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Diseases and pests of apple trees: causes and struggle

Diseases and pests of apple trees: causes and struggle


Apple trees often get sick, and diseases can be both fungal and bacterial and even viral. And there are also many different insect pests that affect not only fruits, but also leaves, shoots, bark and even roots. It is often difficult for a gardener to understand what kind of problem arose on an apple tree, what are the reasons for the lack of flowering or shedding of fruits. It is our task to help find the answer in any situation.

Diseases of the apple tree: description, prevention and treatment

There are many possible diseases in the apple tree. They are mainly fungal, bacterial and viral in nature.

Moniliosis

Moniliosis affects all pome and stone fruit crops. It has two forms. The first is a monilial burn. Infection and development of the disease occurs in the spring during flowering. The spores of the fungus enter the flowers with the help of bees and other insects. Leaves and shoots are also affected, which subsequently fade and turn black, creating the illusion of a burn.

Monilial burn affects the leaves and shoots of the apple tree

At this time, it is necessary to cut out the affected shoots, capturing 15-30 centimeters of healthy wood. After that, the crown is treated with fungicides (a group of drugs for combating fungal diseases). Horus helps well - it can be used even during flowering, as it is safe for bees. Concentration for spraying - 2 grams per 10 liters of water. The optimum application temperature is + 3-22 ° C. Three treatments are carried out every 7-10 days. Further use of the drug this season will be ineffective, as it is addictive. The same applies to other fungicides.

Horus can be used even during flowering as it is safe for bees

In summer, moniliosis causes fruit rot. This usually happens during cool, rainy times. Affected fruits rot and fall off. The active phase of the disease occurs during the ripening of apples. Decaying fruits must be cut off, collected from the ground and destroyed.

Fruit rot often affects apple trees in damp, cool weather

For treatment at this time, Strobi is considered the most effective drug. Its active substance, kresoxim-methyl, quickly stops the course of the disease and blocks its further spread. The duration of the protective action is up to two weeks, the waiting period is three weeks. The concentration of the treatment solution is 2 grams per 10 liters of water.

Strobi quickly treats Moniliosis and other fungal diseases

Prevention of moniliosis and other fungal diseases consists in performing the following simple work:

  • Collection and destruction of fallen leaves in the fall.
  • Deep digging of soil near-trunk circles.
  • Cleaning of bark and whitewashing of trunks with a solution of slaked lime with the addition of 1% copper sulfate and PVA glue.
  • Treatment of the crown and soil with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid.

Rust

The fungus-causative agent of the disease has a two-year development cycle - one year it develops on a juniper, and by autumn it infects an apple tree and a pear with spores, on which it will actively develop in the next season. In spring, small yellowish-green spots appear on the leaves, which acquire a bright rusty-orange color by mid-summer. On the underside of the leaves, papillary tubercles are formed, inside which there are spores of the fungus. The disease is widespread in the Crimea and the Black Sea zone of the Krasnodar Territory, to a lesser extent in other regions.

By the middle of summer, the spots on the leaves acquire a bright rusty-orange color.

If possible, joint plantings of apple and juniper should be avoided and do not forget to carry out preventive work. Treatment is carried out with fungicides Horus, Skor (at an early stage), Strobi. The drug Abiga-Peak, which is a 40% solution of copper oxychloride, has proven itself well. It is used in an amount of 40-50 grams per 10 liters of water and the tree is sprayed 3-4 times with an interval of 15-20 days. It is low-toxic for bees, does not accumulate in the soil and fruits.

Abiga Peak is an effective domestic fungicide

Curly leaves

Leaf curl is a rather dangerous disease. It is more often found on peach, but sometimes it also affects apple trees. The fungus is activated in early spring, affecting young leaves. This happens if preventive treatments were not carried out in early spring. Leaves curl, become bumpy, curly. The disease spreads quickly, the branches become bare and the fruits stop growing. At this stage, it will not be possible to save the harvest - you need to attend to the salvation of the tree. For this, fungicides Horus, Abiga-Peak, Strobi are used. After stopping the spread of the disease, new leaves grow after a while. To speed up this process, you need to feed the apple tree with nitrogen.

Leaf curl is more common on peaches, but sometimes also affects apple trees.

Phylostictosis (brown spot)

With this fungal disease, small brown-brown spots form on the leaves. It differs from other similar diseases only in the name of the pathogen fungus. The consequences (wilting and dropping of leaves, the appearance of spots on the fruits), prevention and treatment measures do not differ from the previously described fungal diseases.

Phylostictosis (brown spot) is a fungal blooming

Sooty fungus

This fungus does not appear on its own. It is preceded by the defeat of the apple tree by aphid or copperhead. Both of these insects secrete a sweetish liquid called honeydew. It is a breeding ground for sooty fungus. It, in turn, also excretes excrement in the form of a grayish-white coating on the leaves and fruits of the apple tree. Over time, this plaque becomes black, and the affected parts of the plant look as if stained with soot.

The sooty fungus appears as a black coating.

The prevention of the fungus is the timely fight against the indicated insects, and the treatment consists, as usual, in the treatment with fungicides (Horus, Skor, Quadris, etc.). Before processing, it is advisable to wash off the plaque with a strong jet of water from a hose. This also removes parasitic insects.

Fusarium

This is an insidious and dangerous fungal disease. It spreads and lives in the soil, affects the roots of almost any plant. The Fusarium mushroom can be in the soil for years, waiting for favorable conditions. And the conditions are suitable for him: loose, breathable soils with an acidic or slightly acidic reaction, high humidity and a temperature of 25-28 ° C. Fusarium does not develop on heavy clayey soils. But it is precisely these conditions that the gardener creates for his plants, including the apple tree. If an infection occurs, the fungus infects the roots, they begin to hurt and die off. And above the surface of the earth, the gardener observes wilting leaves, drooping shoots. Having decided that the tree does not have enough moisture or nutrition, it conducts watering and feeding. And Fusarium, meanwhile, is rapidly progressing. It is especially dangerous for young trees, which can die in a season. Often, the disease completely destroyed the plants in nurseries. As a rule, after the detection of the disease, all that remains is to uproot and burn the apple tree in order to preserve other plants. You can try to save a young plant by transplanting it to a new place. It is dug up, the preserved roots are examined, the patients are cut out and treated with fungicides. After that, they are soaked in a solution of a root formation stimulator (Kornevin, Heteroauxin, Epin, etc.) and planted in the ground.

Prevention of apple fusarium:

  • Careful adherence to agricultural technology. Strong and healthy plants are able to resist Fusarium.
  • Purchase of seedlings only in reliable, proven places, nurseries.
  • Soil deoxidation with dolomite flour.
  • Fight against insect carriers of fungal spores. These are aphids, whiteflies, spider mites, etc.
  • Destruction of diseased plants.

Scab

The causative agent of scab - a marsupial mushroom - is common in temperate zones. A wet and cold spring creates favorable conditions for him. On the affected leaves, velvety brown-olive spots appear. On fruits, the spots are hard, dark. The fruits themselves become small, take on an ugly shape.

Scab-affected apples develop hard, dark spots

As additional preventive measures, the following are recommended:

  • Cultivation of disease resistant varieties.
  • Prevention of thickening of landings.
  • Maintaining the crown of the tree in a ventilated, well-lit state by timely thinning pruning.

To combat the disease, fungicides are used, as well as numerous folk remedies.

Black cancer

A healthy and strong tree is rarely affected by black cancers. It usually occurs on weakened plants in bark cracks and frost holes. Trees growing in the southern regions are more likely to suffer from this disease. Branches, leaves, flowers, fruits can be affected. But the most dangerous is damage to the bark of a tree. First, brown spots appear on it, the bark cracks, becomes covered with tubercles, and turns black. After a while, the affected pieces of bark begin to break off. Bare wood looks burnt. If you do not take action, then in 3-4 years the tree will die.

The most dangerous black cancer of the tree bark

Timely treatment consists in cleaning the affected areas to healthy wood, disinfecting wounds with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or other fungicides, covering them with a protective layer of garden varnish.

Bacteriosis (fire blight)

This disease came to Russia after 2009 from Europe. It is observed in the Kaliningrad region and in the southern regions. It is carried by insects, birds, wind. Penetrates into the plant through flowers or through damage in the leaves, bark. It spreads throughout the plant along the sap-conducting channels. Moniliosis, damaging plant tissue, promotes the penetration of bacteria. Often these two diseases occur at the same time. Characteristic signs of bacteriosis:

  • Reddish spots between leaf veins.
  • The ends of young shoots dry up, and they themselves wither. The phenomenon spreads from top to bottom, sometimes rapidly.
  • White discharge appears on the bark, which subsequently darkens. The bark becomes sticky, moist.
  • The buds and flowers dry out, die off, but remain on the branches. Their color becomes dark brown.
  • The fruits are first covered with sticky secretions, then mummified, blackened. They remain on the branches for a long time, sometimes more than a year.

    With bacteriosis, the leaves and shoots turn black, wither

Mummified fruits are a haven for bacteria overwintering, so they must be carefully collected and destroyed. Do the same with other affected parts of the plant. The damaged bark is cleaned to healthy wood and treated with antibiotics, then covered with garden varnish. Antibiotics are also used to spray the crown during any growing season. The following drugs are commonly used:

  • Ampicillin - one ampoule per 10 liters of water.
  • Fitolavin - 20 ml per 10 liters of water.
  • Gentamicin - one ampoule per liter of water. Used to treat wounds.
  • Ofloxacin - two tablets per 10 liters of water.

Simultaneously with the treatment of bacteriosis, fungicides should be used to combat possible fungal diseases.

Viral diseases

Such diseases are caused by viruses that develop in the cells of living plants.They spread with plant sap by various sucking insects and mites, as well as when performing operations on a tree - grafting, pruning, pinching - with a non-disinfected tool. In many healthy trees, the virus can be in a latent state (that is, in a latent state, which does not manifest itself until the onset of favorable circumstances). When the tree weakened due to freezing, damage by fungi, pests, lack of moisture and (or) nutrition, the virus activates and infects the plant.

Chlorotic leaf spot

On the apple tree, the manifestation consists in the formation of a yellow-green mosaic, ring patterns in the form of spots or lines. Necrosis (dying off) of the edges of the leaves is possible. Mass infections are observed in Crimea, Moldova and Ukraine. The virus causes annular brown spot on leaves and fruits, reducing yields by 20%.

Chlorotic spot virus infects weakened plants

There are no drugs to combat a viral infection of the apple tree. Therefore, one should rely on the observance of agricultural practices, the implementation of preventive measures against fungal diseases. They will also be the prevention of viral diseases. The virus cannot harm a healthy, strong tree.

Apple tree pests

The apple tree has quite a few pests. Let's get acquainted with the main ones.

