Diseases of tomatoes, peppers and cucumbers, and their prevention
In July, the main headache for gardeners is caused by problems in greenhouses: tomato diseases begin, troubles with peppers, cucumbers get sick.
If you have not done prophylaxis against phytophthora, then it will definitely start first on potatoes, and then on tomatoes. With late blight on potatoes it's easier to fight. It is necessary to spray its tops with any preparation containing copper. The easiest way is to use hom (copper oxychloride) or oxych, polychom, as they are easily diluted in cold water right in the watering can according to the directions on the package.
If the tomatoes grow outdoors, spray them too. Remember that copper-treated fruits should not be eaten for about three weeks. But if you grow tomatoes in a greenhouse, then copper preparations should not be used, since you constantly use everything that grows there for food. In this case, it is necessary to use ordinary iodine (10 ml vial for 10 liters of water). This solution can be stored for several days. First, tear off the leaves affected by late blight (they have black spots surrounded by a large yellow spot). Then spray any remaining leaves and fruits. After three days, repeat the treatment. Use the remaining solution to combat powdery mildew on black currants.
Add a little soap to it for better adhesion. Treat the bushes with a broom from top to bottom. With normal spraying, the solution rolls off the leaves. Repeat the procedure after three days.
In order to protect the fruits of tomatoes from getting late blight on them, about a week after spraying the leaves and fruits with iodine, spray only the fruits with a solution of calcium chloride. Buy calcium chloride from a pharmacy. It is usually sold in 200 ml bottles. This is a 10% solution. It must be diluted three times with water, that is, add another 500-600 g of water to it.
Processing should begin with the stalk and the remaining sepals of the flowers. It is from them that late blight gets on the fetus. Please note that usually with late blight disease in tomatoes, the sepals and stalks of the fruit are yellow-brown. Do not leave loose flowers. Remove them immediately as they are also a source of infection. Regularly remove all the lower leaves under the swollen brushes. By mid-July, tomatoes should have only the upper leaves above the last pouring brush.
At the very end of July, you should make punching tomatoes - to cut off all the tops of tall varieties and hybrids in order to stop their further growth and direct all the forces of the plant to growing the already set fruits. In undersized tomatoes, they do not perch, since they end their growth with a flower brush and do not grow higher. At this time, all tomatoes should be torn off the buds and flowers so that the plant does not waste its energy on them. Fruits from them do not have time to grow even the size of a hazelnut. It is better to let the plant grow up the already set fruits.
In addition, for a faster ripening of fruits, it is necessary to create a stressful situation for the plant: to sharply reduce the flow of nutrients. To do this, it is enough to cut off part of the roots: pull each plant strongly vertically upward, taking it with your hand by the lower part of the stem. Dramatically reduce watering and stop any feeding. In a stressful situation, any plant seeks to leave offspring as quickly as possible, therefore, accelerated ripening of fruits begins.
At the end of July, cold nights usually begin, which pepper does not like very much, it begins to shed ovaries and even fruits. If at the same time it is rainy weather, then on the fruits at the place of attachment of the stalk rot appearsand the fruits fall off. At the same time, in such weather, a white bloom often appears on the stems - stem rot... If you do not take urgent measures, then the rot will ring the stem, and it will fade. As soon as you notice that a plaque has appeared, immediately wipe this place with a dry cloth, then cover it with a gruel of chalk and potassium permanganate, or wash the infected area with a cloth dipped in a solution of potassium permanganate, and dust it well with ash. When fruit rot appears on peppers, tomatoes, eggplants, pour the plants with a solution of calcium nitrate (2 tablespoons per bucket). Add one tablespoon of chlorine-free potassium to the solution.
The same measures should be taken if there is top rot on fruits: first a spot appears on the top of the fruit, then it starts to rot. The main problems on cucumbers begin in early July. First of all, a spider mite settles on them. It is difficult to see him without a magnifying glass. It settles on the underside of the leaves. The inhabited leaves brighten at first, and many take this reaction for a lack of nitrogen and begin to intensively water the cucumbers with an infusion of manure or weeds. This usually does not help and the leaves begin to die off.
Vs spider mite the biopreparation fitoverm helps well. It is not a chemical, nor is it toxic to beneficial insects. Fitoverm is absorbed by the leaves and acts in the cell sap of the leaves, without penetrating into the fruit. Any pest, both sucking and gnawing, having tasted such a leaf, stops eating and dies of hunger. Two days after spraying with this drug, cucumbers can be eaten.
