Mandeville (diplomatic): home care, reproduction, pruning, photo
Diplomas, or Mandevilla - a genus of flowering climbing plants of the Kutrovy family, which can be found in nature in South and Central America. The genus includes, according to various sources, from 120 to 190 annual and perennial species. In everyday life, a garden, greenhouse and home diplodemy is sometimes called Brazilian balsam or jasmine, Chilean jasmine, Mexican tree of love and Bolivian rose. The scientific name "Mandeville" was given to the plants of the genus in honor of the English diplomat and amateur gardener Henry J. Mandeville, who served in Argentina at the time.
"Diplomacy" is translated from Greek as "having double glands." Mandeville at home is a very beautiful, but demanding plant and capricious to care for, but, despite this, it is gaining more and more popularity in room culture every year.
Planting and caring for a diploma
- Bloom: abundant and long lasting from late March to November.
- Lighting: bright diffused light of the east and west windows.
- Temperature: during the growing season - 18-26 ºC, during the dormant period - 12-15 ºC.
- Watering: abundant, 2-3 times a week, after the soil in the pot dries out to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. In the heat, watering is sometimes carried out 2 times a day. Watering has been reduced since September.
- Air humidity: high: the plant is kept in a glass display case or on a pallet with wet pebbles.
- Top dressing: from March, liquid nitrogen fertilizing is introduced into the soil once a week, but as soon as buds begin to form, solutions of potassium-phosphorus complexes will be required, which are applied with the same regularity until August.
- Cropping: regular, in autumn, at the end of the growing season.
- Rest period: not pronounced, but falls in the autumn-winter period.
- Transfer: as needed, when the pot becomes small. Adults do not bother with transplantation, but simply replace the top layer of the substrate in the pot.
- Reproduction: seeds and cuttings.
- Pests: mealybugs, whiteflies and spider mites.
- Diseases: powdery mildew.
Read more about the cultivation of diplomas below.
Diplomatic flower is a fast-growing, evergreen and abundantly flowering liana with a curly woody stem and opposite bright green, oval, glossy leathery leaves, from which white milky poisonous juice oozes when broken. Home-grown diplodesia are grown in the form of a compact bush or climbing plant. The five-petalled Mandeville's fragrant, funnel-shaped flowers can be white, pink, crimson or red. On an adult plant, up to 80 flowers can open at the same time, not withering for more than a week.
Home care for diploma
Growing a Mandeville involves creating conditions for it close to tropical: the lighting must be bright, otherwise the vine will not reach the peak of its attractiveness. Eastern or western window sills are most suitable for the plant. You can keep the diplodemy on the south window, but on condition that in the afternoon it will be protected by a light curtain from the sun's rays, which can damage its leaves.
The optimal temperature for diplosing is 12-15 ºC in winter and 18-26 ºC in summer, although if the temperature rises higher, the plant will not die from this: on the contrary, the color of the flowers will become brighter and more saturated. Mandeville needs fresh air, so tune in to frequent ventilation of the room, but drafts will not benefit the plant. In summer, the flower can be kept on the balcony, veranda and even in the garden, protecting it from direct sunlight, drafts and gusts of wind.
Since diplodenia is a climbing plant, it needs reliable support and regular pruning. The support should be one and a half times higher than the adult diploma: as the shoots grow, climbing the support, they will gradually master it.
Like any other representative of the tropical flora, the diplodenia vine needs abundant watering. The principle of moistening is approximately the following: as soon as the soil in the pot dries out to a depth of 1-1.5 cm, the flower is watered with warm water. This usually happens 2-3 times a week, but in heat and drought, watering is carried out 1-2 times a day. Since the beginning of autumn, watering is reduced, however, care must be taken that the indoor diplopia does not begin to lose leaves from a lack of moisture. Keep in mind that diplodenia does not tolerate lime, therefore, the water for irrigation must be defended or filtered with a filter, and once a month a little citric acid or fresh lemon juice must be dissolved in it so that the water tastes slightly sour.
As for the humidity of the air, this indicator should be at a high level all the time, so it is best to keep the plant in a glass display case, but if you cannot create such conditions, place the flower on a pallet with wet small pebbles or expanded clay, or place a pot with diplodenia in a large planter, filling the space between the walls of the pot and the walls of the planter with moist peat or sphagnum. Diplomacy also responds well to daily spraying of leaves with warm water, especially during the period of bud formation and flowering.