Table: the main pests of the apple tree

Photo gallery: the main pests of the apple tree

Apple tree treatment for diseases and pests

For preventive treatments of apple trees, fungicides, insecticides and folk remedies are used.

Table: apple treatment for diseases and pests

Frequently asked Questions

In the process of growing apple trees, gardeners often have situations that go beyond the normal development of the plant. We will try to understand the causes of the most common problems.

Why does not the apple tree bear fruit and bloom

This problem can have several causes.

  • If this is a young tree, it is possible that the term for the beginning of fruiting has not come. Some varieties enter this season 7-9 years after planting.
  • A non-zoned sapling purchased. The conditions of the region do not suit him, the tree directs all its forces to survival. They no longer remain for fruiting.
  • The same situation occurs when a seedling is planted in an unsuitable place - boggy, close occurrence of groundwater, alkalized, saline, too acidic soils.
  • Insufficient or unbalanced nutrition. For example, an excess of nitrogen, a lack of phosphorus and potassium.
  • Damage to buds by a flower beetle.
  • Freezing of flower buds.

Why do apples rot on a tree

Apples rotting on a tree are the result of moniliosis, scab, bacteriosis. And also the most common cause of the problem is the attack of pests - the codling moth, honeydew, flower beetle.

Video: fruit rot

Black rot on the apple tree

The probable cause is black cancer, bacteriosis.

Mold (fungus) on an apple tree

This problem often appears in thickened, shaded, damp places. Mold-like formations appear on the bark of the tree. They can be fungal in nature. In this case, the fungus can grow into the bark, destroying it. It doesn't matter what the name of the fungus is - the actions are as follows:

  1. It is necessary to clean the bark, cut out damaged areas to healthy wood.
  2. Treat wounds with fungicides - 3% copper sulfate solution, 3% Bordeaux liquid solution, Abiga-Peak preparation, etc.
  3. Apply a protective layer of garden varnish.

But often mosses and lichens look like mold. The bark of the tree is only a living area for them. They might as well live on stone. Moss and lichens have no roots and they do not damage the bark. The phenomenon is undesirable, but not fatal. Scrape them off with wooden scrapers, being careful not to damage the bark. A film, paper, cloth, etc. are first spread on the ground. Then they are washed with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and whitewashed with a lime solution.

Problem prevention:

  • Avoid thickened plantings.
  • Do not overgrow the garden with weeds.
  • Regulating crown pruning is carried out annually.
  • In autumn, the bark of trunks and thick branches is cleaned and whitewashed with lime mortar.

Why apples fall

This is a fairly common phenomenon that every gardener has encountered at least once. Apples can fall off at different stages of development - from ovaries to fully ripe fruits. There may be various reasons for this:

  • Lack of moisture. In this case, first of all, the tree gives it to the leaves, taking it from the fruits that fall off.
  • Excess moisture prevents oxygenation of the roots. As a result, the process of feeding the fruits is disrupted.
  • Lack of phosphorus and potassium can also cause apples to fall off. A balanced diet must be followed.
  • Excess nitrogen makes the fruits friable, some of them fall off.
  • Natural regulation of the crop. With abundant flowering and the formation of ovaries, only 5-10% of their apple tree is able to grow, and discards the excess. This is normal.
  • In some varieties, fruits that have reached removable maturity fall off. The gardener should be aware of this feature and harvest on time.
  • Damage by pests, for example, the codling moth.

Why do the leaves of the apple tree turn yellow

The possible causes of this phenomenon are varied:

  • The tree is planted in a flooded, wetland, or the gardener has overdone it with watering. With an excess of moisture, the leaves begin to turn yellow from the top of the tree.
  • When planting, the root collar was deepened - the result is the same.
  • Lack of nitrogen - the leaves begin to turn yellow starting from the lower tiers.
  • Lack of zinc, magnesium, iron, sulfur. A quick effect in such cases is provided by spraying with solutions of complex fertilizers containing these elements.

    Lack of various micro and macronutrients causes yellowing of leaves

  • Hot weather and lack of moisture.
  • Root damage by moles.
  • Fusarium.

Red spots on the leaves of the apple tree

The appearance of red spots on the leaves may indicate an infection with rust or scab, as well as a defeat by a gall aphid. With a lack of potassium, the edges of the leaves may turn red. Magnesium deficiency causes reddening of the interveinous space.

Brown spots on the leaves of the apple tree

Such signs may indicate infection with phyllostictosis (brown spot). In addition, a copper deficiency is possible, but this is unlikely if the gardener regularly processes the crown with solutions of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid. Another option is a leaf burn as a result of sprinkling irrigation in hot sunny weather. In this case, water droplets on the leaves act as lenses that enhance the effect of sunlight.

Apple leaves turn red and curl

Most likely, the apple tree is affected by gall aphid. It's easy to check - just unfold the rolled sheet. If there are no aphids in it, perhaps this phenomenon is a consequence of a deficiency of phosphorus, magnesium or manganese. And also the trunk could be strongly squeezed during the installation of the fishing belt, which limited the nutrition of the crown.

Black bloom on an apple tree how to fight

As a rule, black plaque is the excrement of a sooty fungus. And also it can be symptoms of bacteriosis or black cancer. The methods of struggle are described above.

Why did not the leaves fall on the apple tree in autumn

This phenomenon is not harmless - it can cause a decrease in the winter hardiness of the tree, productivity and life expectancy. There may be several reasons:

  • The tree is overfed with nitrogen in the second half of summer or in autumn. This causes a new wave of growth of leaves, which simply do not have time to ripen.
  • Excessive watering or too rainy autumn. It should be remembered that pre-winter water-charging watering is needed once, late in the fall. But the rest of the autumn time after harvesting, the tree does not need watering.
  • Non-regionalized apple variety. If you plant a southern variety in the Middle Lane, then such a tree does not have time to complete the growing season by winter.

Apple tree leaves froze in spring

If only the leaves are frozen, it's okay.New ones will grow. Much worse if the wood is damaged. This usually manifests itself in the fact that the tree woke up late after winter, then it seems to have recovered, but the leaves became small and grow back later than usual in the spring. The effects of freezing appear over the next 3-4 years. You can check the degree of damage by cutting off weak branches. Dark zones on the cut indicate frost damage in these places. The affected areas can no longer recover, but with proper care the tree can live for another 6-8 years. During this time, you can grow a new apple tree. Proper care is understood as rejuvenating pruning, increased watering and tree feeding.

What are spinning tops on an apple tree

Tops are highly fattening vertical shoots. The leaves on them are always very large, sparsely located. There are never any fruits on such shoots. Tops take food from the tree and therefore must be removed. They appear after too much pruning of the tree. If necessary, some tops can be made fruitful. To do this, they are cut to two or three buds. A new fruit branch can be formed from a branch of the second order. Such branches must be bent down to a horizontal level, since vertical ones never bear fruit.

Tops are highly fattening vertical shoots

Treatment of a black hollow at an apple tree

A black hollow is formed on an apple tree as a result of black cancer. To treat it, you first need to thoroughly clean the hollow of dead wood and bark. This may require a variety of tools - a knife, a chisel, a drill with a wire attachment, etc. Before starting to work under the tree, spread a film or other suitable material to collect all the waste to be removed. After the operation, they must be burned, as they are a source of infection.

After cleaning the hollow, it should be disinfected with a 2% solution of copper sulfate and allowed to dry for several hours. The surface of the hollow is covered with a layer of garden varnish prepared on the basis of natural ingredients (beeswax, lanolin). Garden pitch made of petrolatum or with the presence of other petroleum products in the composition of the tree should not be placed in the hollow. At the end of the operation, the hollow is filled with polyurethane foam. Previously, a cement-sand mortar was used for these purposes, but modern materials give better results. After 2-3 days, the excess foam is cut off with a sharp knife.

Video: super putty for the treatment of cuts, wounds, hollows

It is safe to say that the gardener receives most of the problems associated with diseases or pests of apple trees due to non-compliance with elementary preventive measures. Other problems arise from non-compliance with agricultural techniques, incorrect selection of varieties and choice of planting sites. With a proper systematic approach to growing an apple tree and caring for it, you can always count on a decent result.

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Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.

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Diseases and pests of apple trees - how to deal with them

06/11/2018 Disease, Garden Leave a comment 12,380 Views

  1. Apple tree pests and control
  2. Apple green aphid
  3. Red apple mite
  4. Leaf flea or apple sucker
  5. Apple moth
  6. Leaf rollers
  7. Apple blossom beetle
  8. Apple moth
  9. Observe preventive measures
  10. Apple scab, or phytopathology (lat.Venturia inaequalis)
  11. Signs of scab disease
  12. How to protect an apple tree from scab
  13. Prevention of infection after fruiting
  14. Top dressing of apple trees
  15. How to feed an apple tree
  16. Fertilizers and insect pests
  17. Agrotechnical measures to combat rust on an apple tree
  18. Affected branch
  19. Milky shine on the leaves of the apple tree
  20. Visual signs of disease diagnosis
  21. Scab disease, description with photos and treatment methods
  22. Fresh articles about garden and vegetable garden

The apple tree dries up, what to do: causes, remedies and prevention

9.07.2017
Diseases, Trees, Plant Protection

To see a dying apple tree in your garden is not such a rarity, unfortunately. This can happen in any climatic zone, on any soil, and even when the gardener seemingly takes care of the garden according to all the rules. You can understand why the apple tree began to dry out by certain signs: a change in the color of the leaves, the appearance of spots on the bark, etc. If you find out the reason for this phenomenon, you can not only save the tree, but also prevent similar cases in the future.

The main reasons for drying apple trees

Deviations in the development of a tree, its growth and vital activity are influenced by several factors, which may also be of a combined nature. With a certain degree of conventionality, they can be divided into several groups:

  1. The main reasons for drying apple trees
    1. Atmospheric and climatic conditions
    2. Features of the soil
    3. Improper fit and care
    4. Diseases and pests
    5. Why apple trees dry up Black apple cancer: video
  2. How to save dying apple trees
  3. Prophylaxis

  • atmospheric and climatic conditions
  • soil features
  • improper fit and care
  • diseases
  • pests.

The convention of separation means that often these prerequisites for the drying up of the apple tree are combined with each other, or one entails the other. For example, diseases can be caused by pests or unfavorable environmental conditions and are simply external manifestations of the original cause. Therefore, in any case, you need to carefully study all the reasons in order to completely eliminate the unfavorable factors.

Atmospheric and climatic conditions

Both extreme heat and very cold climates can negatively affect the fruit tree. Therefore, purchase seedlings of only zoned varieties. Breeders develop such varieties taking into account which climatic zone is most favorable for the growth and development of a given apple tree. In very cold climates, it is highly likely that the tree at some stage of development will begin to dry out after frostbite, if at all.

