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Echinocactus - Echinocactus grusonii

Echinocactus - Echinocactus grusonii


Echinocactus

The Echinocactus belongs to the Cactaceae family and its original location is traceable to Central America.

The plant is characterized by a spherical and globular shape that tends to become slightly cylindrical with the progress of growth.

The Echinocactus is quite large and can reach up to one meter in diameter; this happens in particular, if it is in its natural habitat.

This genus of plant has many ribs and many medium-length and particularly hard thorns; the color of the spines can vary from white to yellow.

Because of its shape, it is often amicably called the "mother-in-law's pillow". It is a plant that lasts for many years, even more than 30, and resists many adversities.

Thanks to its spherical shape, the Echinocactus retains many liquids that allow it to resist, for a long time, periods of great drought.

For years Echinocactus has been confused with Ferocactus.


Environment and exposure

The Echinocactus grows quietly in the apartment, as long as you have the foresight to change its location from time to time. In fact, in summer, it would be advisable to move the Echinocactus to the garden or terrace so that it can take in the right air and light. Loves the direct sun and particularly bright environments; the minimum temperature should be around 5 degrees. In the summer season the plant bears very high temperatures.


Ground

Echinocactus requires well-draining soil. You can use the classic compounds for cacti or structure the compound with a part of sand or pozzolan. The important thing is that the earth is not pressed, so as to allow a good passage of water.


Planting and repotting

This kind of plant has a very slow growth and repotting does not happen frequently; in principle it is sufficient to change the pot every two or three years. The Echinocactus has many thorns and the movement is very delicate. Using special gloves, gently turn the plant upside down until it is removed from the pot. Be very careful not to crack or break the thorns. Clean the roots and proceed with a new repotting, taking care to change the soil. Repotting should be done in the spring season. The earthenware pot is ideal and, given its growth, it will never exceed 30 centimeters in diameter. For each repotting it is sufficient to take a vase of a larger size than the previous one.


Watering

The Echinocactus should not be watered during the winter, while in the summer it should be watered about every twenty days. The amount of water for a medium-sized plant is about 200 ml. In any case, it is necessary to water whenever the soil is dry in the substrate; in winter, instead of the traditional watering, use a sprayer that vaporizes the water.


Fertilization

Echinocactus should be fertilized every two months, with products that have a low presence of nitrogen and a good dose of phosphorus. Classic cactus products will do just fine. Do not exceed with fertilizers because they tend to accelerate the growth of the plant; excessive growth weakens the structure of the Echinocactus.


Reproduction

The Echinocactus reproduces through the seed and its growth is very slow. For sowing use a soil with a greater presence of sand. Once the seedling sprouts, it will need to be planted in the correct soil.


Pruning

The Echinocactus does not need pruning, because it has no branches or growths that can be damaged.


Flowering

Echinocactus develops flowering on the top of the plant and its flowers are small and yellowish in color. It is not easy to see this flowering plant; in fact, this plant blooms only in adulthood, around the age of 15 and in the hot season.


Diseases and parasites

Echinocactus is a robust plant and does not get sick easily. Excessive humidity and inevitable rot are its worst enemies. To avoid this, keep the plant dry.

To ensure healthy growth, use a broad spectrum fungicide and insecticide, especially before the summer.

As a succulent, the mealybug may attempt attacks. To eliminate it, use a cotton swab dipped in alcohol and rub the part affected by the parasite.


Sale

Echinocactus has a very slow growth and therefore, if you buy a large plant, it is inevitable that its cost will be high. A plant of three or four centimeters in diameter, however, has a very low cost and less than five euros.


Most common species

Echinocactus Grusonii is characterized by numerous coasts, completely covered with thorns. It blooms in adulthood, around the age of fifteen, producing yellow flowers about five centimeters in diameter.

Echinocactus Horizontalonius is small compared to the other species and hardly exceeds 25 centimeters in diameter; its coasts are few (between 8 and 12 coasts) and spaced apart, with a row of curved spines. Its flowers are pinkish.


Curiosity

Its name, etymologically speaking, means porcupine.