Spraying garlic infusion on the underside of the leaves also helps a lot. It has been noticed that the mite does not like the smell of dill, so it should be sown in a greenhouse with cucumbers, of course, not too thickly, otherwise powdery mildew will immediately settle in the thickets.
Good harvests to you!
Galina Kizima, amateur gardener
Late blight is one of the most dangerous diseases of tomatoes, which affects other representatives of nightshade (especially potatoes). This disease is caused by pathogenic organisms that occupy an intermediate position between fungi and protozoa. Therefore, not all fungicides can cope with this pathogen.
The name of the disease is translated from Greek as "destroying plant". The first signs of late blight are brown spots appearing on the lower leaves and stems of plants. With high humidity, the disease develops intensively and covers the upper leaves. Then, dark blurry spots are formed on the fruits, which eventually increase in size and cover the entire fruit. On the back of the leaves, a white, fluffy bloom of pathogen sporulation can be seen.
Phytophthora reproduces by zoospores, which are spread by soil water, wind, garden tools, fruit flies. The necessary conditions for the rapid development of late blight are air temperature from 12-15 ° C and humidity not lower than 75%. In dry and hot weather, when the temperature is above 26 ° C, the development of late blight stops.
At the first sign, destroy diseased plant parts, and treat all plantings with preparations based on azoxystrobin or mandipropamide (Pharmisor, Revus), Trichoderma (Trichodermin, Trichoplant, etc.) or hay sticks (Fitosporin-M, Alirin-B, Gamair, Baktofit ).
- Destroy plant debris infected with late blight.
- Do not grow potatoes and tomatoes nearby.
- Do not apply a large amount of nitrogenous fertilizers.
- Do not thicken the planting.
- Prevent moisture stagnation: ventilate the greenhouse.
- Water only at the root or use drip irrigation.
- Mulch the ground.
- Regularly treat plants with biological products based on hay bacillus, lactic acid bacteria.
- Populate trichoderma in the ground.
Tips for growing tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers in a greenhouse
Tips for growing tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers in a greenhouse
In order for work on the garden plot not to be a burden, you need to find an integrated and rational approach to the organization of work. This will not only greatly simplify work and save time, but also get the most out of your vacation on your backyard plots.
Of course, for many summer residents, the priority is to grow crops and get a good harvest. But if correctly organize and plan all work on growing plants, then a summer vacation will bring you not only pleasure, but also a rich and high-quality harvest!
So that the frustration of spending time on growing horticultural crops does not overshadow your efforts, the plants need to be helped - to protect them from diseases and pests.
The experience of seasoned summer residents has proven that only A complex approach to any plant leads to a positive result - a good harvest.
Using the example of greenhouse plants: cucumbers, peppers and tomatoes, we will learn how to effectively grow strong plants that will give us a magnificent and healthy harvest in the fall!
Remember! Only those plants that are grown with love will bring you a tasty, high-quality and healthy harvest!
Preparation of greenhouses and greenhouses before planting seedlings
We prepare greenhouses (hotbeds) so that they can take seedlings as early as possible
It is in greenhouses and greenhouses in early spring that the air and soil warms up faster - all living things awaken. Including - spores of pathogens (late blight, root and root rot, and so on), some pests (spider mites, whitefly and others). For prevention, disinfection of greenhouse and greenhouse areas is necessary. It is better to use only biological, natural preparations.
Disinfection of the greenhouse itself:
- To remove dirt, first of all, we wash the frame, walls and roof (polycarbonate, glass, film) with just water, preferably under pressure, for example, from a hose or using a sink "Karcher"... (Such car washes are usually used for washing cars, but are also suitable for other uses on the farm).
- Then we rinse with a disinfectant "Pharmayod" together with the drug "Summer resident" from pests: 100 ml + 10 ml per 10 liters of water
- After 7 days, we evenly spray effective beneficial microorganisms - preparations EM-Bio or "BakSib K": 0.5 cups per 10 liters of water.
Disinfection and soil preparation in the greenhouse:
- To quickly warm up the earth, spill it with warm water and cover it with black plastic wrap
- After a week, we make indentations of 25-30 cm along the entire ridge, fill them with organic matter, for example, kitchen waste collected during the winter (with biofuel), sprinkle them with preparations containing effective microorganisms (OFEM or "BakSib F") - for fermentation and disinfection. We return the soil to its place, spill it from viral and bacterial infections "Pharmayodom " and "Trichocinom", from pests we use "Summer resident" (100 ml + 6 g + 10 ml per 10 l of water). Cover the beds with black plastic wrap
- After 3 days, spill the soil with the preparation "EM-Bio" - a complex of beneficial effective microorganisms, or EM liquidfrom the fermentation of kitchen waste, or "BakSib K" (0.5 cups per 10 liters of water). Cover with black plastic wrap.