With prolonged severe frosts, the tree may suffer, so-called frost breaks, or frost cracks, may appear on it. They occur when the moisture in the wood freezes and breaks the fibers. If the cracks are not overgrown, fungus can enter and destroy the wood. Mulching, wrapping the trunk, throwing snow near the trunk (it needs to be slightly trampled) saves from frost.

Features of the soil

The apple tree will dry out if planted in soil with a high content of:

  • sand
  • heavy clay
  • crushed stone and gravel.

A high aquifer also has a detrimental effect on the tree: the soil saturated with moisture does not allow the roots to breathe, since the water displaces the air and the roots begin to rot. Alternatively, you can make drainage in the soil, but it is troublesome and time consuming, so it is better not to plant apple trees in such places.

The apple tree can also dry out due to the fact that the soil lacks nutrients and minerals. This is especially pronounced during potassium starvation: the leaves begin to dry out. When starving with magnesium and nitrogen, as well as with chlorosis, the leaves turn yellow. When these signs appear, it is necessary to apply appropriate fertilizers and top dressing to the soil.

Improper fit and care

When planting seedlings, you need to remember that the root system of an apple tree is twice as wide as its crown, and the root system goes into the ground to a depth of 60 cm or more. Therefore, you need to take into account the height at which the water stands in the ground.

The tree can dry out due to "root competition" if the seedling is planted too close to other trees. It is also undesirable to sow some herbal crops under the apple tree, which can poison the apple tree with the products of their vital activity (for example, wheatgrass and timothy grass).

The landing time is also important - it is spring and autumn. Apple trees planted in summer are more likely to suffer from drying out of leaves and branches. If the seedling is planted in spring, it takes root much better.The trees planted in the fall are more resistant to weather conditions and various diseases.

Such oversights as improper grafting or pruning of branches, or excessive use of chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, etc.) can also lead to the drying up of the apple tree. Incorrectly processed cut sites can be affected by diseases and cause drying of overlying branches and foliage.

Diseases and pests

Most often, the apple tree is affected by black cancer. This is a fungal disease that completely affects the tree. In addition, lead to drying:

  • scab
  • powdery mildew.

In the last two cases, treatment with special preparations and the destruction of the affected parts of the tree helps. With cancer, only radical removal of the affected parts helps, and it is necessary to cut off the diseased branch with a margin, since the causative agent of the disease can spread along the tree. Visible stains and rot on the trunk must be cut and scraped out to healthy wood, then treated and covered with any suitable means - from special artificial compounds to simple garden varnish or even clay.

For insect pests, trees should be treated with pesticides or other agents in the spring, before flowering begins. When you find cobwebs, caterpillars, etc. you need to remove them from the apple tree along with the affected leaves. There are also rodent pests, both underground and aboveground. Underground (for example, moles) are taken out with the help of chemicals and traps, and aboveground (hares, etc.) do not touch the trunks, whitewashed with lime.

Why apple trees dry up Black apple cancer: video

How to save dying apple trees

If young apple trees begin to dry out, then the reason may be:

  • disease
  • frostbite
  • malnutrition
  • damage to the root system.

After clarifying the disease, the tree needs to be treated. If it's about the roots, check the water table, drain, fertilize.

Old apple trees can dry out both from diseases and simply from old age.
Do not forget that an old tree is generally more susceptible to disease. Such an apple tree must be carefully looked after, cut off the drying branches, processed the trunk and crown in time, and this will prolong its life and save it from diseases.

If the apple tree begins to dry out immediately after flowering
- the root system is damaged, and the tree only had enough strength to bloom. When the leaves begin to dry up and fall off after the color, this means that the roots begin to die.

After winter, the apple tree dries up when it has suffered from frost.
There is no need to rush to cut dry branches, let the tree stand for a while - perhaps the apple tree will "thaw". You can water it with warm water with dissolved dressing. But if leaves do not appear on the branches and the branches themselves are dry, they need to be cut off with a large margin.

A dried top of an apple tree is a sign of a high groundwater table.
It is necessary to equip drainage, otherwise the roots, reaching the aquifer, will inevitably rot. Drying of the top may also indicate a lack of potassium in the soil. Such a top must be carefully cut - low, without leaving a hemp and process the cut.

If the buds have dried on the apple tree, you need to make sure that they have dried up, and not "frozen"
... Sometimes abundant watering with top dressing helps, but in the event that this is not kidney damage by any pest.

Prophylaxis

Preventive measures against drying out are, first of all, proper care and compliance with "sanitary measures":

  • all cut, as well as fallen branches and leaves must not be buried in the ground or put into mulch for processing. Thus, infection and pests are preserved and multiplied. The affected parts only need to be burned, and the soil has to be fertilized with ash.
  • When cutting and other types of damage to the integrity of the bark and wood, processing is required to prevent subsequent infection of the apple tree.
  • Before wintering, trees need to be protected by mulching, and after snow falls, they should be spudded.It is not harmful to do this even when the winter is relatively mild.
  • In the fight against insect pests, birds are of great help. The garden should have birdhouses and feeders for the winter. This will keep the birds and save the apple trees from destruction.
  • From time to time you need to feed the apple tree so that it receives good nutrition from the soil. It is also helpful to loosen the topsoil around the tree.

Compliance with all these measures will significantly reduce the risk of drying out the apple tree.

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When buying seeds, many gardeners are faced with low germination, this may be due to the physiological dormancy of the seeds. Some plants have a short dormancy period and germinate well without additional stimulation.

Garden crops are very demanding on the nutritional value of the soil, so the question is to fertilize or not to fertilize? - has long been resolved positively. The main task facing everyone

Spring in our north-west, as a rule, is not hasty, so sowing begins only in early May. And so I want to quickly get healthy and tasty greens to the table!

Many gardeners, when deciding the issue of rejuvenating old trees in the garden, usually resort to grafting by grafting a stalk on a tree branch. But there is another method when grafting is done at the root.

Traditional tomatoes are familiar to everyone from childhood and, it seems, can no longer surprise you with anything. However, the kumato that appeared on supermarket shelves attracted attention.

Asparagus is an ornamental plant for many millennia grown all over the world not only as a decoration for a garden or home, but also as a valuable vegetable crop. Translated from the ancient Greek "asparasso" means "violently vomiting"

In one of the magazines I read about an interesting way of growing seedlings - "in Moscow". Last year I decided to apply.Very entertaining, not difficult, not time-consuming, and most importantly - effective.

Barberry is one of the most attractive shrubs for landscaping. A variety of varieties with different leaf colors, good shearing tolerance, after which the barberry retains its shape for a long time

We have an unpretentious plant in Russia - chicory. It lives along roads, in forest glades, in meadows, along village streets, and even appears as an uninvited guest right on the crops.

The hawthorn is very beautiful in autumn. Its leaves glow with yellow and burgundy colors, drawing our attention to this useful plant. Will involuntarily be remembered

Although lagenaria has been known since ancient times and mentions of it exist in ancient Chinese manuscripts, its popularity has not diminished for many centuries. Until now, it is considered the most famous and least known culture among gardeners.

“Celery should be both your food and your medicine,” Hippocrates said. For several thousand years, this plant has served people with faith and truth. Quite a lot has been written about its benefits.

Reproduction by layering is the most affordable and simple way of reproduction, it does not require special skills and a lot of care. All types of currants (black, red), gooseberries, honeysuckle and viburnum, many vines (actinidia, grapes) reproduce by layering.

Reproduction by lignified cuttings is a simple, affordable and therefore quite common method for propagating many plants among gardeners. With this method of reproduction, there is practically one prerequisite for successful rooting.

Wasp control is not easy and time-consuming. I start it in early spring, when I see queens that have overwintered and are beginning to fly. They give rise to the wasp's nest, and it is them that I try to destroy.

Those who have been to Crimea have seen, perhaps, in the markets flat red-purple onions, juicy, sweet and very tasty. The variety is called Yalta, and it was introduced a long time ago from Asia Minor.

Hilling helps the formation of additional roots, which not only deliver more nutrients and water, but also help the plant better anchor in the soil and not fall, for example

Both mineral and organic fertilizers can be used to fertilize grapes. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur are the main nutrients of any plant.

Let's talk about green operations that take place in the vineyard throughout the season. What are green operations? These are all actions performed by the grower with the green parts of the grape plant, which are aimed at increasing yields, normalizing the number of shoots and bunches.

The growing season of a grape plant is the period from bud break to leaf fall. The growth of the aboveground part of the bush begins at an average daily temperature of 8 ... 10 ° C sap flow begins

In order to seriously engage in viticulture and get a good harvest of sunny berries, you need to know well the structure of the bush, as well as its needs for lighting and heat.

Recently I read a question in which a correspondent complained that raspberries do not bear fruit: on each berry there are only a few bristles, or, as they say in Odessa, “bubochk”.

As a medicinal plant, lemongrass is described in Chinese medical treatises for 250 years BC under the name "wu-wei-tzu" which means "berry of five tastes"

Fennel is a perennial spicy aromatic plant from the umbrella family, growing up to two meters in height. The homeland of fennel is the Mediterranean. The main stem is quite strong, erect, branched.

I want to share my experience in growing tomatoes. In the 20th of March, I sow seeds. First, I soak them for 12 hours in diluted aloe juice (I keep aloe leaves for 5 days in the refrigerator

There are not dozens, not even hundreds, of garden strawberry varieties in the world, and more and more new ones appear every year.Which variety to choose in such a variety of varieties in order to get an early guaranteed harvest of transportable berries with high palatability?

When I saw that the yarrow grew as a weed in the garden, I did not weed it out. As a weed, it is not very scary: although it has a powerful rhizome, it is enough to pick it up once with a pitchfork and pull it out along with the roots.

In household plots, trapping belts are mainly used not for ants, but play an important role in protecting fruit trees from pests. Belts can be dry, poisonous and sticky.

I want to share my experience of growing seedlings in cups from plastic bottles. Many times I have come across a description of these cups in the SV newspaper, and each time I wondered how it was possible, using this method once.

Every amateur gardener wants to grow a good harvest in his personal plot, dacha or vegetable garden. What to do if you have a very small allotment for gardening?

Blueberries are a very promising berry crop, the interest in which is growing rapidly. It is a short perennial shrub from the Ericaceae family with bluish leaves and delicious blue fruits.

It is well known that in winter and early spring we cannot avoid the cold and flu season. But nobody wants to get sick. There are very simple, inexpensive and time-tested remedies that can boost immunity and protect us from this scourge.

Many gardeners shudder at the mention of these plants and declare that they will never plant them in their garden. Like, they killed so many apple trees, and other trees got it.

In late autumn (November), pests and pathogens are prepared for wintering. Many insects hide in cracks in the bark, under fallen leaves, in the upper layer of the soil.

