-mineral fertilizers, which include the preparations Flora, Gummi, Giant, Biohumus and others.
Top dressing is dry and liquid. Liquid fertilizers are preferable, since it is in this form that plants absorb nutrients faster and easier. But in rainy weather, it is more expedient to apply dry dressings, which are not so quickly washed out of the soil by rainwater. Liquid dressings are root and foliar. With root dressing, fertilizers first enter the soil, and then the plant roots absorb nutrients from the fertilized soil. With foliar dressing, fertilizers are immediately absorbed by the ground part of the plants, so nutrition reaches its goal much faster. The dosage of fertilizing depends on the culture, on the fertility of the soil and on its pre-sowing preparation.
Weeding and loosening
As soon as the soil is ripe in spring and it becomes possible to plant vegetables in the garden, it becomes necessary to loosen and harrow the soil across the layers in order to avoid drying it out. Both harrowing with a rake and subsequent loosening reduce the intensity of water evaporation from the ground surface due to the destruction of the soil crust, which disrupts the normal water and air regime of plant roots. By the way, the formation of a crust on the surface of the soil is facilitated not only by heat, but also by spraying wood ash over the area.
The loosening depth depends on the weather conditions and the location of the plant root system. Light soils require less loosening depth than heavy soils. In dry weather, the soil can be loosened not as deeply as in wet and rainy weather. It is enough to loosen the soil once a week. It is important to loosen the soil after heavy rain or watering, as soon as the topsoil dries up. Be careful not to damage the vegetable seedlings or disturb their roots when loosening.
As for weeds, it is better to remove them manually, and although this requires more time and effort, the quality of work is much higher than when weeding a plot with a hoe or hoe. If you weed your vegetable beds regularly and do not allow the weeds to overtake the vegetables you grow, from the moment the vegetable leaves close, you can no longer be afraid of the harm caused by weeds. But when the seedlings are just starting to grow and develop, it is very important not to let the weeds take away their food.
It is much more convenient to remove weeds and loosen the soil on the site a day after rain or watering.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
Sections: Fruit Garden Plants
Radish is very diverse and can differ in shape, size, color (there are white, yellow, green, black, purple, red roots). Basically, the culture is subdivided into summer and winter radish. Let's look at the popular types and varieties of crops:
- White radish (Russian). A popular variety with a delicate taste, juicy. Most often consumed fresh. Popular varieties are: Delicacy, Sudarushka, Sirius, Summer Round white, Rex.
- Black radish (Bitter). Possesses many properties useful to humans, has a rich, bright taste. It is believed to be the healthiest variety. Popular varieties of black radish: Winter long black, Wonderful, Doctor.
- Margelan radish (Chinese or Loba). It has a milder taste than the above-mentioned varieties, practically not bitter, similar in taste to radishes, most often used fresh. Varieties: Margelanskaya, Ladushka, Fang of an elephant, Sultan, Glow.
- Daikon (Japanese radish or Sweet, Baylobo). It also has a mild taste without bitterness, very useful. The following popular varieties can be distinguished: Caesar, White sun, Japanese white long, Emperor, Ice Kon, Dubinushka, Minovashi, Dragon.
- The radish is green. Due to its pleasant, delicate taste, it is most often consumed raw, contains many useful vitamins and minerals. Popular varieties: Green goddess, Aelita.
Timing and technology of sowing seeds of vegetables and greens
In late February and early March, in seasonal heated polycarbonate greenhouses, you can start sowing seeds of early ripening and frost-resistant varieties of vegetables intended for transplanting into open ground:
It is better to sow them not immediately into the soil, but into boxes (with an interval of 5 * 5 cm to a depth of 1.5-2 cm), cassettes, or absorbent tablets (one seed per cell), after soaking them in a damp cloth for several days. Place containers with crops in the greenhouse, on the ground or on racks.
Sowing dates for vegetables and herbs in Russia according to the lunar calendar:
- in the southern strip - from February 25 to March 5, you can sow tall, early-ripening tomatoes, from March 10 to March 15, sweet peppers, from March 15 to the end of the month - eggplants and cucumbers.