Echinocactus - Echinocactus grusonii - garden

Origin and Habitat: Garden origin (Nursery produced cultivar)

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Y.Itô
Cactaceae [Itô] 505, without type. 1981
Synonymy: 5

  • Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Y.Itô
    • Echinocactus grousoni f. nudum hort.
    • Echinocactus grusonii var. brevispinus hort.
    • Echinocactus grusonii var. inermis hort.
    • Echinocactus grusonii cv. Togenashi Kinshachi
Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii Hildm.
Deutsche Gärtn.-Zeitung 5 (3): 27 (-28). 1886 Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 4. 1891

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii var. albispinus Y.Itô
Cactaceae [Itô] 503, without type. 1981

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii f. cristatus hort.
= cristata

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii var. horridus Y.Itô
Cactaceae [Itô] 505, without type. 1981

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii f. monstruosus hort.
= monstrous or monstrous

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii var. setispinus f. minor cristatus hort.
= cristata (Nursery produced cultivar)

Description: 'brevispinus' warrants no varietal taxonomic ranking, as it is a recent mutant which occurred in cultivation.
This plant differs from the common Golden barrel cactus (Echinocactus grusonii) only for the very short spines. Except for the spines it is identical in shape and size to the standard species. It has a single slowly growing globe-shaped stem that became elongated (barrel-shaped) in maturity, up to 90cm (180cm) in height and spread. This stem is pale green and heavily ribbed with numerous areoles sprouting radial, yellow spines. They normally offset with advanced age and a few multiples occur even at small sizes.
Flowers: The flowers are produced from end of spring to summer only on larger mature specimens receiving enough full sun. Flower are diurnal, vivid yellow (4-5 cm wide) and form a circular ring at the top of the plant, but are not very visible being small in relation with the size of the barrel, and lost into the creamy colored wool at the plant apex.

Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Echinocactus grusonii group

Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Edward F. Anderson "The Cactus Family" Timber Press, 2001
2) James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey "The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, Both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass"Cambridge University Press, 11 / Aug / 2011
3) David Hunt, Nigel Taylor "The New Cactus Lexicon" DH Books, 2006 ISBN 0953813444, 9780953813445
4) Walther Haage "Kakteen von A bis Z" Neumann Verlag, 1981


Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Raimondo Paladini
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Cactus Art
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Cactus Art
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli

Cultivation and Propagation: Frost tender but resistant to very dry conditions, Cold hardiness increases with improved drainage, so keep plants as dry as possible in winter. They grow best in well-drained soil and in a position with full sun, which will help to maintain the luster of the spines and longevity of the flowers. Provide the plant with extremely well-drained soils, as the plants are subject to crown and soft rot if they remain too moist. Besides, it performs wonderfully in containers, Container media should be coarse as well. Young plants are prone to mealy bug and red spider mite. Propagate from cuttings or seed.
Propagation: From seeds. E. grusonii will produce hundreds of fruits each season. Several months after the flower dies off and the pods are ripen it is possible to collect them from under the dried flower. The pods will come off with a slight twist, leaving the wool on the cactus. Use a knife to slice down one side of the pod to expose the seed and scrape them out. The seeds are mahogany or reddish amber and tiny. Then place the seeds in some water to soak overnight. Fill germination trays with a well blended mixture of 60% peat moss 40% vermiculite and one to one part of coarse sand or pumice. Use a horse syringe to suck the small seeds and some of the water into the syringe. With the syringe, distribute the seeds evenly in the germination tray, shaking the syringe so the seeds don't settle at the bottom and all come out at once. Some growers also recommend to cold-stratify seeds in a refrigerator for a year prior to sow them. But can also be used dry seeds too. Place then the trays in filtered sun, cover with a glass sheet and keep the soil moist until the seeds germinate in approximately 2 to 6 weeks. They will look like small spheres, red in color not green. Then gradually remove the glass cover. When the small cacti start to sprout tiny spines, use a pair of tweezers to transfer them from the propagation trays into 5 cm pots filled with the same soil mix used in the germination trays. Allow the small cacti to grow for about one / two year and then move the cacti to 10 cm pots and allow them to grow further.


Care and Propagation Information

General Care for Echinocactus grusonii "Golden Barrel Cactus"

Echinocactus grusonii “Golden Barrel Cactus” is a great addition to rock gardens. As it grows, it becomes cylindrical. It can be grown in the ground, in planters, or large succulent garden beds.

Watering

Echinocactus grusonii “Golden Barrel Cactus” has typical watering needs for a succulent. It's best to use the “soak and dry” method, and allow the soil to dry out completely between waterings.

Where to Plant

“Golden Barrel Cactus” is not cold hardy, so if you live in a zone that gets colder than 20 ° F (-6.7 ° C), it's best to plant this succulent in a container that can be brought indoors. It does well in full to partial sun during the Summer. In the Autum, be sure that “Golden Barrel Cactus” gets less light.