On the garden plots, lush bushes of hazel and hazelnuts are still rare, giving in the autumn their delicious fruits - nuts. Although this culture dates back thousands of years and is still very popular today

If you take nutrients from the soil for a long time and at the same time introduce an insufficient amount of them, then it becomes scarce. There are many other causes: acidity (pH) shift

Podzimnie crops are carried out in late autumn at such times that the seeds do not have time to hatch before the onset of winter. You can sow on frozen or even frozen ground (in November-December), provided that the bed has been prepared in advance.

Winter for growing cucumbers is an extreme time. Even in the warmth on the windowsill, they do not have enough light. But there are hybrids that don't care about cloudy weather.

They say that the first month of winter ends the old grief, paving the road with new happiness. In December, although it gets dark early, the day is still increasing, albeit by less than half an hour, which also inspires optimism.

Many summer residents are interested in growing and treating such a useful medicinal plant as Rhodiola rosea. I also decided to join this topic, because for many years I have been growing this amazing and healing plant.

Sea buckthorn is propagated by woody and green cuttings, root shoots and seeds. To prevent sea buckthorn seeds from losing their germination, they must be stored in a dry place.

In summer cottages, mole rats, shrews and moles live in large numbers. However, not all of them are harmful and we must fight them, we will also get acquainted with useful "underground inhabitants".

The grapevine at all times aroused an increased interest of gardeners. Even IV Michurin tried to accustom this southern culture to the temperate climate of the northern black earth.

Several types of hibiscus are grown as perennial herbaceous plants. Most often in culture there are hybrid varieties of F.N. Rusanov and their seedlings. In autumn, stems that can be more than two meters high

Anemones - tender and Apennine - are covered with dry leaves for the winter with a layer 10-12 cm thick.It is safer not to leave the crown anemone in the open field, but to plant it in the spring.

It does not hibernate in this area without shelter. Since the akebia's shoots, although long, are thin and flexible, after the leaf fall, the lashes are removed from the supports, straightened in length and tied into one bundle

Unlike western thuja, the biota is less winter-hardy. In winter, on frosty sunny days, it can burn significantly from the sunny side. It is recommended (especially young plants) to shade from the winter sun with some kind of fabric

Many amateurs often have questions about whether it is necessary to cover certain plants for the winter? In this article, we will briefly talk about which plants and how to cover for the winter.

The most capricious root crop in storage is carrots. What they just do not do to protect it from rotting during winter storage. Carrots are sprinkled with sand, chalk or lime, placed in plastic bags

In recent years, residents of the southern regions of the country are increasingly complaining about the death of the potato crop during storage from voracious small caterpillars. Under the skin and inside, the tubers are completely riddled with winding passages.

In September, they continue to look after late-ripening varieties of white cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, as well as radishes and green crops - parsley, dill, lettuce and spinach. Warm September days are more conducive to the ripening of many vegetable crops.

Water the flowers in time, do not let the soil dry out. Spray your green pets regularly, give them a shower. Do not forget to loosen the soil after these procedures.

At the beginning of the month, continue to divide and transplant rhizome perennials (this can be done before the active growth of shoots begins).

It manifests itself on all aboveground plant organs when growing eggplant in open and closed ground. The disease manifests itself on the stems, leaves, fruits in the form of decay and mucousness of certain areas of the tissue.

Continue propagating and replanting plants. Many indoor flowers suffer from the bright spring sun and can get burns. Watch your green pets carefully, shade them with tulle or gauze if necessary.

In the spring, flower growers have a lot of things to do, and each of them is of paramount importance. All attention is now focused on the seedlings. It's no joke, fragile delicate plants grow rapidly and stretch towards the sun.

May beetle, or eastern May beetle (Melolontha melolontha) is a polyphagous pest. Distributed from Western Europe to Siberia. Inhabits mainly virgin, turfed areas of sandy loam and light loamy soils.

For several years now I have been preparing medicinal tea. Relatives and friends, invited to a tea party, always ask to brew my own, branded ... Perhaps, my recipe will also please the readers.

The prevalence and harmfulness of the garden plots monster is growing every year - meet the common bear (Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa), a polyphagous pest from the Orthoptera order. Her portrait is well known to everyone who had the misfortune to find a bear on their site.

Late blight is a disease of eggplant, which is the most common and harmful. It manifests itself on leaves, stems and fruits. On the stems and petioles, the spots are elongated, often merge, they are large dark brown in color on the leaves and fruits

In some hot and humid years, the disease spreads in the open field. It also manifests itself in greenhouses, especially at high temperatures in the phases of fruiting and ripening of eggplant fruits.

The disease is widespread in open and closed ground. It appears on leaves, petioles, stems, flowers, fruits. The external signs of the disease depend on the pathogen.

The less common vegetable plant, which will be discussed, is better known under the name "field salad" or "valerianella spikelet", or "veggie", the Latin name is Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterrade, synonym for Valerianella olitoria (L.) Poll.

Gray rot (Botrytis) is one of the most dangerous and harmful fungal diseases of flower crops, affecting more than 200 plant species from various families. It does not spare the most refined and refined representative of the flower kingdom - the lily.

Pumpkin is grown by many summer residents, because this vegetable is useful, and it is stored wonderfully. All winter you can cook fresh salads and juice from tender yellow-orange pulp, fried, stewed, added to rice

During the growing season, pumpkin is rarely watered, but abundantly (the soil layer should be moistened up to 40 cm). On loose light fertile soils, plants may well do without watering.

It's a pity, because its fruits are very useful, superior, especially in hot and dry summers, so our Moscow quince is healthier than the southern one.

Quince loves light and warmth, so it must be grown in the best places in the garden and well looked after, especially in spring and summer (cut and shape, water, feed, mulch, loosen the soil, etc.)

The fact is that the substances contained in raspberries are easily absorbed by the body, promote the absorption of other products, and neutralize organic acids of animal origin.

The next year, a crop is formed on last year's stems, and new replacement shoots and offspring grow from the buds on the rhizome and roots. Old stems dry up after fruiting.

The best place for planting raspberries is a flat slope, without groundwater outlets and saucers of stagnant water. The site should be well protected from winds, but without the accumulation of cold air masses.

Raspberry bush for planting in the garden can be compact (1) or spreading (2). Many shoots can form (more than 30 per 1 m of a row or 10 per bush), the average number

A modern variety of raspberries for a summer cottage, an amateur garden, must have the following qualities: winter hardiness (in particular, the ability not to lose hardening during thaws or

During this time, the soil is depleted, weeds, pests, pathogens accumulate on the plantations, plants age, lose their resistance, and reduce productivity.

Raspberries grow successfully, bear fruit abundantly and more easily endure all the hardships with the systematic application of organic fertilizers to the soil. They are various composts and rotted manure.

Raspberry seedlings are placed in one or more rows. Distances between seedlings for single-row placement and belt cultivation 0.3-0.7 m, depending on the quality of seedlings

In the first year, for intensive use of the area between raspberry bushes, you can plant early vegetables: dill, garlic, onions, turnips, radishes, carrots, beets for summer borscht

To decorate the site, raspberries can be grown in the form of a hedge, the so-called vertical flat trellis, tunnels (4), flower beds (2), borders, rabatok, standard plants

At the end of September, while the raspberry shoots are flexible, even if the leaf fall has not ended, they are tilted to the ground, intertwined or tied to neighboring ones, pinned with pegs and hooks.

The outer cover tissues are cracked and peeling as a result of a sharp change in weather in the fall: early snow, which then melts, rain and snow, a decrease in temperature

I prefer summer, June green cuttings: seedlings can be obtained quickly, they are not infected with kidney mites and take root well. In addition, green cuttings make it possible

No other disease of fruit trees has such a destructive effect as fire blight of fruit trees. It happened that because of its strong spread, it was necessary to cut down trees

Autumn is the time to tidy up the lawn and prepare it for winter. Those wishing to get a beautiful, even fluffy grass cover next summer need to carry out a number of activities.

Vegetable crops have different requirements for organic fertilizers. The most demanding (cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, pumpkin, zucchini, squash). These vegetables can even be fertilized with fresh manure.

Among the most useful crops I consider beets. It has been known since ancient times in Greece, Rome and the Mediterranean countries. Beets came to Europe in the XIV century.

The tomato culture has found wide application due to the high nutritional value and versatility of the fruit. They contain carbohydrates, organic acids (malic, citric, etc.)

When growing seedlings from sowing to emergence, the temperature is maintained at 18-21 °. After emergence within 4-5 days, the temperature should be 14-16 ° during the day.

The plot for tomatoes should be dug up in autumn to a depth of at least 20 cm.In the spring it is fertilized (per 10 m2: 1 kg of ash, 200 g of ammonium nitrate, 400 g of potassium salts

Preventive measures to protect tomatoes from pests and diseases include: compliance with crop rotation, timely implementation of agricultural practices, removal of post-harvest residues

Gooseberry is the most fruitful crop among berry plants. The best varieties yield up to 32 kg per bush. The gooseberry is currently experiencing a rebirth.

Plum fruits are high in calories, surpassing apples, pears, apricots, peaches, currants, raspberries and strawberries. 100 g of plum fruit contains 6 - 14 g of sugars

Nikolay Pavlovich, Moscow: "My mother-in-law recently bought a raspberry tree in the nursery. And I haven't even heard of this plant. How to grow it and can you get a harvest from it?"

Cold dew in late summer is a scourge for many vegetables, but tomatoes are especially affected. If brown spots appear on the lower leaves, and brown elongated strokes on the stems

The Moscow state has been eating cucumbers only since the 16th century. Cucumbers are native to northeastern India and were cultivated several millennia BC. Then the plants

Otherwise, Vitluf is called - a white leaf - because bleached young heads of cabbage from leaves are mainly used for food. In general, this plant belongs to the tsikorny salads.

From its homeland - the middle part of North America - the artichoke as a cultivated plant was introduced to southern Europe and North America and is widely cultivated there.

This herb will certainly be served to your table in Georgia, and delicate narrow-leaved shoots will surprise you with a spicy aroma and pungent taste. Transcaucasian cuisine is unthinkable without tarragon - as tarragon is called here.

Small nondescript fruits of this plant remain green even at full maturity. They look clearly unappetizing. But whoever tastes them once will remember this peculiar taste and strong

An interesting story happened with pineapple - a story as a result of which it began to bloom, one might say, by the will of man. But first, a few words about the features of this plant.

In the Non-Black Earth Region, watercress is promising among green vegetables. This culture was already well known in antiquity in the countries adjacent to the Mediterranean. Abundance of vitamin C

This root crop is appreciated for its cold resistance and early maturity, for the fact that for the inhabitants of the northern regions of agriculture it is a source of valuable vitamins, protein substances, and mineral salts.

There are many varieties of basil, including those that have the pleasant smell of allspice and are specially cultivated as a garden crop. Basil is widespread in Georgia

During storage, potatoes may develop dry rot. At the same time, dull brown spots with wrinkled skin appear on the tubers. The pulp under them becomes dry and rotten.