- in the central part of Russia and in the Moscow region - sowing dates are shifted by 10-25 days, depending on weather conditions
- in the Urals and Siberia - the first seeds are sown from April 1 to April 15, provided the soil warms up to the desired temperature. Sowing can be done in open ground, but a film cover is definitely needed.
When can you plant: we are guided by temperature
Until the seeds germinate, it is necessary to ensure that the air temperature does not fall below 23-25 ° C. After the first shoots appear, it is reduced to 16-18 degrees, in order to avoid stretching the plants.
Planting seeds of vegetables and herbs in open ground
- In greenhouses without heating - planting vegetables should be delayed until a stable positive temperature within 10 ° C is established outside. Under such weather conditions, the air inside the structure will warm up to 16-20 ° C, but this is not a determining factor either.
- If you plan to sow seeds directly into the ground, you need to keep the soil temperature between 15 and 18 degrees during the day, and 14 to 16 at night.
How to speed up the heating of air and soil
It is possible to accelerate the heating of air and soil in a greenhouse or greenhouse with the help of manure and other organic fertilizing.
Warming up the soil in the greenhouse with manure
- 7 days before sowing the seeds, manure is placed in a greenhouse with a layer of 20-30 cm, and in a greenhouse - 40 cm.
- Level the surface and sprinkle with lime (0.3-0.5 kg per 1 m2) or wood ash (0.6 kg per 1 square meter).
- After 3-4 days, the settled layers are leveled again, and another one is added, consisting of peat and dry sawdust in a 4: 1 ratio.
- After 2 days, the soil is loosened and sowing of tomatoes and other vegetables is started in the same way as in a polycarbonate greenhouse. Only plantings are covered with film or agrofibre to protect young plants from night frosts. After the emergence of seedlings, the protection is removed.
Favorable days for planting beans in 2021 according to the lunar calendar
In order for the legume crop to take on better in the garden, gardeners choose the most suitable place for its cultivation. Of the best options discussed on the forums, there remains the "former place of residence": tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplant for open ground and sweet peppers.
But planting in places of germination of other legumes is highly discouraged in the next few years. Due to the increased possibility of infection with pests and diseases inherent in green beans, the garden is given to other vegetables for planting.
Seed planting in open ground
If the climate is warm, then the seeds can be sown directly into open soil. This will eliminate the need to germinate and care for seedlings.
Sowing seeds is recommended when frost has passed. As a rule, this is the end of April - May. You can do this a little earlier. But in such cases, the area must be covered with a special non-woven material that retains heat.
Location selection and lighting
Lavatera is not very pretentious about the location. She prefers well-lit areas. But it can grow in partial shade. Although in such cases it will not bloom so abundantly. It is also advisable to plant the plant in places where there will be no gusts of cold wind.
A few weeks before sowing the seeds, the site is prepared. It needs to be dug into 1 bayonet of a shovel. Add a bucket of compost or humus to 1 m 2. Early preparation is necessary so that the earth has time to lie down.
Make grooves 1 cm deep in the beds. Water the soil with soft water, deepen the seeds. No preliminary preparation of seeds is required. Sprinkle them on top with a thin layer of soil, cover with foil so that moisture does not evaporate.
When the shoots have reached 5 cm in height, the cover can be removed. The soil is loosened, fertilized with mineral fertilizers. If necessary, the plants are thinned out. To make the growing bushes seem more magnificent and hold on to each other, 2-3 plants can be planted in one hole.
Favorable time for sowing cabbage in 2019 according to the lunar calendar
Experienced gardeners, planning sowing or planting work, try to adhere to the lunar calendar. After all, even our ancestors noticed that the night star affects plants, and it is not the same in different phases. The best period for sowing and planting seedlings falls on the growing moon, which accumulates energy. At this time, the energy and juices in the plants rush upward, contributing to their intensive growth.