Plant in an area of ​​your garden that gets 6 hours of sunlight a day. If planting indoors, place in a room that gets a lot of sunlight, such as near a southern-facing window (if you're in the Northern Hemisphere).

How to Propagate Echinocactus grusonii "Golden Barrel Cactus"

Echinocactus grusonii “Golden Barrel Cactus” can be propagated from seeds.

Seeds

To grow “Golden Barrel Cactus” from seeds, sow your seeds in a well-draining soil. You can grow Echinocactus grusonii seeds outdoors if you live in an zone above 9a. If you live in a cooler area, you can begin sowing indoors under a grow light or on a seed mat.


Echinocactus - Echinocactus grusonii - garden

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Origin and Habitat: Garden origin (Nursery produced cultivar)

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Y.Itô
Cactaceae [Itô] 505, without type. 1981
Synonymy: 5

  • Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Y.Itô
    • Echinocactus grousoni f. nudum hort.
    • Echinocactus grusonii var. brevispinus hort.
    • Echinocactus grusonii var. inermis hort.
    • Echinocactus grusonii cv. Togenashi Kinshachi
Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii Hildm.
Deutsche Gärtn.-Zeitung 5 (3): 27 (-28). 1886 Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 4. 1891

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii var. albispinus Y.Itô
Cactaceae [Itô] 503, without type. 1981

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii f. cristatus hort.
= cristata

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii var. horridus Y.Itô
Cactaceae [Itô] 505, without type. 1981

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii f. monstruosus hort.
= monstrous or monstrous

Accepted name in llifle Database:
Echinocactus grusonii var. setispinus f. minor cristatus hort.
= cristata (Nursery produced cultivar)

Description: 'brevispinus' warrants no varietal taxonomic ranking, as it is a recent mutant which occurred in cultivation.
This plant differs from the common Golden barrel cactus (Echinocactus grusonii) only for the very short spines. Except for the spines it is identical in shape and size to the standard species. It has a single slowly growing globe-shaped stem that became elongated (barrel-shaped) in maturity, up to 90cm (180cm) in height and spread. This stem is pale green and heavily ribbed with numerous areoles sprouting radial, yellow spines. They normally offset with advanced age and a few multiples occur even at small sizes.
Flowers: The flowers are produced from end of spring to summer only on larger mature specimens receiving enough full sun. Flower are diurnal, vivid yellow (4-5 cm wide) and form a circular ring at the top of the plant, but are not very visible being small in relation with the size of the barrel, and lost into the creamy colored wool at the plant apex.

Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Echinocactus grusonii group

Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Edward F. Anderson "The Cactus Family" Timber Press, 2001
2) James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey "The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, Both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass"Cambridge University Press, 11 / Aug / 2011
3) David Hunt, Nigel Taylor "The New Cactus Lexicon" DH Books, 2006 ISBN 0953813444, 9780953813445
4) Walther Haage "Kakteen von A bis Z" Neumann Verlag, 1981


Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Raimondo Paladini
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Cactus Art
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Cactus Art
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli
Echinocactus grusonii var. subinermis Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli

Cultivation and Propagation: Frost tender but resistant to very dry conditions, Cold hardiness increases with improved drainage, so keep plants as dry as possible in winter. They grow best in well-drained soil and in a position with full sun, which will help to maintain the luster of the spines and longevity of the flowers. Provide the plant with extremely well-drained soils, as the plants are subject to crown and soft rot if they remain too moist. Besides, it performs wonderfully in containers, Container media should be coarse as well. Young plants are prone to mealy bug and red spider mite. Propagate from cuttings or seed.
Propagation: From seeds. E. grusonii will produce hundreds of fruits each season. Several months after the flower dies off and the pods are ripen it is possible to collect them from under the dried flower. The pods will come off with a slight twist, leaving the wool on the cactus. Use a knife to slice down one side of the pod to expose the seed and scrape them out. The seeds are mahogany or reddish amber and tiny. Then place the seeds in some water to soak overnight. Fill germination trays with a well blended mixture of 60% peat moss 40% vermiculite and one to one part of coarse sand or pumice. Use a horse syringe to suck the small seeds and some of the water into the syringe. With the syringe, distribute the seeds evenly in the germination tray, shaking the syringe so the seeds don't settle at the bottom and all come out at once. Some growers also recommend to cold-stratify seeds in a refrigerator for a year prior to sow them. But can also be used dry seeds too. Place then the trays in filtered sun, cover with a glass sheet and keep the soil moist until the seeds germinate in approximately 2 to 6 weeks. They will look like small spheres, red in color not green. Then gradually remove the glass cover. When the small cacti start to sprout tiny spines, use a pair of tweezers to transfer them from the propagation trays into 5 cm pots filled with the same soil mix used in the germination trays. Allow the small cacti to grow for about one / two year and then move the cacti to 10 cm pots and allow them to grow further.