Flower buds appeared on the apple tree, and suddenly trouble: instead of swelling and blooming, they seemed to stick together with some sweetish liquid.

After all, the survival of the tree in a new place depends on this. If you have to move it over a long distance, then you cannot do without a machine or tractor.

When growing seedlings, it is very important that plants of equal strength fall on the beds: this is an indispensable condition for obtaining a high, evenly ripening yield.

In June, the time for sampling of green onions comes from seeds sown before winter. With good care at the end of the month, you can start picking onions sown in April.

Gray rot is a very annoying disease for those who grow garden strawberries. Almost every year she "collects tribute" from strawberry beds, and in some years, especially if the summer is damp and cool

So CALCIUM. With this element, not everything is completely clear. Plants absorb it in fairly large quantities, but its physiological role is not fully understood.

IRON is also one of the most essential elements. Without it, chlorophyll does not form in the leaves, although this element is not included in chlorophyll. There is a lot of iron in the soil

The method of grafting with a graft for the bark is one of the simplest. It is good when the stalk is much thinner than the rootstock branch. The cut (and the cut for a thick branch) should be even, smooth.

For seeds of heat-loving crops, there is an agricultural hardening method. Seeds swollen after soaking, which have begun to function (some of them have spiked)

Many growers are aware of the benefits of cubed seedlings. Let's talk about how best to make them at home. Well-decomposed peat is the main material.

The reasons are most often the following: fresh (previous year) seeds were taken for sowing, in addition, they were not pre-warmed up; the plants in the garden are placed too densely; the beds are shaded

However, it is better to do this without waiting for autumn: dig up the shoots while still young, reaching 15-20 centimeters, and plant them for growing separately, in loose soil. By autumn

Tomatoes do not need to be watered too often - just once a week is enough. It is important that watering is regular, otherwise, with an uneven flow of moisture, tomatoes can get sick with apical rot.

Those who have learned how to grow them under captivity begin to pick garden strawberries two weeks earlier. Of course, there are a lot of additional troubles with it, but they pay off with an early and bountiful harvest.

Summer is just beginning, and in the raspberry plantations there is trouble: recently young shoots have appeared from the soil, and already some of them have turned black and bent down the tops.

The peculiarities of the development of berry bushes are such that they begin to bloom in the spring before other plants in the garden. That is why it is important to carry out the bulk of the work required for them in the fall.

Many people are familiar with this picture: in August and September, on the shelves of shops and markets in the central regions of Russia, there are heaps of apples, in the orchards there are a lot of fruits, and business executives who are tortured by worries are trying

Digging up the garden, clearing the garden of dead foliage and grass, rolling away a stone from the path, you see how disturbed beetles, large and small, black and colored, shimmering with metal and dull, rush to flee.

In dry weather, it is necessary to clean up all wounds and cracks on the skeletal branches and boles of fruit trees, treat them with a 3% solution of copper or 5% solution of ferrous sulfate

But the June dropping of the ovaries is not at all a sign of some kind of trouble, but an inevitable physiological process when a tree naturally frees itself from unnecessary stress.

This variety, according to the famous Russian pomologist L.P. Simirenko, was bred in Saxony in the 19th century and bears the name of the originator Drogan. The variety is self-infertile (pollinators

Many of you may be surprised to learn that among the nightshades there are vines. But it is so. Bittersweet nightshade is a beautiful woody liana and belongs to the same family

The readers of the site learned about the medicinal and nutritional qualities of one of the types of scorzonera - black root, or black carrot, as this plant is often called by amateur vegetable growers, from an article by Professor A. Turova.

Many bacterial, fungal and viral diseases of vegetable crops are transmitted through seeds. Therefore, they are pickled before sowing. Etching contributes not only to the destruction of pathogens

To do this, the boles are tied with polyvinyl chloride captivity, you can use roofing roofing paper, spruce branches. Not only the bark of boles and the forks of skeletal branches are closed from hares and elk with a lapnik.

Many amateur gardeners, taking up a sprayer, think only of how to quickly destroy insects in the garden, forgetting that among them there are many useful ones - the gardener's allies.

For several years now I have not used pesticides in my garden. I make do with herbal pest control products. Nature has created many plants. Possessing insecticidal properties.

We have already talked about Chinese lemongrass on the Dacha Soviets website. Many are aware of the merits of this culture from other sources as well. But from correspondence with many amateur gardeners, I know

In Eastern Siberia, in the Far East, this shrub grows wild. There is a lot of it in mountainous areas, on limestones, along river banks, in moist coniferous forests, along the edges of peat bogs.

In the middle lane at the end of March, pruning and formation of berry bushes begins. The past winter turned out to be favorable for overwintering black and red currants, so they are pruned as usual.

Premature shedding of leaves on a pear, a decrease in the annual growth of shoots, abnormal development and death of buds, a decrease in yield - this is not a complete list of the tricks of a malicious pest

The weather conditions of this year in many regions have delayed the ripening of currant, gooseberry and raspberry berries. Naturally, the timing of post-harvest care has also shifted.

And during winter dormancy, the life of deciduous trees continues, albeit in a latent form. Respiration in dormant plants is comparatively intense even in severe frosts.

With what impatience the gardeners await the harvest! And now he is ripe. It is good when the berries are whole, fragrant, juicy: and for them to always be like this, the berry growers need good care.

The weather is known to have a strong effect on fruit plants. For successful horticulture, it is necessary to solve not only the issues of improving the general production culture

Polina Lebedeva, Bryansk: "An old pear with beautiful, tasty, well-stored fruits grows in our garden. Is it possible to cut it for rejuvenation, forming a new tree from the growth that has appeared on the trunk?"

Will cherries bloom and bear fruit today? Alas, successful seasons are less and less common. And she gives a good harvest only with skillful tree care from early spring!

Cherries are infected with coccomycosis. The main symptom of coccomycosis on cherries is spotted leaves (Fig. 2). Sick trees completely lose their green outfit by the beginning of August.

Petr Bolyshev, Solnechnogorsk, Moscow region: "I bought a plot, and with it a monster that lives in the soil - dark brown, about 5 cm long, hairy, with front legs like pincers.

If in the past you have had failures with eggplant, but you risked growing the seedlings of these healthy and tasty vegetables again, try this time to take into account all your previous mistakes and get a good harvest.

Everybody knows that the home clothes moth is the enemy of woolen and fur products. However, many of its relatives can be dangerous for various garden plants. One of them is apple moth.

Signs of the disease - a mosaic of alternating green and light yellow areas on the leaves - are found already a month after planting the seedlings in the ground. Such mosaic plates remain small.

The caterpillars of the ringed silkworm are very bright and catchy. They are fairly easy to spot when moving in the crown of a tree. The length of an adult caterpillar reaches 5 cm, the main background of the body is bluish-gray

From spring to late autumn, in gardens, especially in thickened ones, there are many different weevils. They eat up buds, petals, ovaries, but this is not so bad. But when will egg-laying begin?

Summer residents noticed long ago: the earlier the snow melted and the warmth came, the more terrible the return cold and frost for the plants. However, from such natural disasters in late spring and the very beginning

Cabbage seedlings are already asking for a permanent place. The time of harvesting and the harvest depends on when you plant it. Whatever your nursery, but the techniques for arranging the future garden

Let us remind you that ooculent rootstocks are called oculators. In the spring, it is necessary to remove the harness from them (if they did not do this before winter) and check the survival rate of the grafted kidneys.

Temper the seedlings. On warm, quiet days, take the seedlings out into the open air, shading them from the direct sun. Gradually, over 10-12 days, reduce shading time

In the middle lane, early varieties and hybrids of cabbage (Aigul Fv Golden hectare 1432) are planted in a permanent place from late April to May 5.

Potatoes, like a vacuum cleaner, absorb a disease-causing infection. It is deposited in storage tubers, and we plant them again next year. But even such unhealthy potatoes are eaten by pests.

Gray rot (Botrytis) is one of the most dangerous and harmful fungal diseases of flower crops, affecting more than 200 plant species from various families. It does not spare the most refined and refined representative of the flower kingdom - the lily.

A reliable way to deal with the Colorado potato beetle. The Colorado potato beetle used to adapt to crop protection chemicals that were used year after year.

The copper-yellow worm-like larva of the click beetle is probably no less harmful than the Colorado potato beetle. The most dangerous are the larvae of older instars, they are especially active if the ground is wet.

Some are sure that it needs to be dug up. Others argue that grass should grow in the trunk circle - as in nature. So where is the truth? And to understand who is right

Tatyana Ogareva, Smolensk: “In the literature on the subject of summer cottages, it is often written that for one tree for irrigation, you need so much water in buckets. Of course, this is convenient when there are 2-3 trees in the garden.

Proper watering for fruit trees is most directly related, because without moisture they will die. And even if they survive (many crops are very tenacious), then they will definitely not give a good harvest.

Such feeding is done, as a rule, when it is necessary to urgently "heal" the plant. If you fertilize the garden every year according to all the rules, foliar feeding is not needed.

Most summer residents plant their apple and pear trees in the spring. But recently, in books and magazines, there are more and more expert tips who recommend planting trees in the summer.

Devices for fine atomization of solutions are so different that, choosing the right one, it is easy to get confused. Several types of sprayers may come in handy

Watering in the country is a large-scale business! Plants, especially vegetables, almost like people, are 75-80% water, so they are waiting for it, rejoicing in it, grateful for every drop.

However, for a very short time, the ground under the vegetables may not remain dry, but dry. The main thing here is not to cross the critical line. Clear symptoms indicate that the plants are already suffering.

Moisture-charging irrigation (with a hose) is needed to create a reserve of moisture in the soil. So water the beds before planting seedlings of vegetables in the summer. Or before filling the containers with soil.

To get a good harvest, vegetables need a large supply of moisture. The fact is that vegetables consume up to about 300 liters of water per 1 m2 per season.

Watering cans are now so different that their eyes run up. For the garden, we choose a comfortable one, and let the color, shape and other design delights become a pleasant, but not an obligatory addition.

The roots of cucumbers are weak and are located in the surface layer of the soil, which dries quickly. In addition, plants have large leaves, they evaporate a lot of water. Therefore, cucumbers are often watered by sprinkling.

Nitrogen fertilizers are applied before sowing, planting.In the second half of the summer, they are not needed, and sometimes even harm. Foliar top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers is undesirable - a lot of nitrogen is lost.

Top dressing is an addition to the diet of vegetables. If the soil is initially rich in nutrients, vegetables need not be fed. But, alas, this almost never happens in the middle lane.

It is prepared like this: the mullein is mixed with water in a 1: 1 ratio (for example, half a bucket of manure and half a bucket of water), tightly covered with a lid (this is important!) And kept warm and dark for 7-10 days

Any summer resident knows: the most unpleasant job on the site is weeding. Especially perennials such as thistle, bindweed and wheatgrass. No matter how you cut them with a hoe, they climb into the light of God.