- To quickly process organic matter and turn it into a useful fertilizer for plants, we launch it into the soil earthworms.
- A week later, we start planting seedlings. Plants for greens or seedlings can be the first to master the area in the greenhouse and greenhouse, such crops as: radishes, salads, cabbage (seedlings), ground tomatoes, greens, onions, annuals (aster, marigolds, zinnia, calendula, nasturtium, and so on) and perennial flowers.
Attention! To quickly warm up the soil in the greenhouse and greenhouse, you can dig trenches under the beds and lay polypropylene pipes along the entire length, having previously made holes in them. Remove the ends of each pipe from the two ends of the bed, one in height - 60 cm, the other - 100-120 cm (there should no longer be holes in them).
During the day, the air in the greenhouse warms up and flows through pipes laid under the beds. Passing underground, the air gives off heat and, when cooled, returns back to the greenhouse, lowering the temperature in it, and warms up again. This makes the air cooler and the soil warm.
At night, the heat accumulated by the soil during the day is given up to the air passing through the same pipes, and the air temperature in the greenhouse rises.
Planting seedlings of cucumbers, peppers and tomatoes in a permanent place
As soon as the soil has warmed up and is ready to receive the plants, we proceed to planting.
- We shed seedlings in advance from the stress that she will receive when conditions change, with the drug "NV-101"(1 drop in 1 liter of water).
- We make a hole and fill with a nutrient mixture for the initial development of seedlings. The mixture should contain nitrogen ("Orgavit" chicken), phosphorus and calcium (bone meal), micro- and macroelements (potassium, magnesium, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silicon and others are in "Tse-oflore" and wood ash), effective beneficial microorganisms (OFEM or "BakSib R"), a substrate for soil loosening and moisture retention, free of larvae of harmful insects, fungi and bacteria that cause plant diseases ("Vermiculite").
- Put 1 tablet in the hole "Glyokladina" to a depth of 2-3 cm, to protect young roots from soil infection (root and root rot), a pinch of mustard oil and start the bacteria "Nemabakt" from insect pests. Well spill the soil mixture in the hole with the preparation "NV-101" (10 drops in 10 liters of water) for better rooting.
We plant the plants without watering the ground from above after that (there should not be a soil crust on the surface, air should easily pass into the depths).
Then, for 2 weeks, we do not water the seedlings at all, it takes root. From the cold and direct sunlight above the seedlings, we install arcs with a covering material in one or two tiers (depending on weather conditions), thereby creating the necessary microclimate for plants.
We stretch a black plastic sleeve between the seedlings or lay out plastic bottles filled with water. They will play the role of a heat accumulator: during the day the water will be heated, at night it will give off heat, leveling the air temperature.
After 2 weeks, if the soil has warmed up and the weather is warm, cover the ground around the plants with a layer of mulch (moisture evaporates less, there is no soil crust, there is no overheating of the soil).
Formation of greenhouse plants
The yield depends a lot on how you form the plants.
Forming cucumbers in the greenhouse
This is a tropical garden vine, climbing or creeping. If she is given free rein, she will conquer all the free space. It is recommended for the greenhouse to pick up the seeds parthenocarpic cucumber hybrids with bundle fruiting and limited growth of lateral shoots. They do not require pollination and are disease resistant. Pay special attention to the formation of cucumbers, peppers and tomatoes.
Plant cucumbers in one row at a distance of 30-35 cm from each other, tie the stem of each cucumber to a horizontal wire at the top of the greenhouse. As the main stem grows, as expected, pluck out the growth points of the lateral shoots in the lower part of the stem in the bosom of the 2nd to 4th leaf and remove all buds and ovaries, leaving the leaves.
This technique contributes to the further growth and abundant fruiting of cucumbers. In the future, form a crop only on the main stem, pinching all the side shoots. Once the stem of the cucumber has grown to the roof of the greenhouse, guide it over the top of the greenhouse, leaving a few side shoots.
Also, gradually remove the plates from the leaves - since this is a fast-growing plant, therefore, the lower leaves age (turn yellow) faster, they are primarily affected by phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and pests. Removal of foliage and side shoots contributes to better ventilation and illumination of the plants. All the inner strength of the cucumber then goes to fruiting.