Caring for Mandeville involves mandatory feeding. To grow leathery glossy leaves, the diplodenia plant needs nitrogen fertilizers, but as soon as the flower begins to form buds, it will need potassium-phosphorus fertilization. Fertilizers are applied in liquid form once a week from March to August. In winter, Mandeville is not fed.
The diplodenia plant prefers fertile, loose, moderately acidic soil. The optimal soil composition for this plant is a mixture of equal parts of sod land, sand, humus, leafy soil and peat. Sand can be replaced with fine expanded clay or perlite: the looser structure of the substrate provides better air access to the roots.
Mandeville is transplanted in the spring as needed, when the old pot becomes cramped and roots begin to hang from the drain holes. It is advisable not to disturb adult plants with a transplant; it is better to replace the top layer of the substrate with a fresh one every spring.
Diplomacy grows very quickly, and if you do not cut it, it will arrange for you thickets, like in the jungle. Diplomatic flowers are formed exclusively on the shoots of the current year, which is why the plant needs regular pruning, which is carried out in the fall, at the end of the growing season. The old unbranched shoots of the Mandeville are shortened by two-thirds, and the branched ones by one-third or half the length after the fork. That is, from unbranched stems only a third of the length is left, and from branched ones - a third of the length after the fork. Autumn pruning of diplosing promotes successful wintering and the growth of new shoots in the next growing season.
Diplomas in winter
How to care for a diploma in winter? In late autumn, the plant enters a dormant period, which lasts until spring. At this time, the temperature in the room should not be higher than 16 and not lower than 12 ºC. The plant is pruned, and the watering is greatly reduced: during the winter, the Mandeville is watered only three days after the soil in the pot is completely dry. In the spring, when the plant begins to show signs of awakening, it is moved to its usual conditions, the watering regime is gradually resumed and fertilizing begins.
Reproduction of diploania
Growing from seeds
The cost of an adult plant is quite high, but flower shops offer seeds of different varieties of diplodesia, and a florist who is not afraid of difficulties can save a lot by growing a Mandeville from seeds. Seed germination is carried out under bright diffused light at a temperature of 22-28 ºC in a loose and light weakly acidic substrate, placed in a dish with drainage holes: the soil should be moist, but the possibility of stagnant water should be excluded. However, even if all these conditions are met, it can take from 2 to 4 months to wait for seedlings, and all this time you will need to water the substrate and remove condensation from the coating. When the seedlings develop two true leaves, they are dived into separate cups with drainage holes and with soil of the same composition, and then they are seated in permanent pots.
Mandeville cuttings are carried out from mid-spring to mid-summer. The tops of young shoots are used as planting material in spring, and in summer, segments of mature, lignified stems are used. We remind you that the leaves and stems of the plant contain poisonous sap, so all work should be carried out with gloves so that the sap does not get on the skin and mucous membranes.
Diplademia cuttings are rooted in cups with a moist soil mixture consisting of equal parts of sand and peat. A little dry sphagnum moss can be added to the substrate. The cuttings are deepened to the first pair of leaves, after which they are placed in a greenhouse and kept at a temperature not lower than 25 ºC. It is better to water the cuttings through a tray. Rooting usually lasts about a month, and as soon as the cuttings develop roots, they are planted in pots.
In some cases, rooting is carried out simply in water, and when the roots of the cuttings reach a length of 1-2 cm, they are transplanted into the substrate. As a rule, propagation by cuttings is quite successful, but sometimes double plants do not want to form roots, and then they have to resort to growing double varieties from seeds.
Pests and diseases
Dipladenia leaves turn yellow
Yellowing leaves of diplosing in summer are a sign of too dry air, but if it happens in winter, check to see if your vine is freezing. Another reason for yellowing of leaves can be a disease or occupation by pests.
Why do leaves fall
Mandeville leaves turn yellow and then fall for the following reasons:
- irregular, insufficient or excessive watering;
- the room temperature is too low.
Monitor your plant and look for the cause of the problem at the first changes.
Pests and the fight against them
Pests can occupy a diplomatic property due to its weakening by improper or insufficient care, for example:
- irrigation with low-quality water;
- growing in soil infected with larvae or fungi;
- content at too low a temperature or in poor lighting;
- poor hygiene: your plant is covered in dust.