Elizaveta Ukhova, Tver. Against powdery mildew, I spray the whips with a solution of urea (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water). And if I don't have this fertilizer, milk diluted in water helps

If you do not go into details, then the depth of loosening for herbaceous annuals is 10-12 cm, and for perennials and dwarf shrubs up to 20-30.

It has long been known to all gardeners that plants get everything they need from compost for their development. There is no exact recipe for what and how much to put in the compost heap

Even a novice summer resident knows that the land in the beds, under the trees, bushes and in flower beds should be loose. The crust must be regularly destroyed, armed with the appropriate tool.

Tomato bushes are persistent and tenacious, they do not give up easily to infections or addictive insects. But even poisonous leaves and stems of plants do not frighten pests.

Loosening that dry watering. Summer residents are well aware of the paradox of dry irrigation, when, instead of water consumption, the soil surface is broken into small lumps. In terms of efficiency, two loosening

Cucumbers attract and attract not only people, but in general all living things. In the heat - insects, which, although they cannot crunch green leaves, suck the juices from the vines.

Gooseberry is a light-loving and demanding crop for soil fertility. The best place to land is well-lit, sheltered from the wind, where a lot of snow accumulates in winter.

The best time to plant gooseberries is late September - early October. Container-grown seedlings can be planted throughout the summer and fall. It is advisable to leave a distance between the plants.

In the second and third years, 350-500 g of saltpeter is introduced (half - in early spring on thawed ground, and then in mid-May). Fertilizers are scattered around the bush at a distance of 30-50 cm from the base.

Pruning is of great importance for gooseberries. Without it, the bushes become very thickened in the first years, and it is difficult to work with them, to harvest, they are more susceptible to damage by pests and diseases.

Winter cold can cause great harm to ornamental, fruit and berry crops. But do not forget that summer heat, autumn frosts and spring thaws are no less dangerous for plants.

Soon after the New Year holidays, I looked at the summer cottage and it seemed to me that the buds on the currant bushes swelled too early. Can this happen when it's still so cold outside?

For lovers of the earliest honeysuckle berry, breeders of the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry made a gift - seven new varieties. These are Barballeta, Vlada, Koketka, Laura, Lenarola, Masha, Renata.

Anna Vorobyova, Tver: "What is the Dasha apple tree (some gardeners call her Dasha)? This variety is praised at sales of seedlings, but nowhere is there a description of it

Valentin Prigogine, Tver: “Last season, some strange green bug attacked my beets and almost left me without a crop. Do bugs eat beets?

Garden strawberries are planted in spring and autumn, so if you cannot thoroughly prepare the site in the near future, do not worry, but simply postpone planting until the end of August - September.

The potatoes are out of luck this year.The cold soil in the spring broke the usual planting dates, the germination of tubers was difficult, and even the pests did their job - they gladly ate the young seedlings.

Yuri Popov, Ryazan: "Please tell us about the largest and sweetest varieties of cherries that can be grown in central Russia. I want to plant in my garden, but I'm very afraid to make a mistake

Ostroumova, Moscow: “I worked at the Klinsky state farm near Moscow for many years and have my own garden plot.

In July, the gardener seems to have nothing to do in the garden. The sowing tension is over, the harvesting harvest is just unfolding - it would seem that you can take a break

Today, in our field of vision, mainly the apple tree neighbors in the orchard who have fallen asleep for the winter, and some general techniques, rules, and patterns of pruning.

So that trimming does not cause much trouble, and the work goes quickly, so that the cuts are of high quality, first of all, take care of the inventory, learn how to use it, and also fix the problems that arise.

Hardly anyone will object to the statement that potatoes are the second bread. For some today, it has become the first and almost the only food product.

When choosing potato varieties for planting, it is better to give preference to domestic varieties and not only out of patriotism, but also because of common sense. They are more adapted to our climate

In summer cottages, vegetable peas are sown somewhere in the backyard, along the fence, almost near the compost heap. Yes, peas are modest and picky, but on the site they simply have no price!

In the spring, in April - May, all tree branches damaged by frost are already clearly visible: they either do not come to life at all, or their buds open with delay. If the shoots are still growing

Improved copulation is usually done when the thickness of the scion and rootstock is approximately the same. First, determine the branch on which you will graft the cutting. Place a blade at the grafting site

Grafting with butt is used when the stock is thicker than the cutting. First, cut the branch at the grafting site at a right angle, make a small bevel on one side of the cut. On the other side of the end of the branch

You bought a substandard drug. To avoid buying "leftist" chemicals, contact specialized reputable stores. The market and private traders are more likely to

Fishing belts are wide strips (15-20 cm) made of straw bundles, thick paper, matting, shavings applied in rings to the trunks and thick branches of trees to destroy pests.

Experts have described about 30 types of plums. They differ in a number of specific features. The most important species is the domestic plum (Primus domestica L.). This species is rich in varieties

Real Hungarian women, renklods and mirabelles in Russia are mainly cultivated in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, the Rostov Region and the plum-growing regions of the North Caucasus

However, this requires special techniques and technologies. For those who do not have this knowledge, the optimal planting period is spring and autumn. At this time, it goes down

Plants are planted quickly, protecting the roots from damage and drying. This is done as follows: fathoms are lowered into a hole, on a mound or flat surface

First, it is thinned out, removing to the base low-lying, as well as broken, intertwining, weak, diseased and low-yielding branches of all ages. Usually such plants

Gooseberry shoot aphid. Damages leaves on young gooseberry shoots. In the spring (during the period of bud swelling), the larvae hatched from eggs that overwintered on the shoots

American powdery mildew (spheroteka) on gooseberries. The most dangerous gooseberry disease. Young parts of plants are affected: leaves, petioles, shoots, green and ripening berries.

Gardeners all over the world are attracted by strawberries with amazing, almost fabulous qualities, which in a rare combination are collected only in one: outwardly attractive, fragrant

At the end of last autumn, in November, after a long Indian summer, night frosts suddenly hit - right on the bare ground. And after an unfavorable winter, the spring return cold lasted for a long time.

I am constantly hunting for new varieties of strawberries. The year before last, the unexpected trophy was the "strawberry tree" - at least that's what a saleswoman in one of the Moscow firms called it.

Alas, our garden "princess" - strawberries are not long-lived. It is well known that the planting of strawberries has to be renewed every three to four years, giving it a new place of residence each time.

Galina Rogova, Mozhaisk: "I usually start my work in the garden with sowing radishes. Are there any new varieties this year? Which ones are better to choose? What to look for when buying and sowing seeds?"

Tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers have already been removed from the dacha greenhouse. It stands empty and dull, as if asking: “Prepare me for the next season.” How best to do this?

Soil is a special complex natural formation. The system works on the principles of self-regulation, and a person should not rudely interfere with the laws by which it develops and exists.

It turns out that in the winter cold, plants can quickly give a crop. In an apartment on the windowsill, you can get such unconventional healthy greens that you will not find in any vegetable market.

Not all plants are capable of producing fruits without pollination. In warm weather, this is usually no problem, insects do their job, and in cold weather, you will have to take care of pollination.

Valentina Laskina, Moscow: “I recently read in your newspaper that wild pollinating insects are much more resilient than domestic bees and better pollinate gardens, especially in bad weather.

Do you want miracle trees and unusual shrubs to grow in your garden? If yes, then learn to plant plants. This will require not only skill, but also excellent, perfect tools.

For this, after planting, one or two of the strongest, most well-located shoots are left in the bush. On these shoots, all buds are removed from below up to a height of 30-40 cm.

Anna Bykova, Ramenskoye, Moscow region: "Apples, which had to be removed after a week or two, suddenly began to become covered with tiny brown spots, at first small

Vera Pichugina, Mikhnevo, Moscow region: "This spring, due to rainy weather and heavy floods, I could not sprinkle my fruit trees with anything. Instead of the expected white-pink

Gennady Zotov, Tver: "There were a lot of fallen apples this year. The trees seem to be healthy, and the fruits fall prematurely. Why is this happening?"

The pear leaves rolled into a tube are the result of the activity of the polyphagous tube-worm. This beetle is fairly widespread, but usually causes minor harm.

Many people are very worried when a tiny butterfly appears in the apartment - a clothes moth, whose caterpillars in just a season can greatly ruin the clothes stored in closets.

Vera Skvortsova, Galich: "Apple trees of summer and autumn varieties grow in my garden. This year we have a good harvest. But I don’t know exactly when to harvest the fruits. How to determine these terms

Many summer residents have transformed their vegetable garden by creating stationary raised ridges, edged with wood or other material. Growing vegetables this way not only makes work easier

Patisson is a type of bushy hard-bark (ordinary) pumpkin. They eat both young ovaries and fruits, as well as larger ones, similar to plates with a border. Their pulp, although dense, is very tender.

Summer is in full swing and gardeners are starting to harvest. Since early spring, they have been grooming and nurturing their green pets and waiting for the plants to be thanked for their care.

In recent years, many housewives have complained that the seeds of peas, beans and beans that they store at home are severely damaged by some pest, after which they are no longer suitable for food.

In the middle lane and to the north, some gooseberries and currants began to turn red in June. One would think that they began to ripen before the deadline.

To make the horseradish juicy, even and fleshy, you can plant its cuttings now, and dig up the finished roots in the fall of next season, letting them gain strength in a year and a half.

In order for actinidia and lemongrass to grow well and bear fruit, they need not only to be properly planted, but also to install supports and regularly cut the vines. Today we will tell

The American Indians called it tomato, from the Spaniards and the French came the name tomato (love apple, golden apple), but we call this culture this way and that.

Actinidia are southern subtropical plants; in their natural environment they live in Japan, Korea, China, India and other countries B, and Southeast. Asia. In Russia, actinidia are common in the Far East

Fruits and berries are essential in human nutrition. Of greatest interest are those that contain a large amount of vitamins, trace elements and other substances.

If irga does not grow on your site, then you probably have at least heard of korinka. So the real scientific name for cinnamon is round-leaved irga, or ordinary. But she's not quite ordinary.

We are used to the fact that apricots grow mainly in the south. Much has changed in recent years. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, they can now be grown near Moscow.

Alla Kashina, Ramenskoye: "My grown up children planted the entire plot with flowers and beautiful shrubs, leaving only a few beds for the garden. I'm not complaining, the garden has become very beautiful

Vegetables in the room are more demanding on the soil than on the garden bed, because in a pot the plant is forced to develop a root system in very cramped conditions. Therefore, the soil must be close to ideal.

All gardeners plant dill, but not everyone grows it juicy and lush. Often, skinny bushes are cast red or yellow and bloom quickly.

The fact is that the correct preparation of the site and the introduction of pre-planting fertilizers is 50% of the guaranteed yield within 3-4 years. After all, as the people say: "The earth

Recently, more and more columnar apple trees are found in gardens. They almost do not form lateral branches and grow into one trunk vertically upward, therefore they are usually called columns.