The lunar calendar is compiled taking into account the phases of the moon and its passage according to the signs of the zodiac
Seeds that enter the soil during this period swell quickly, the effect of the night light enhances their germination. These days are good for planting and replanting any kind of plant, especially those grown for the leaves. In the growing moon phase, all crops need a lot of water and nutrition, this is the most suitable time for watering and fertilizing.
On the waning moon, most of the juices are in the roots, so it is better not to pick seedlings or plant them in a new place at this time: even a slight damage to the roots can weaken the plants and slow down their development. It is not recommended to plan planting and transplanting in the phases of the full moon and new moon, when the viability of plants is reduced. During the full moon, which lasts 3 days, you can thin out cabbage crops, clear the soil of weeds. On the days of the new moon, which also last three days, the circulation of sap stops, the growth of plants stops. Sowing, planting and transplanting are undesirable during this period. On such days, it is better to do the protection of plants from diseases.
The lunar calendar recommends sowing seeds on a young moon
When planning garden work, it is important to take into account the passage of the Moon along the zodiacal constellation. Zodiac signs affect vegetable crops in different ways: some promote good seed germination and activate plant growth, others are suitable for harvesting and other gardening work.The most fertile signs are Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces. If, when sowing, the phase of the moon and its passage along the fertile signs of the zodiac are taken into account, cabbage will develop more intensively, rapidly gaining leaf mass.
When sowing seeds on favorable days, the process of their germination is accelerated and the growth of seedlings is more intensive.
Table: good and bad days for cabbage development according to the 2019 lunar calendar
|Name of the month||Auspicious days||Bad days|
|February||5–7, 10–12||8, 20–22|
|March||2, 8–10, 19, 26, 30||7, 21, 22|
|April||2, 7–10, 19, 22||1, 6, 14, 15|
|May||4, 9, 10, 13, 27, 29||1, 2, 6, 21, 30, 31|
|June||5–6, 14||4, 19, 20, 30|
|July||8, 10, 22||1, 2, 5, 7, 28, 29|
In an unfavorable period it is better not to work with plants at all. Sowing and transplanting are undesirable on these days of the lunar month.
If you plan sowing and transplanting cabbage in accordance with the phases of the moon, you can accelerate the process of plant development, increase their vitality. However, to obtain high yields, it is not enough just to adhere to the recommendations of the lunar calendar. Only sowing seeds at the optimal time, regular proper care of cabbage will bring the desired results.
Harvesting sugar beet
To prepare borscht and other dishes, beets can be dug out throughout the summer. If it is supposed to store vegetables in winter, then the roots are dug up a week after the leaves of the plants turn yellow and dry. By this time, the vegetables will become about 7-15 cm in diameter. They are first undermined with a pitchfork, and then taken out of the ground by hand.
Roots must be dried before storage, so they are harvested in warm weather, when precipitation is not expected in the coming days. Dried vegetables are cleaned from the ground and their tops are cut off so that a stalk about 2 cm in size remains. Peeled root crops are examined, laying aside damaged and spoiled ones separately.
Selected vegetables need to be dried, for which they are laid out for a week in a room with good ventilation, where there is no sunlight.
When to harvest
Root celery is ready for harvesting 120-170 after sowing, usually in September - October. An adult plant is not afraid of frost, so there is no need to rush to harvest. Its readiness is determined by the size of the poured tuber, it should be 8 to 15 cm in diameter, depending on the variety.
The greens in the leafy variety can be cut one month after planting the seedlings in open ground. It is sheared at a height of 5-7 cm. After shearing, celery is well watered and fed. New harvesting leaves will grow back in 4-5 weeks.
Petiole celery is dug up in the second half of summer, when the size of each plant exceeds 50 cm.
Harvest storage tips:
- the root variety can be stored in the cellar, dried, pickled
- petioled celery can be frozen, kept in the refrigerator for up to 5 weeks, dripped in the sand in the cellar, dried
- vegetable greens are suitable for drying.
Only healthy, ripe specimens are selected for storage.
Celery is an extremely healthy vegetable with a minimum calorie content and a pleasant taste. Despite the labor costs of growing seedlings, the culture is worthy of taking a place in every vegetable garden.
Good luck to all beginners and experienced gardeners!