Most often in such conditions mealybugs, whiteflies and spider mites settle on Mandeville.
Whiteflies usually infect plants that spend their vacations in the open air, so before introducing a diplophenium into the house in the fall, be sure to inspect the back side of its leaves: this is where these flying pests resembling moths are hiding. If the plant is infected, treat it with an insecticidal preparation - Aktellik, Aktara, Fitoverm, otherwise the whiteflies brought into the house from Mandeville will very quickly move to other indoor flowers.
Mealybugs are sucking insects that feed on the cell sap of the leaves and shoots of dipladenia and infect it with viral diseases. Signs of infestation with worms can be a drooping appearance, leaves that have lost their turgor, deformed buds, insects that look like small mosquitoes flying around the flower, as well as white lumpy formations in the soil and small oval white bugs on the plant itself. You can eliminate pests by applying a tincture of garlic for the treatment of diplodenia: the head is passed through a press, poured with a glass of boiling water, infused for 4 hours, after which the areas affected by the worms are washed with this infusion. Of the chemicals, Applaud, Phosphamide and Bi-58 are the best for dealing with worms.
Spider mites are the most dangerous pests, and they are not insects, but arachnids. Mites appear on the plant in conditions of low air humidity. If brown or black dots appear on the leaves of the diplodemy, carefully examine the flower: mites, like other pests, settle on the underside of the leaves. Another sign of the presence of mites is the finest spider webs. Wipe off the leaves of the Mandeville with slightly acidified water with a small addition of soap, and if this does not help, you will have to treat the flower with an acaricidal preparation, for example, Fitoverm. And the main thing that will need to be done is to increase the air humidity in the room.
Diseases and their treatment
The most dangerous disease for Mandeville is powdery mildew, which covers the ground organs of the plant with an untidy whitish bloom. The causative agents of this fungal disease are destroyed with a 1% solution of colloidal sulfur: all affected areas are lubricated with this agent, and after a day the plant is washed under running water. It is unlikely that you will be able to cope with powdery mildew in one go, so tune in for 2-3 sessions.
Types and varieties
There are not so many types of diplomas grown in culture. Here is some of them:
Dipladenia brilliant (Dipladenia splendens)
Evergreen climbing plant, which is usually grown in culture as ampelous. The stems of this species are pubescent at a young age and densely covered with oval leaves up to 20 cm long with a pointed apex and a cordate base. With age, the stems, reaching four to five meters in length, become bare, the leaves on them become less and less. The flowers of the brilliant diplodemy are bright pink on the outside and white on the inside, up to 10 cm in diameter, collected in 6 pieces in a loose racemose inflorescence. Bracts are purple.
Bolivian Dipladenia (Dipladenia bolewiensis)
A heat-loving liana from Bolivia, the most common plant in the culture of the Mandeville genus. Long shoots covered with bright green ovoid leaves with a diameter of 5 to 8 cm brought fame to this species. A cluster of 3-4 white flowers up to 5 cm in diameter with a cylindrical tube, saucer-shaped limb and a yellow throat forms on the axillary peduncles.
An evergreen plant with smooth reddish stems covered with rounded ovoid bright green leaves 3-4 cm long. The flowers of the plant up to 7 cm in diameter with a tube up to 5 cm long and a red calyx are collected in a brush of 8 pieces. The corolla of the flowers of this vine is usually red-pink.
A fast-growing indoor vine with smooth stems, thick oval leaves 5 or more centimeters long with a slightly pointed tip and racemose inflorescences located in the axils, consisting of 3-5 bright pink flowers with a yellow throat up to 7 cm in diameter.
Loose dipladenia (Dipladenia laxa)
An impressive size, luxurious Mandeville that requires a lot of space. This species is characterized by strong branching. The long warty stems of a loose dip can reach a length of 5 m, and the opposite, emerald-green, oblong-ovoid leaves, smooth on the upper side and pubescent on the bottom, grow up to 10 cm long.This vine blooms with corrugated creamy-white flowers up to 9 cm, collected in inflorescences of 5-10 pieces.