Both adults and children love sweet and fragrant garden strawberries, but it's a pity that you can feast on them in the Moscow region for only a month - from the end of June to the end of July. And so you want

It is known that it is not enough to grow and collect a rich harvest, it is important to preserve it. In preserves, compotes and jams, there are not too many valuable substances for which you worked so hard all season

If you want to replenish your garden with new varieties of apple and pear, rely on varieties that are winter-hardy and resistant to diseases and pests. When choosing and buying seedlings, be very careful.

Any gardener wants to sow seedlings early in order to get, as they say, a longer run in time and, therefore, an early harvest. But if you plant it sooner, you won't end up with trouble!

Now I'll tell you about where I sow the seeds and why. Sprouted seeds of tomatoes and peppers of the first stage, as well as all cucumbers (they don't like picking), I sow in high transparent containers

Oddly enough, but the reason for the suppression of seedlings and vegetables on the windowsill can be ordinary water with which we water the plants.

Irina Sazonova, Troitsk: “I have long dreamed of planting jasmine with strawberry aroma in the garden, I finally bought it. Last year the bush bloomed profusely, but the promised fragrance was not there.

In our article, we are talking about general cleaning of the greenhouse, so that before early planting there are no pests and microorganisms left in the soil and construction details that contribute to the development of plant diseases.

Scarce information is given in books for gardeners about sawdust. It is only said that they acidify the soil. So summer residents are afraid to use sawdust. And in vain!

There is always something missing in the room for the growth of vegetables: sometimes there is not enough space, sometimes the soil is poor, sometimes it is dark outside the window. Everyone solves such problems in their own way.You can approach this comprehensively.

It is known that on cloudy days the light intensity on the windowsill is 10 times less than what plants need. Due to the lack of light, the sprouts stretch out, develop much more slowly

The author of the article is candidate of agricultural sciences. Sci. Lydia Yurina explains the causes and mechanism of sunburn of fruit trees in gardens at summer cottages. The publication introduces the varieties of fruit trees included

Most often in the middle lane, varieties that are valuable in taste, but not winter-hardy enough suffer from sunburn (for example, apple varieties such as "Lobo", "Spartan", "Melba", "Biforest", "Clos")

Cherry is one of the most beloved horticultural crops; gardeners love it for its early maturity. Most of its varieties begin to bear fruit in the 3-4th year after planting, and some even from the second year.

Bolotovskaya (Sverdlovsk Experimental Gardening Station) - the variety obtained from free pollination of steppe cherry. Late ripening variety (first decade of August).

Cherry has been known in Russia since the 12th century. It was widespread in Russian orchards and in terms of "importance" has always followed the apple tree. It was appreciated for its yield, delicious and healing fruits.

Common cherry is common in the European part of Russia. Its northern border is conventionally considered the line St. Petersburg - Vologda - Kirov. Limits cherry promotion to

Steppe cherry, it is also called Bushy, Siberian, Ural, Samara. The natural area of ​​its distribution from the Center of Europe through Ukraine, the Volga region, the Southern Urals to Western Siberia.

Felt cherry, or it is also called fluffy. Chinese, Ando, ​​Tomentosa. From China it penetrated the Far East, and then into Siberia, the Urals and the European part of Russia.

Felt cherries propagate like currants by cuttings and seeds. The method of propagation by seeds is available to every gardener, while, as you know, plants are easier to adapt to new conditions

The life span of the bushes is 12-13 years. Planting and care are the same as for currants and gooseberries. The authors had a chance to grow felt and common cherries in the Middle Lane

Sea buckthorn, say, in our suburbs began to spread back in the forties. The emergence of this culture was greatly facilitated by T.T. Trofimov.

Growing from seeds. It is better to sow seeds in spring, because during autumn planting during thaws, the seeds begin to germinate, and die in winter. But with seed reproduction about

Sea buckthorn prefers light sandy loam soils. If the soil is heavy, clayey, then before planting, it is necessary to add two to three buckets of river sand for each square meter.

Feed or not? How often do amateur gardeners ask themselves this question. And, of course, doubts are not in vain, since there is not always a need for summer feeding of fruit and berry plants.

Salad in Russia is cultivated everywhere: in the Far North and in the Arctic, in the south in the Middle zone. In the north, both head and leaf can be successfully grown. Its seedlings can withstand frosts down to -2 ° С

A shady seating area and a flat lawn, a small water mirror and several boulders nearby - not only will decorate the site by themselves, but will also increase the variety of plants

For an amateur who first received a plot for a garden and vegetables, its development can be a serious problem. Usually, this work should take 2-3 years.

Relief formation is the most important operation in preparing a site for planting. Those who got an area with a slope of the surface or, for example, with a ravine, should not be upset

Anatoly Kuzenko, Belgorod region: "I bought a plot on the site of a former collective farm field. I am going to plant a garden in the spring. I heard that all crops should be planted separately, and not interspersed. Is that so?"

The beginning of the dacha harvest usually coincides with the purchase of seeds and occurs long before leaving the city.This is a very important stage in the life of a gardener, because yields largely depend on his success.

We will try to help you. It is precisely such plants, adapted to the short and cool summer, which is common in the middle lane, and not suffering from diseases, that breeders tried to create.

At the end of April, in order not to bother with sowing seeds and growing seedlings, you can immediately buy high-quality young plants of resistant varieties. The safest way to buy them is in large

Anatoly Bystrov. Taldom: We have high groundwater. In the fall, I made flower beds, pits for seedlings of fruit trees, filled them with fertilizers. Are there any features of planting and caring for plants in flower beds?

The main early spring event is spraying the plants at the very beginning of bud break. Please note that apple and pear trees may not be harvested due to weevils and other pests.

Our summer cottage village almost burned out this summer - there are peat bogs all around, and we have solid peat on our site. Is it possible to somehow change the structure of the soil?

Banding is the removal of bark all the way to the wood around tree branches. As a result of this operation, nutrients are retained at the site of the ring, which contributes to

Pruning trees and shrubs correctly and on time will keep them healthy and look as beautiful as you want them to be. We are often completely in vain afraid to approach the plant and remove the excess.

The first one, sanitary, is simple, applies to most plants and is carried out to maintain their health. Even an inexperienced gardener can learn it. You need to start with it in any case.

Such trees take root well if they have not been outside the soil for too long. For better growth and development, root pruning is very helpful.

An experienced gardener understands: before planting something, you need to "know" the land. What is its composition, acidic or not, how many organic substances it contains, what is the density

The acidity (pH) or alkalinity of the soil is the reaction of the soil environment. The agrochemical properties of the soil and plant growth depend on this indicator. On soils with high acidity

The mechanical (granulometric) composition of the soil is the relative content of particles of different diameters in the soil. Soil contains four essential components

Soil moisture is the content of moisture in the soil in three states (solid, liquid and gaseous). Soil moisture is expressed as a percentage of dry soil mass or volume.


Long Leaf Pine Straw Processing | North Carolina Expansion Publications

Long-leaved pine trees leave an annual cover of needles on the forest floor, often called pine straw, which many forest owners do not realize can be traded. But in fact, wisely managing this resource can significantly increase the owner's income from forest land. North Carolina long-leaved pine straw retail sales in 2016 are estimated at more than $ 34.8 million per year. This volume could easily be doubled or tripled if owners were more aware of this opportunity and if the market was expanded by stimulating sales in the states to our north.

Early settlers in North Carolina encountered the pristine long-leaved pine forest that covered nearly all of the well-drained soils of the North Carolina coastal plain. Conversion to other uses and species, poor logging practices, and the inability to provide adequate conditions for recovery have greatly reduced the area of ​​this valuable southern pine trees.

Long-leaved pine ( Pinus palustris ) grows well in a variety of soils, but most stands in North Carolina today grow on sandy soils with low surface organic matter and moderate to strong acid.... Soil drainage ranges from good to excessive. Approximately 425,000 acres of long leaf forest type are found in the 20 eastern and south-central districts (Table 1). Selling pine straw can contribute to better forest management. Recent conservation incentive programs have increased the interest of landowners in the restoration and reforestation of long-leaved plants.

Traditionally, sowing long-leaved pine has been problematic due to the low survival rate of the seedlings. A high percentage of plantings have failed, most of which have recently been prevented by the introduction of seedlings in containers and planting early in the season. Better nursery, proper care and treatment of the seedlings, and proper site preparation have increased the survival rate of the seedlings in the Southeast.

Sapling size affects survival. It is best to grow freshly cut, chilled seedlings with a neck diameter of at least an inch. Planting spacing varies with landowner's preference, but typically 400 to 600 trees per acre are planted. Container-grown long-leaved seedlings have become the preferred planting material and consistently produce successful plantings with high survival rates. See Note 16 of the forest owner “Steps to a successful pine planting »For more information on pine survival rates.

Long-leaved seedlings are intolerant of competition. Their initial growth may be slow, and growth in height is delayed until the seedlings take root. Upon reaching sapling size, Longleaf pine grows better than other southern pines and may outperform other varieties in drought-prone areas.

Longleaf pine is more resistant to fire and most pine insects and diseases than other pines. It is rarely grown exclusively for pulpwood. The greatest economic return is achieved when trees are grown on longer crop rotations and used to produce large products such as poles, piles, lumber and plywood logs. The rotation period of 60 years will allow the production of high quality products at medium-sized sites. The long rotation length provides habitat for valuable minerals and endangered species, including the habitat of the red cockade woodpecker. Straw production combines well with long rotation periods and can serve as an economic justification for preserving mature wood.

Table 1. North Carolina Longleaf Pine Crops by County, Estimated Forest Inventory and Analysis . 1
County are
Bladen 47,114
Brunswick 51 615
Carter 14 438
Columbus 5,699
Craven 3 035
Cumberland 14 085
Duplin 3 628
Harnet 20 808
Hoke 67 629
Moore 46 510
New Hanover 13 230
Northampton 5 701
Onslow 7,125
Pender 37 859
Pitt 5 868 90 564
Richmond 52 974
Robson 2,213
Sampson 7 791
Scotland 13 355
Wayne 4 626
Total 425 314
1 Brown, M. (January 2019). Appraiser request. Forest inventory and analysis ... Version 1.8.0.00. Based on forest county statistics for North Carolina using the query code for the long-leaved pine forest type. Asheville, NC: South Research Station, US Forest Service.

Longleaf pine needles are flexible and fibrous, ranging in length from 8 to 18 inches. Pine needles are used in nurseries and horticulture for decorative coverings and mulch. Long-leaved pine straw is also used for erosion control, weed control, flower or foundation bedding, and for mulching natural areas. Traditional garden centers are homeowners' main suppliers, but they are increasingly becoming popular sources of supply.

