Technology for obtaining and production of biogas from manure

Technology for obtaining and production of biogas from manure

In order to dispose of manure, you need not only a specially designated place, but also a lot of funds. If private traders use it entirely in their gardens in large quantities, then agricultural farms have long begun to process valuable raw materials into biogas. The process, as it turns out, is available to everyone. On the technology of obtaining and production, our article is further.

What is bio gas

In essence, this gas belongs to environmentally friendly fuel sources. Its characteristics are such that it is quite similar to natural gas produced by industrial companies. The scale of this resource is enormous.

Biogas can be considered an alternative fuel, since it requires animal waste, which is sufficient in agriculture. As a result of high-quality processing, a colorless gas is obtained that does not have a characteristic odor and contains about 70% methane in its composition.

The calorific value of such a fuel is quite impressive. For example, 1 cubic meter. m. of processed gas can give the same amount of heat as 1.5 kg of coal.

Is it possible to get biogas from manure

You certainly can. And this is quite simple to accomplish. First of all, you need to equip a specially designated place and equip it with the necessary reservoir. But it should be remembered that a lot of biomass will be needed for processing. For reference, 1 ton of manure can turn into 100 cubic meters. m of the required fuel.

How is biogas produced?:

  • The industrial scale of fuel production implies the presence of a special bioreactor. In it, with the participation of anaerobic bacteria, the process of raw material processing takes place. Fermentation takes place in the biomass and this continues for a certain time. It is important to keep clean air out. The duration of this stage directly depends on how much biomass was placed in the reactor.
  • When this stage is at its peak, there is a continuous evolution of gas mass. It consists of: methane - 60% or more, carbon dioxide - 35% and 5% of other substances. Often, those skilled in the art find hydrogen sulfide particles in this mixture.
  • With continuous production of gas, it is all the time removed from the bioreactor for cleaning.
  • The processing process stops and biogas begins to be used for its intended purpose, clean the installation. Waste is extracted from it, which is then sent to fertilize the fields.

Stages of receiving and processing waste

Biofuels can be produced at the dacha or directly at your site. To do this, we choose the most spacious and safe place for the construction of the structure. Then you need to build a special concrete container. With its proper arrangement and the absence of cracks, it will serve as a real reactor.

Before starting construction, it is necessary to take into account that the spent manure must be freely removed after processing. The solution is simple - prepare a special hole in advance, possibly with a pipe. It must be equipped so that the complete tightness of the entire structure is observed. It will only be effective if the gases do not evaporate.

The choice of tank size depends on how much manure appears on the farm every day. Whether it is an ordinary yard with a small number of livestock or a full-fledged farm, in any case, the bioreactor needs to be filled no more than two-thirds of its full volume. Only in this way will the fermentation process proceed properly.

After construction, it is necessary to check the functionality of the installation. After loading the biomass, processing begins. You can speed up the process a little. For this, a very effective method is used - heating the raw material.

  1. You can use special heating elements that are installed under the container.
  2. Connect a small coil to the central heating system and place it under the tank.
  3. It is possible to heat the reactor directly using powerful electric type heaters.

Variants of installations for obtaining fuel

Each type of equipment is designed for use in a specific area. The choice is influenced, as a rule, by weather conditions. If the climate is warm, an inexpensive, simplified installation can be dispensed with. In harsh conditions, additional mechanisms will be needed.

Main types:

  1. Installation designed for manual loading, which does not have stirring and heating functions. One of the simplest and most common variations. Can also be used at home. Manure processing - up to 200 kg per day.
  2. Equipment with manual loading and the possibility of mixing biomass. More efficient equipment at the same low cost.
  3. An updated system that provides for manual loading, heating and mixing of manure. A more expensive option with a reactor heated by a special boiler. It runs on continuously produced biogas. Affordable for industrial firms.
  4. Installation, which includes a pneumatic mechanism for mixing the mass, heating, gas holder and manual loading.
  5. Fully automated set for agricultural and livestock companies. Expensive and highly productive.

The principle of operation of the equipment

The operation of all equipment is as follows:

  • Waste is loaded;
  • The reservoir is tightly closed;
  • Heating of the mass begins;
  • A gas mixture is evolved;
  • Biogas is purified and removed for further use.

Homemade installation diagram

It is quite simple to make the whole recycling structure. Need to do:

  1. Reactor based on the volume of manure;
  2. A special support for the reactor, where waste will be collected;
  3. Valve;
  4. Biogas discharge pipe;
  5. Heating mechanism.