The most famous varieties of dipladenia of those grown in room culture are:
- Allamandu - surprisingly unpretentious Mandeville with large bright yellow flowers;
- Cosmos White, Fair Lady, Summer Snow - plentiful and long-flowering plants with snow-white flowers;
- Pink Parfait - a variety with multi-petalled fragrant flowers, which is sometimes called the Thai rose;
- Red hood - Diplomas with cherry-pink flowers;
- Scarlet Pimpernell - flowers of this variety shimmer in the sun with all shades of red;
- Yellow - Mandeville, whose flowers shine with gold;
- Cosmos Rose - variety with large fleecy flowers;
- Classic Red - a large plant with bright red inflorescences;
- Lax, or Chilean Jasmine - Argentinean variety with a strong gardenia aroma;
- San Parasol Crimzon - This Mandeville has flowers with pointed petals, reminiscent of scented tobacco.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Kutrovye
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Houseplants Beautiful flowering Kutrovye Plants on D
Growing and caring for a diploma at home
Diplomacy is popularly called the "plant of paradise", also has the names "Brazilian jasmine", "Bolivian rose". The flower has an incredible aroma and wondrous beauty of bright buds. The effect is complemented by rich green rounded leaves. It grows in the form of a bush or flexible liana, blooms for a long time. But it is not easy to care for - it is demanding on watering, the level of lighting, it reacts sharply to drafts and cold.
Types and varieties of diploma for growing at home
The genus has more than 40 species in nature. Only a few of them are cultivated as house plants. But as a result of selection, many varieties were bred that are popular with flower growers.
A culture that is cultivated as an ampelous one. Young shoots are pubescent, they have oval-shaped leaves up to 20 cm long, with a heart-shaped base and a sharp top. As the vine grows older, its stems gradually become bare. The flowers are pink with purple bracts, make up an inflorescence of 6 pieces.
Liana is from Bolivia. Shoots are long, ovoid, rich green color. Axillary peduncles with several white flowers with a yellow throat up to 5 cm in diameter.
A plant with smooth creeping stems. The leaves are thick, oval, more than 5 cm long.The inflorescences consist of 3-5 pink flowers up to 7 cm in diameter.
Liana with multiple short lateral processes. Leaves are gray-green, medium in size. Snow-white flowers with pointed petals. The plant grows quickly and can tolerate temperature changes.
In addition to the presented species, various varieties of Dipladenia were bred:
- Super Drupper,
- Cosmos White and others.
New hybrids continue to appear every year.
Despite the significant variety of wild species of Mandeville, not all are suitable for artificial breeding. However, even among the available options, you can choose for a rather long time, therefore, we will consider the most popular varieties of diplomatic life in gardening.
Diplomatic property brilliant it has a very beautiful color combination: on the outside, its flower is painted in a bright pink tone, but on the inside it is milky white. Such flowers are quite large, their diameter can reach 10 cm, while there are 6 lush flowers per inflorescence. Such a pet can grow up to 4-5 meters in height, while as the stem grows, the number of pointed leaves in the shape of a heart gradually decreases.
This culture has found itself in home gardens as an ampelous plant.
Bolivian Diplomatic considered to be the most common among the domesticated species of Mandeville. If you have ever seen such a plant, you will probably recognize it in the future thanks to its well-visible elongated shoots, dotted with rich green leaves in the shape of an egg 5-8 cm in diameter. The flower of this species is predominantly white, only the pharynx differs in shade - it is yellow. The Bolivian liana blooms in clusters of 3-4 flowers, each of them is relatively small - usually no more than 5 cm in diameter.
Diplomatic property is excellent in terms of flowering shades, it radically differs from the two species already described, since the white color is not represented here at all, but the red-pink corolla turns into red petals. For this plant, in general, a certain love for red tones is characteristic, because even the stems have such a shade, and only rounded leaves up to 4 cm long remained the usual rich green color.
It is not for nothing that this Mandeville was called excellent - it has rather beautiful and large flowers up to 7 cm in diameter with a tube up to 5 cm long, so they still do not grow individually, but are collected in large brushes of 8 pieces each.
Sander's Diplomas - another variety of this vine, attracting gardeners with an unusual combination of tones: the petals are painted in a delicate but bright pink, while a yellow throat stands out against their background. The diameter of each flower can be up to 7 cm, in one inflorescence there are usually 3-5 flowers. Such a Mandeville is characterized by extremely fast growth, it can be identified not only by flowering, but also by leathery oval-shaped leaves with a sharpness of up to 5 centimeters or more in length.