Contents

Echinocactus grusonii belongs to the small genus Echinocactus, which together with the related genus Ferocactus, are commonly referred to as barrel cacti. The species was first described by German plantsman Heinrich Hildmann in 1891. While sometimes referred to as golden ball, this species is not to be confused with Notocactus leninghausii which have fuzzy, harmless spines and are native to Brazil and Paraguay.

Growing as a large roughly spherical globe, Echinocactus grusonii may eventually reach over 1 meter (3.3 ft) in height after many years. Younger Golden Barrel plants do not look similar to mature specimens. The generation lifetime is estimated to be 30 years. [1]

There may be up to 35 pronounced ribs in mature plants, though they are not evident in young plants, which may have a knobbly appearance. The sharp spines are long, straight or slightly curved, and various shades of yellow or, occasionally, white.

Small yellow flowers appear in summer around the crown of the plant, but only after twenty years or so.

Echinocactus grusonii is widely cultivated by specialty plant nurseries as an ornamental plant, for planting in containers, desert habitat gardens, rock gardens, and in conservatories. [2] A white-spined form, and a short-spined form, are also in cultivation.

It is one of the most popular cacti in cultivation and has increasingly become popular as an architectural accent plant in contemporary garden designs. [ citation needed ]

The cactus is considered easy and relatively fast growing in warmer climates around the world. The plants do have some basic requirements an average minimum winter temperature of 12 ° C (53.6 ° F) and good drainage with less watering in winter. [2] Excess water in cool periods may lead to rot. Golden Barrels are hardy to about −8 ° C (15 ° F) for brief periods.

Beyond Central Mexico, Echinocactus grusonii specimens may also be seen in collections of desert plants in many botanical gardens. In the UK it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. [3] [4]

Mature golden barrels showing their distinctive clustering habit. Photo from the Huntington Desert Garden in California.


File: Asiento de suegra (Echinocactus grusonii), Jardín Botánico, Múnich, Alemania, 2013-09-08, DD 02.JPG

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Penyakit dan perosak tumbuhan

Echinocactus Frees boleh dipengaruhi oleh reput akar, yang paling sering disebabkan oleh penyiraman berlebihan. Untuk mengelakkan penyakit ini, sejumlah kecil karbon aktif yang dihancurkan dicampurkan ke dalam tanah.

Dari kebakaran lewat, tumbuhan ini boleh sembuh hanya pada peringkat awal penyakit ini. Dalam kes ini, kawasan yang rosak dipotong, tempat potong dirawat dengan kapur atau arang diaktifkan, echinocactus dipindahkan ke dalam periuk baru dengan penggantian lengkap tanah.

Apabila skala kaktus muncul, anda perlu merawat carapace serangga dengan alkohol atau cuka. Selepas 2-3 jam perosak dikeluarkan, dan kilang dibasuh by bawah pancuran. Untuk tempoh prosedur ini, tanah lott ditutup dengan filem.

Dengan pertarungan mealybug dengan semburan buih sabun (sabun pencuci pakaian), jangan lupa menutupi tanah dengan filem. Selepas kira-kira sejam tumbuhan memerlukan mandi hangat.

Untuk memerangi hama labah-labah merah, semburan dengan mana-mana alkohol atau etil alkohol hanya digunakan. Setelah 15 minit selepas menyembur, echinocactus dibasuh from bawah pancuran. Seperti dalam kes sebelumnya, tanah of dalam periuk commerc dilindungi dengan filem.

Selain semua of atas, racun serangga dapat digunakan dalam memerangi perosak.

Disebabkan penampilan yang luar biasa dan bersahaja untuk menjaga by rumah, Echinocactus Corni telah mendapat populariti yang besar by kalangan peminat tumbuhan eksotik. By samping itu, jangka hayat, dikira oleh beratus-ratus tahun, dari masa ke masa menjadikannya semacam tugu hidup pada masa lalu.


Video: Plants of 40 years of age Cactus Cactaceae cacti or succulents collection