A self-made device will demonstrate maximum performance, subject to several rules. The first is tightness. The second is proper heating. The third is filling the tank within normal limits.

How fuel is used on the farm

With the help of this type of fuel, which will be constantly produced on the site, it is possible to fully heat the house and some other structures. If there are a lot of livestock, the weft manure volume will make it possible to produce enough “free” environmentally friendly gas to heat even a two-story building.

The second way to use is the consumption of carbon dioxide. It's easy to do with water.

Every private owner who runs a farm can acquire productive equipment for the production of biogas. Plus, you can design it yourself. It is necessary to take into account the climatic conditions and the volume of raw materials. As a result, the benefits of using this fuel will be very tangible.

Technology for obtaining and production of biogas from manure

Design and support:
Aleksandr Kuznetsov

Technical support:
Mikhail Bulakh

Danil Monchukin

Tatiana Anastasyeva

Natalia Kuznetsova

When using the materials of the site, a link to is required

Bioenergy installations. Biogas technology

Fermentation, which is the basis for biogas production, gives the final products: methane CH4 (55 - 65%), carbon dioxide CO2 (30 - 35%), hydrogen H2 (3 - 5%), a small amount of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Essentially, fermentation combines three biological processes: hydrolysis, acidic and methane fermentation.

The output of biogas from straw manure is approximately 1 - 1.8 m3 / day per head of cattle.

Biogas has an average heating value of 20 - 23 MJm3.

Along with biogas, during anaerobic digestion of animal and poultry waste, a valuable environmentally friendly fertilizer is produced, devoid of pathogenic microflora, helminth eggs, weed seeds, nitrites and nitrates, and specific fecal odors.

The potential for biogas production using waste from livestock, poultry and agro-industrial processing enterprises is very large.

Biogas production from municipal solid waste (MSW)

The sharp increase in consumption in recent decades all over the world has led to a significant increase in the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW). Disposal in the near-surface geological environment remains one of the main ways to remove solid waste throughout the world. Under these conditions, the waste undergoes intensive biochemical decomposition, which causes, in particular, the generation of landfill gas (LFG). LH emissions entering the natural environment form negative effects of both local and global nature. For this reason, in many developed countries of the world, special measures are being taken to minimize LHG emissions. This actually led to the emergence of an independent branch of the global industry, which includes the extraction and utilization of landfill gas.

The main method for solving this problem is the technology of extraction and utilization of LFG. For the extraction of landfill gas at landfills, the following schematic diagram is used: a network of vertical gas drainage wells is connected by gas pipelines, in which a compressor unit creates a vacuum necessary for transporting LH to the place of use (Figure 5.2). Collection and disposal facilities are installed on a specially prepared site outside the landfill body.

Figure 5.2. Block diagram of a plant for the extraction and utilization of biogas

Vertical wells are used to extract LH at solid waste landfills. Usually they are located evenly across the landfill body with a step of 50 - 100 m between adjacent wells. Their diameter ranges from 200 to 600 mm, and the depth is determined by the thickness of the landfill body and can be several tens of meters. For wells drilling, both conventional drilling equipment and specialized equipment are used, which allow the construction of large-diameter wells. At the same time, the choice of this or that equipment is due to economic reasons.

Each well carries out drainage of a specific block of solid waste, conventionally in the form of a cylinder. The stability of the well operation can be ensured if its flow rate does not exceed the volume of the newly formed SG. The assessment of the gas productivity of the existing stratum of solid waste is carried out in the course of preliminary field gas geochemical studies.

The construction of a gas drainage system can be carried out both as a whole on the entire territory of the solid waste landfill after the end of its operation, and in separate sections of the landfill in accordance with the sequence of their loading. It should be borne in mind that landfill bodies with a thickness of at least 10 m are suitable for LF mining. It is also desirable that the territory of the solid waste landfill, where the construction of the LH collection system is planned, be reclaimed, i.e. covered with a soil layer of at least 30 - 40 cm.

On average, gas generation ends in a landfill body within 10 - 50 years, while the specific gas yield is 120 - 200 cubic meters. m per ton of solid waste. Significant variations in gas productivity and process speed are determined by the environmental conditions prevailing in a particular landfill body. The parameters that control bioconversion include humidity, temperature, pH, composition of organic fractions.