Dipladenia loose - one of the most demanding vines to the place, because this plant is characterized by strong lateral branching. The normal length for this mandeville is 5 meters, moreover, it is densely covered with emerald leaves up to 10 cm long. Each flower of such a vine has an emphasized white color. It is impossible not to highlight the splendor of the flowering of loose diplody - with a flower diameter of 9 cm, there are usually 5 to 10 of them in each inflorescence.
From these wild species, over the decades of breeders' work, many artificial varieties have been developed that differ in properties not found in the wild. For example, some varieties bloom in yellow, gold or cherry shades, have a well-defined pleasant smell, or their flowers have a thick fleecy coating. A novice gardener should pay attention to varieties such as Allamandu, Red Hood, Cosmos Rose, Sun Parasol Crimson, Cosmos White, Scarlet Pimpernell, Classic Red, Fair Lady, Yellow, Laxa, Summer Snow "and" Pink Parfait ".
Mandeville or Diplomatic is a vine that loves warmth, humidity and diffused light. Under such conditions, it is able to bloom without rest for a whole year. But it is still better to give her a winter vacation so that she does not overwork, growing flowers.
You can give the Mandeville an ampelous shape by placing it in a hanging planter or on a high stand. Or you can let the vine grow as it wants. But then take care of a net or support on which it will climb up. The stems can stretch up to 3 meters. You can grow a bush from a diploidium, cutting it off after flowering. True, in this case, one cannot do without a strong support. Vine stems are too thin and tender.
Read about the seasonal climate for the plant in the table.
Growing from seeds
An adult diploma has a rather high price in a flower shop, so it may not be affordable for every grower. But if you really want to decorate your home with such a vine and are not afraid of possible difficulties, then try to grow it from seeds, and there are seeds for sale of various varieties of Mandeville.
Take a container, at the bottom of which there are holes for drainage, and fill it with a slightly acidic, light and loose earth mixture into which the seeds are sown. The crops are transferred to a well-lit (light should be diffused) and warm (from 22 to 28 degrees) place, and they are provided with regular watering, while making sure that the substrate is slightly damp all the time, but do not allow the liquid to stagnate in it.
The first shoots will have to wait for a very long time, about 2-4 months, and throughout this time you will need to systematically water the crops, as well as remove condensation from the surface of the shelter. After 2 true leaf plates are formed in the seedlings that have appeared, they are picked in individual cups that have holes for drainage at the bottom, and the substrate is used the same as for sowing. After some time, when the bushes grow up, they are transplanted into permanent containers.
From the second half of the spring to mid-summer, the vine can be propagated by cuttings. The upper parts of the young stems are taken as cuttings in the spring, and in the summer, pieces of lignified mature shoots are taken.
When working with dipladenia, remember that its shoots and foliage contain juice containing poison, so do not forget about precautions: protect your hands with rubberized gloves and do not let the juice get on the mucous membranes and skin
For rooting, cuttings are planted in small cups, which are filled with a moistened substrate, which includes peat and sand (1: 1). Also, if desired, you can add one part of dry sphagnum to it. When planting for rooting, the cutting must be deepened to the first pair of leaf plates. Then he is removed to a mini-greenhouse, where it should be constantly very warm (no colder than 25 degrees). Bottom watering (through the pallet) is recommended for cuttings. Most often, after 30 days, the cuttings will grow their own root system, and when this happens, they are planted in permanent pots. There are times when flower growers root diplodenia cuttings in a glass of water. And when they grow roots 10–20 mm long, they are planted in pots filled with soil mixture.
If done correctly, the cuttings should root easily. But there are times when cuttings of Mandeville terry do not want to take root. In this case, the solution will be to grow terry varieties from seeds.
At home, diplomatic propagation by cuttings is typical. Young shoots are cut from the mother bush in spring, leaving three to four leaves on the cuttings. For rooting, the twigs are placed in a peat substrate and covered with a plastic cup or plastic bag. The container is placed in a warm place for a month and a half. At the same time, the greenhouse is regularly watered and ventilated.
When the cuttings are completely rooted, they are planted in separate containers. Multiple stems can be placed in one pot to create a dense flowering crown.