Pine straw consumers want bales free of cones, hardwood leaves and branches.Most growers manage to minimize debris and undergrowth while encouraging the cultivation of native grasses. The turkey oak, a species that prefers deep sandy soils and is often associated with long-leaved pine, can be a major problem. Treatment with herbicides followed by a prescribed burn after a year will greatly help destroy this species. It may be possible to trim the oak and process the stump. Other competing vegetation can also be treated with herbicides. Contact your county representative for current herbicide recommendations. Some landowners enter into a long-term contract with a pine straw producer to collect straw under which the producer eliminates competition in the undergrowth as part of a contract agreement.

Maximum production of long leaved pine straw needles can be achieved in dense stands (90 to 100 square feet of root area per acre). Overcrowding should be avoided and a crown-to-stem ratio of 25 to 30 percent (or more) should be maintained. The balance between pine straw production and its benefits is discussed in detail in the planning section below and, in particular, in the paragraph “Pine straw rake plan”.

Fertilizer and long-leaved pine. The fertilizer has the promise of replenishing nutrient losses from raking in many areas, as well as in areas where owners want to increase needle and wood production. Pine leaves are usually preserved for two growing seasons (about a year and a half). Fertilized needles will grow during the first growing season after fertilization, but needles will not fall off until the second year after fertilization. The dry weight of long-leaved pine straw in the research plots was increased by 50 percent (compared to unfertilized neighbors) by the second growing season after application. Increases of 25 to 40 percent are common. Research on Loblolli pine shows that the response to long-leaved fertilizer use will gradually decline over the next four to five years.

Fertilization of long-leaved pine also led to a significant increase in the diameter of trees in stands of 55 years and older. At the North Carolina Wildlife Commission's Sandhills Game Land research sites, trees responded to fertilization with an increase of 19 percent in diameter (versus unfertilized trees) during the first growing season and 49 percent (versus unfertilized trees). trees). ) during the second growing season. One caveat: competition also depends on fertilization, so replacing nutrients lost in straw removal may be more beneficial than experimental regulations that maximize wood production. Power Management for Long Leaf Pine Straw , for an in-depth fertilization discussion and determination of the fertilizer needs at your site.

Rowing and packaging . Long-leaved pine needles are usually heaped with a pitchfork or mechanical baling rake. Some areas of pine straw are completely raked and covered with pitchforks, where undergrowth vegetation does not allow the use of a mounted rake.

Pine straw bundling is a laborious process. Some manufacturers currently use mechanical balers most of them use a manual box baler (Figure 2 and Figure 3). It has been many years since growers have used mechanical balers in which one person loads straw into the baler with a fork, another ties the wire that ties the bale together, and a third person stacks the bales.A crew of three can produce 250 to 300 bales per day. The tractor-driven baler moves from one pile to the next.

Higher productivity can be achieved if partial swaths can be formed and then the straw is fed into the pick-up drum where the bale is mechanically tied with twine. The most efficient production is achieved when the straw is folded into long, clean swaths, mechanically picked up, baled and pushed to the side. Production by this method can reach 1000 bales per day. Manufacturers are currently exploring two areas of research: mechanical cleaning of pine straw and finding a manufacturer of balers with a chamber size suitable for pine straw, which could lead to more efficient mechanized round and square balers.

Pine straw bale size. There is no standard bale size for long leaf pine straw. Bale lengths are typically 24 to 30 inches, and dry weight per bale can range from 8 to 25 pounds. The average bale size varies by manufacturer and retail area, but consumer-sized bales that are light and easy to fit into a car or truck are becoming popular. Some wholesalers are experimenting with small round bales that are popular with landscaping professionals.

Annual yield of long-leaved plantations. Several variables control the yield of pine straw, including raking efficiency, vigor and age of trees, basal area (density index), harvest season, raking time, and bale size. The first raking of a 15-year-old plantation can produce 200 bales or more per acre. Strong, young to middle-aged stands usually produce more straw than older, undersized stands. Low annual yield is 50 bales per acre, good average is 70 bales, and 100 bales are above average.

Stands with needles accumulating over several years will not necessarily yield higher yields than stands with two or three years of needling, because growers choose freshly fallen or reddish orange pine straw. On the forest floor, the needles under the layer of the second year of life begin to disintegrate and become too fragile for baling. To collect the yellow and red needles most desired by buyers, raking should be planned annually, or at least every two years. The two-year interval is also more efficient than the annual raking, but the quality is slightly lower. See Table 2 at the end of this publication, which describes methods for producing resilient pine straw.

The needles fall off all year round, but the strongest molt occurs in September and October under normal weather conditions. December, January and February are good months for raking, provided the bales can be taken directly to the dealer or stored under a canopy.

Land administration plan . Pine straw landowners will want to consider a written forest management plan to help guide their long leaf pine straw production efforts. Depending on the landowner's goals, start by scheduling targeted maintenance and improvement of natural long leaf pine forests to improve quality. and the number of areas producing pine straw. One of the tools to improve the quality and quantity of pine straw produced is a planned fire or combustion plan.

Combustion management plan. Long-leaved pine is well adapted to fire, even at a young age.Controlled burning, especially during the growing phase, will reduce competition between pine and hardwood in the same area. Lobloli pine and small deciduous trees are more susceptible to heat damage at an early age. A permanent prescribed burn plan will help maintain - - a healthy long-leaved pine ecosystem, while providing the following benefits:

  • Creates a bare seedbed for sprouting pine and herbaceous seedlings
  • Controls the growth of undergrowth (eg, hardwoods and shrubs), resulting in "cleaner straw".
  • Increases sunlight to the ground, stimulates the groundcover and increases vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting
  • Improves the quality and availability of feed for various species of wild animals
  • Encourages the growth of local wire grass, insect populations and wild animal forage populations
  • Maintains groundcover diversity and prevents multiple species dominance
  • Reduces the build-up of hazardous fuels
  • Controls the spotting of needles on seedlings of herbaceous plants, which causes disease of long-leaved plants
  • Helps prevent the invasion or spread of non-native plant species

Timber management plan. Long-leaved pine maintenance in a long-term crop rotation will increase the ability to collect straw and maintain good wildlife habitat. A long-term long-leaf management program may include harvesting in groups to grow trees of different ages, while allowing the remaining trees to naturally seed the area and support the production of long-leaved pine straw in the future. A forestry consultant can conduct a property survey and help the landowner determine an appropriate forest management plan to maximize pine straw production.

Straw rake plan . To keep pine straw available in the future, it is important to maintain open conditions under long-leaved pine stands. The open environment allows the tractor to mechanically efficiently accumulate pine straw while still providing access for a planned combustion program. The key to harvesting long-leaved pine straw is to alternate the raking schedule with burning off the undergrowth in the plots. Rotating the raking of the identified area of ​​the plot avoids over-harvesting. Raking pine straw annually is possible, but should be avoided throughout the plot. Repeated removal of pine straw can have environmental impacts, such as removing nutrients and moisture from the soil that groundcover plants provide in dry and infertile soils. Moreover, campfires will not be hot enough to prevent bush oaks and other hardwoods from dominating if pine straw is overpicked. If raking is affecting timber growth, the landowner may consider applying fertilizers to offset any noticeable negative impacts. Frequent and planned understory burns are necessary to maintain open undergrowth that improves overall wildlife habitat, generates pine straw income, and creates an aesthetically pleasing forest floor. savanna type array. Pine straw income can help offset the costs of land administration, including property taxes.

Safe Harbor Agreement Program . Landowners concerned about the continued growth of longleaf pine and the ecosystem's support for the endangered red-badged woodpecker,may consider adding their property to the Safe Harbor Agreement program to create a base population of the red-cockade woodpecker, which will allow the landowner to manage their property while improving wildlife habitat for federally-listed species under the Endangered Species Act. For more information about the Safe Harbor Agreement program, contact the US Fish and Wildlife Service or call 910-695-3323.

Selling pine straw. Private landowners often sell long-leaved pine straw to growers who rake, bale, and sell the finished product. The grower usually pays in a bale or rent per acre. Some landowners rake their straw and sell it directly to the seller or user. Retail landlords also have storage facilities (awnings or trailers).

Federal and state agencies list their straw for sale on a closed, borderline basis. That is, they accept bids (in dollars per acre) for the right to harvest pine straw on a given plot for a specified period, usually six months or annually. Private landowners can benefit by adopting a bidding method when selling long leaf pine straw. The bidding approach offers several advantages: payment is made before harvest, competitive bidding brings the highest price, and the owner does not have to worry about keeping track of every bale harvested. There is a sample contract for the sale of pine straw.

As with the sale of pulpwood and lumber, it is beneficial to sell pine straw in a business-like manner using a written contract that stipulates the terms of sale for both parties. For a list of pine straw growers in your area, contact your county extension agent, county forester or forestry consultant.

Always keep in mind that thinning and resting the plantation between raking stages can promote tree health and resistance to pest attacks. Table 2 provides simple tips for ensuring long-stroke performance in raking and other manufacturing operations.

Give trees room to grow .

More room to grow - more resources (water, light and nutrients) to support root and needle growth. Trees that are too crowded cannot get enough resources, and eventually their health and strength deteriorate (and their susceptibility to pests increases).

The best thinning mode to maintain a healthy growth rate is to thin out up to 90 square feet per root acre when the basal growing area is greater than 140 square feet.

Rake once a year.

Ideally, rake in the fall during peak needle drop (October to November). By raking before the trees fall, all needles may fall later and remain on the forest floor.

Rake only red straw.

Leave a layer of gray straw to trap moisture. . Recently dropped red needles make the product the most desirable for buyers.

Give time to rest, rake and burn.

Start a raking cycle with a rest period. The Reich every three years is the most reasonable cycle. Apply the prescribed burn between raking. Burning helps to control competition, "cleans" the planting and provides the trees with nutrients.

Turn the rake.

Consider splitting a pine straw rack into three raking sections so that you can rake one section, burn one section, and let one section rest for a given year.

Apply fertilizer every six to eight years to replenish lost nutrients. Don't overdo it with nitrogen. Longleaf does not need much nitrogen. Include micronutrients such as boron, calcium and magnesium in your diet.

Exercise caution during drought.

Pines are most susceptible to attacks Ips species (engraving beetles) in drought conditions. Consider postponing thinning, fertilization, or prescribed burning that could cause unintended stress on the stand during a drought.

Source: NC Forest Service. 2019. Use of pine thatch stands to reduce stress on trees. Longleaf Leaflet (LL- # 14). Roles: North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Human Services.

Fig. 1. After the prescribed burn, the needle drop is visible with slight darkening of the needle at a distance from the recent prescribed fire.

Figure 2: Pine straw baler.

Fig. 3. Modern, advanced pine straw baling techniques use a rag to prevent ants and other insects from accidentally entering retail locations.


Watch the video: Common Fruit Tree Diseases