Biogas production from waste water (WWS)

For more than 20 years in Western Europe, they have been actively involved in the practical solution of the problem of waste disposal of waste water treatment plants.

One of the widespread technologies for the utilization of WWS is their use in agriculture as fertilizers. Its share in the total amount of WWS ranges from 10% in Greece to 58% in France, averaging 36.5%. Despite the popularization of this type of waste disposal, it is losing its attractiveness, as farmers fear the accumulation of harmful substances in the fields. Currently, in a number of countries, the use of waste in agriculture is prohibited, for example, in the Netherlands since 1995.

The incineration of waste water treatment takes the third place in terms of waste disposal volumes (10.8%). In accordance with the forecast, in the future, its share will increase to 40%, despite the relative high cost of this method. Burning sludge in boilers will solve the environmental problem associated with its storage, obtain additional energy during its combustion, and therefore reduce the need for fuel and energy resources and investments. It is advisable to use semi-liquid waste to generate energy at CHP plants as an additive to fossil fuels, for example, coal.

  • separate incineration (fluidized bed incineration (LBB) and multistage furnaces)
  • co-firing (in existing coal-fired CHP plants or cement and asphalt plants).

Among the methods of separate combustion, the use of liquid layer technology is popular; the most successfully operated furnaces with FSW. Such technologies make it possible to ensure stable combustion of fuel with a high content of mineral components, as well as to reduce the content of sulfur oxides in the exhaust gases due to their binding during combustion by limestone or alkaline earth metals contained in the ash of the fuel.

Environmental aspects of the use of waste water treatment

Comparison of the chemical compositions of WWS, bituminous and brown coals fired at the TPP shows that the elemental compositions of WWS and brown coal differ insignificantly. The WWS (6.2% moisture) contains 24.5% less carbon than coal (12% moisture) and 5% less than brown coal (39% moisture). The share of sulfur exceeds its specific gravity in coal by only 0.2% compared to bituminous coal and by 0.4% compared to brown coal. The nitrogen content in WWS is comparable to that of bituminous coal and is 2% higher than that for brown coal. Comparison in terms of dry matter shows that the carbon content in WWS is almost 30% less, sulfur and nitrogen almost does not change.

The chemical composition and characteristics of WWS ash allows it to be used as a building road material (with a particle diameter of more than 1 mm), as well as an additive to cement or on dumps as a filler.

Possible options for waste disposal

  1. Combustion in a cyclone furnace based on drum drying furnaces of treatment facilities (Russian technology - "Tekhenergohimprom", Berdsk)
  2. Combustion in a cyclone furnace based on drum boilers of treatment facilities (Russian technology - Sibtekhenergo, Novosibirsk and Biyskenergomash, Barnaul)
  3. Separate combustion in a new type of multistage furnace (western technology - "NESA", Belgium)
  4. Separate combustion in a new type of fluidized bed furnace (Western technology - "Segher" Belgium)
  5. Separate combustion in a new cyclone furnace (Western technology - "Steinmuller", Germany)
  6. Co-firing at an existing coal-fired CHP plant.

Biogas production from waste from poultry and livestock farms

Renewable biomass resources of various origins are accumulated annually in large volumes or are used inefficiently.

Efficient use of biomass is possible with the introduction of appropriate technologies and equipment for obtaining fuel in the form of wood chips, briquettes, gas and liquid fuels.

  • biomass ranks 4th in the world among different types of fuel
  • biomass accounts for 14% of primary fuel and energy resources, and in developing countries - up to 35%
  • biomass is more environmentally friendly when used as a fuel - less sulfur compounds and less CO emissions2 in the atmosphere
  • the payback period for biomass power plants does not exceed 2 - 4 years.

However, at present, separate research works are being carried out on the direct combustion of biomass and its anaerobic digestion.

Biogas production from forest and agricultural waste

To maximize the use of forest and agricultural waste in the energy sector, a decomposition process has been developed, which consists in their rapid heating without oxygen (air) to temperatures at which the rate of release of the required products is maximum. It is designed to solve energy and environmental problems.

The parameters of the fast pyrolysis process, the composition and the amount of emitted products are preliminarily specified for each type of raw material. The plant is designed for each type of raw material. The maximum processing temperatures are determined by the temperature of existence of the substance in the condensed phase.

High-speed heating of the substance provides: minimum energy loss into the environment, maximum speed of the chemical process with the release of products into the gas phase, maximum moisture concentration and its use. The heating rate of the substance must exceed the rate of physicochemical processes occurring in the processed mass. The yield of liquid fuel is 70% of the organic mass of the raw material. For example, from 1 ton of sawdust, you can get 700 liters of liquid fuel.

Inorganic components and products of chemical modification (carbon-like residue) remain in the solid phase. The amount of carbon-like residue is determined by the lignin content and is always lower than the amount of residue obtained with other processing methods.

To obtain the main component of liquid fuel, the gas phase is condensed (the low molecular weight products formed in the process are not condensed). The gaseous phase, after condensation or without it, can be sent directly to incineration. The calorific value (calorific value) of the main fuel component is usually greater than the calorific value of the dry fuel of this type. So the calorific value of wood is 4500 kcal / kg, and the heat of combustion of liquid fuel is 5500 kcal / kg. Liquid fuels can be used as motor fuel in internal combustion engines.

The plant is powered by electricity or by burning processed products or feedstock.

Advantages of the process: high speed, high degree of conversion of the processed products; small dimensions of the main unit of the installation; low energy consumption per unit of processed products; low cost price of energy obtained from the reaction products.

The cost of the installation with a capacity of 2 tons of processed raw materials per day is 2.5 million rubles. When processing sawdust from 2 tons, 1.4 tons of liquid fuel is obtained. The annual productivity is 500 tons of liquid fuel, at a price of $ 0.1 / liter the annual turnover is $ 50 thousand. The payback period is 3 years.

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Benefits of biotechnology

The technology for producing biofuels from various natural sources is not new. Research in this area began at the end of the 18th century and developed successfully in the 19th century. In the Soviet Union, the first bioenergy plant was created in the forties of the last century.

Biotechnologies have long been used in many countries, but today they are gaining special importance. Due to the deterioration of the ecological situation on the planet and the high cost of energy carriers, many are turning their eyes towards alternative sources of energy and heat.

The technology of processing manure into biogas allows to reduce the amount of harmful methane emissions into the atmosphere and obtain an additional source of thermal energy

Of course, manure is a very valuable fertilizer, and if there are two cows on the farm, then there are no problems with its use. It is a different matter when it comes to farms with large and medium-sized livestock, where tons of fetid and rotting biological material are formed annually.

For manure to turn into high-quality fertilizer, you need areas with a certain temperature regime, and this is an extra cost. Therefore, many farmers store it where necessary, and then take it to the fields.

Depending on the volume of raw materials generated per day, the dimensions of the installation and the degree of its automation should be selected.

If the storage conditions are not observed, up to 40% of nitrogen and the main part of phosphorus evaporate from the manure, which significantly worsens its quality indicators. In addition, methane gas is released into the atmosphere, which has a negative impact on the ecological situation of the planet.

Modern biotechnology makes it possible not only to neutralize the harmful effects of methane on the environmental situation, but also to make it serve for the benefit of humans, while extracting considerable economic benefits. As a result of the processing of manure, biogas is formed, from which thousands of kW of energy can then be obtained, and the production waste is a very valuable anaerobic fertilizer.

  • The organization of the biogas production system is economically justified for farms. If only two cows provide the raw material, it is better to use it as fertilizer.
  • The gas obtained by processing manure will provide heat and energy. After cleaning, it can be supplied to the stove and the boiler, pumped into the cylinder, can be used by an electric generator.
  • Structurally, the simplest processing plant is easy to build with your own hands. Its main organ is a bioreactor, which must be well hydro- and heat-insulated.
  • For those who wish to shorten the construction time of the system, a factory-made plastic container is suitable. When using it, the same principles of construction and isolation apply.

Biogas in Russia

An essential and decisive factor for the development of biogas energy is support at the state level. For example, in countries where the government applies a "green tariff" for the purchase of electricity from biogas plants, the share of biogas energy reaches 20%. This situation is observed in Finland, Sweden, Austria. Representatives of the Russian Ministry of Energy said that the country will reach 10% of energy from alternative sources of all types only in 2030.
Experts name two promising areas in biogas production in Russia:

  • construction of industrial stations
  • sale of factory modular installations.

In terms of technology, the manufacture of biogas reactors is also developing in two directions. The first type of biogas plants are modular horizontal cylindrical mechanisms, in which there are batch-produced agitators. Such units are supplied ready-made. The second constructive type is vertically installed digesters, most often assembled at the installation site.
Practical data show that a farm that has a biogas plant consumes no more than 15% of the generated energy, therefore, most of it goes for sale. To stimulate producers of biogas energy, specialists from the Ministry of Energy are developing a whole range of measures:

  • setting a markup to the wholesale price of electricity
  • reimbursement of the costs of connecting to the power grid.

Nevertheless, despite the rather favorable soil, there are only a few biogas power plants operating in Russia. The first Russian reactor was launched in 2009 in the village of Doshino, Kaluga Region. Another one works in the Belgorod region - the biogas station "Baintsury" on the basis of a pig-breeding complex, and "Luchki". Several years ago, a large biogas station was launched in the Mordovian village of Romadanovskoye. The Belgorod region is the leader in the production of Russian biogas.
Since a large volume of organic waste is generated precisely in the agro-industrial complex, the development of biogas energy is most promising in the countryside of our state. Unfortunately, today in Russia biological mass is mainly considered as a source of losses, because every year the damage from agricultural waste is estimated at about 450 billion rubles. While biogas is an environmentally friendly and cheap type of energy carrier. With the help of biogas technologies, a number of positive side effects can be achieved, which are extremely relevant for the Russian countryside.

Biogas technology

Biogas production is possible with the help of bacteria, which do not need oxygen for their vital activity. Therefore, for the production of biogas, it is necessary to build sealed containers in which the fermentation of raw materials will take place. Drainage pipes are designed in containers in such a way that air from the external environment is not able to seep inside.

First, the reservoir is filled with liquid raw materials and the temperature is raised to the required level for the microorganisms to start working. Methane rises up from the liquid manure, accumulates in special tanks, in which the filtration stage takes place. Then it is collected in gas cylinders. Used manure masses accumulate at the bottom of the containers, from where they are periodically taken out and stored in other places. After pumping out the waste liquid, new manure is fed into the tank.

Temperature regime of bacteria functioning

Methane can be released from manure only when a suitable temperature regime is created for it. Manure contains different bacteria that are activated and release biogas at different temperatures and at different rates:

  • Mesophilic bacteria. They start working if the ambient temperature rises above 30 degrees. Biogas is produced very slowly - the products can be collected after half a month.
  • Thermophilic bacteria. To activate them, a temperature of 50-65 degrees is required. Biogas can be collected within three days. Of particular value is sludge - manure waste after strong heating. This is a useful fertilizer and, most importantly, harmless - any helminths, weed seeds, pathogenic microorganisms are destroyed when heated.
  • There is also another type of thermophilic bacteria that survive when heated to a temperature of 90 degrees. They are additionally included in manure to ferment faster.

As the temperature drops, all types of bacteria become less active. In a small farm, mesophylls are usually used, because in this case additional heating is not required. Further, primary biogas can be used for artificial heating of manure and activation of thermophilic bacteria.

The disadvantage of storing raw materials is that it should not be exposed to temperature fluctuations. Therefore, in winter, it is necessary to take care of a warm room for storing manure.

Preparation of raw materials for filling into the reactor

As a rule, there is no need to additionally enrich manure with microorganisms, since they are already contained in it. All that needs to be done is to properly prepare the manure solution, monitor the temperature and change the raw material in the bioreactor on time.

The moisture content of raw materials should be at least 90% (consistency like liquid sour cream). Therefore, before use, dry droppings (goats, sheep, horses, rabbits) are mixed with water. Pig manure is not necessary to breed due to the high content of urine in it.

It is also important that the manure is uniform and free of particulate matter. The amount of biogas formed at the outlet depends on the fineness of the fractions. For this reason, a constantly operating mixer is installed inside the equipment, destroying the hard crust on the surface of the raw material and interfering with the release of methane.

Wastes with high acidity (pig and cow manure) are best suited for the process. With a decrease in the acidity index, the bacteria slow down their work, therefore it is important for the first times to find out how long it takes to completely process one portion of the manure solution, and only then refill it.

Gas purification technology

The resulting product contains about seventy percent of methane, one percent of impurities (hydrogen sulfide and some volatile elements) and a little less than thirty percent of carbon dioxide.

It can be used as a fuel only after purification from impurities. Hydrogen sulfide compounds are removed using special filters. This must be done for the reason that such a substance, forming acid with water, accelerates the corrosion processes of metals, pipes, tanks and the entire biogas plant, if it is metal.

Carbon dioxide also needs to be removed from the fuel, but this takes a lot of time:

  • First of all, biogas is compressed under high pressure.
  • Water is directed into the container, in which the impurity will dissolve.

If biogas is produced on a huge scale, then purification is carried out with lime, activated carbon and special filters.

Decrease in moisture content

At this stage, the purification of raw materials is carried out in different ways.

The first method is similar to the work of a moonshine still. The biogas is directed upwards through cold tubes. The water converts into condensate and flows down the pipe, while the methane is directed to a storage tank.

Another way is to use a water seal. The resulting biogas is mixed with water, where all impurities remain. This method requires less time for cleaning, since water eliminates both excess liquid and unnecessary elements.

Waste biomass after gas production

After processing the manure in the reactor, biosludge is a by-product. In anaerobic waste processing, bacteria dissolve about 30% of organic matter. The rest is highlighted unchanged.

The liquid substance is also a by-product of methane fermentation and is also used in agriculture for root dressing.

Carbon dioxide is a waste fraction that biogas producers seek to remove. But if you dissolve it in water, then this liquid can also be beneficial.

Full utilization of biogas plant products

In order to fully utilize the products obtained after the processing of manure, it is necessary to maintain a greenhouse. Firstly, organic fertilizer can be used for year-round growing of vegetables, the yield of which will be stable.

Secondly, carbon dioxide is used as top dressing - root or foliar, and its output is about 30%. Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air and thus grow better and gain green mass. If you consult with specialists in this field, they will help you install equipment that converts carbon dioxide from a liquid form to a volatile substance.

Video: Biogas in 2 days

The fact is that for the maintenance of a livestock farm, there can be a lot of received energy resources, especially in summer, when heating of the barn or pigsty is not needed.

Therefore, it is recommended to take up another profitable activity - an environmentally friendly greenhouse. Leftover products can be stored in refrigerated rooms - using the same energy. Refrigeration or any other equipment can run on electricity, which is generated by a gas storage battery.

Construction of an underground biogas plant

At home, you can build the simplest biogas plant, while minimizing costs. The most suitable option is an underground installation.

Construction of a facility for the extraction of biogas from manure underground

First you need to dig a hole in order to fill its base and walls using reinforced claydite concrete. Then it is necessary to withdraw the inlet and outlet passage from opposite sides of the chamber. In order to feed the biomass and pump out the waste mass, inclined pipes are inserted into the passages.

The outlet inclined pipe is located practically at the bottom of the hopper. To pump out waste, the end of this pipe is installed in a compensating tank. This container should be rectangular, and the diameter of the pipe itself is 70 mm.

A pipe with a diameter of 25-35 cm, with the help of which the substrate is supplied, is mounted 50 cm from the bottom. Its upper part enters the compartment where raw materials are received.

Do not forget about the tightness of the reactor. To avoid air ingress, bituminous waterproofing is performed.

For the manufacture of the upper part of the bunker (gasholder), metal sheets or roofing iron are used. Usually, the gas tank is domed or conical.

Finally, it will not be superfluous to carry out the brickwork of the installation. Further, the upholstery is made with steel mesh and plaster.

The top of the gas tank can be equipped with a sealed hatch. Then remove the flue gas pipe, which passes through the water seal. Next, the valve is installed, with the help of which the pressure is released.

A drainage system (bubbling principle) is installed to mix the biomass. For her equipment, you will need to fix the plastic pipes in an upright position. The top edge of these pipes should be above the substrate layer. Then many holes need to be made in the pipes.

Due to the pressure, the gas will rise and fall. Due to the rise of the gas upwards, the biomass will be mixed with gas bubbles.

If you do not want to make a concrete structure yourself, you can purchase a ready-made one from polyvinyl chloride. Next, you need to take care of ensuring the thermal insulation of the installation. The most suitable material for these purposes is expanded polystyrene.

The bottom of the pit (10 cm) is filled with reinforced concrete. When the volume of the reactor is less than 3 * 3 m, the use of PVC tanks is allowed.

It clearly shows the stages of biogas production from manure.

Although at the state level, the extraction of gas from organic raw materials has not yet found widespread use, nevertheless, among ordinary farmers, more and more fans of devices for obtaining biogas appear every year.

Perhaps after a few years, biogas production will reach a new level and will be of interest to a large audience of citizens. Thanks to the processing of manure into biogas, it is possible not only to obtain useful fertilizers and refuel a car, but also to build a profitable business without harm to the environment.

Oil resources are not endless, which means that in the future, people, one way or another, will turn their attention to biogas production and come to make such production on a mass scale.

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