Plant at least one bush of Chinese cucumber, then for the preparation of vegetable salad and lightly salted cucumbers, provide yourself and your loved ones with a harvest before the cold weather.
Formation of tomatoes
If you are a novice gardener and you have a high greenhouse (greenhouse), then you need to use it to the maximum, choose indeterminate (unlimited growth) hybrids tomatoes.
If you do not know how to shape them tomatoes, then leave only the main stem. On it you will form the harvest, removing all the stepchildren. In this case, they can be planted from each other at a distance of 30-35 cm. As the fruits form and they acquire technical ripeness, be sure to remove the leaves under the tomato brush.
30-35 days before the cold weather, somewhere in early August, pinch the top of the stem, leaving 2-3 leaves above the upper brush, and remove the flowers from which the fruits will not have time to form. All these techniques accelerate the ripening of the crop, improve ventilation and illumination of plants, do not create a favorable environment for plant diseases and insect pests.
Formation of peppers in the greenhouse
Many gardeners refuse to grow peppers in their garden. In vain. This culture must be treated more carefully, since it came to us from warmer places, to create optimal conditions for its cultivation.
To grow peppers, choose the lightest, warmest, calm place in the greenhouse - this is a bed in the middle of the greenhouse.
Since the roots of the pepper lie at a depth of no more than 20-40 cm and cannot independently extract moisture from the deeper layers of the soil, mulch all plantings with a thick layer of organic matter and extend the drip irrigation system. Drying of the soil leads to the fall of flowers, ovaries and, accordingly, a decrease in yield.
For tall and undersized peppers, the basic rule is to remove the stepchildren and lower leaves before the first branch of the stem and the first flower.
Formation of peppers in the greenhouse
After the branching of the main stem, several shoots are formed, leave 2-3 of the strongest ones, which play the role of the skeleton of the entire bush. The formation of tall peppers can be seen in the diagram.
Be sure to remove the stems that are directed towards the inside of the bush, remove the leaves that shade the ovaries and fruits, tie each stem to a support, since the peppers' shoots are very fragile and break easily.
Top dressing of greenhouse crops
The strength, growth and health of plants is directly dependent on proper plant nutrition.
Often gardeners are interested in: "Do I need to feed the plants when they are already bearing fruit?" Of course you do!
Nitrogen. During the period of growing vegetative mass (before flowering) and during the formation of fruits, the plant needs more nitrogen, its excess causes violent growth of stems and foliage, a delay in fruiting and ripening of fruits.
Phosphorus needed for the growth of the root system, it accelerates the formation of ovaries and fruits. Plants need calcium, potassium, macro- and microelements throughout the growing season. What we put in the hole when planting plants is enough only for their initial start, then they can be pampered with various natural dressings: prepare EM herbal infusion, bio cocktail, bio coffee... These can be prepared by yourself or purchased from specialized stores. Be sure to regularly sprinkle the foliage with a bio-cocktail, the preparations in its composition also help to protect the plantings from diseases and pests.
Fruit set in greenhouse crops
This factor mainly depends on the temperature regime in the greenhouse (greenhouse). As soon as the air warms up above normal, there will be barren flowers.
There is a way out - it is necessary to install the vents in the roof (it is better that they themselves open and close when the temperature changes), and in the spring, while the plants are not planted or small, pull the strings so that the light covering material can be easily moved along the walls of the greenhouse and along the roof ... These devices will lower the room temperature by a few degrees.
All of the above activities will surely give you a healthy and tasty harvest!
How to protect tomatoes from disease.
- Steam and disinfect the soil.
- Remove all biological debris after harvest.
- Choose resistant varieties and hybrids for planting.
- Weed and pest control.
- Trichodermin. Powdery mildew 8 liters per hectare. If it is necessary to combat late blight, Alternaria, add “Gaupsin” 5 liters per hectare, and 5 liters per hectare of tank mixture.
- Pseudobacterin-2. Against: root rot, black leg, phytophthora, and brown spot. Spraying before planting, as well as twice during the growing season. 100 milliliters for each bush.
- Phytocyd-R. Against fungi and bacteria, as well as to strengthen the immune system. Treatment before sowing for 100 grams of seeds 5 ml per half liter of liquid. For soaking seedlings - 10 milliliters per 3 liters of liquid. Processing during the growing season - 7 milliliters per 10 liters of liquid, once every one and a half weeks, a total of four times.
- Quadris S.K. (ae azaxistrobin, 250 g / l). Against late blight, Alternaria, and powdery mildew, use the instructions for use.
- Ridomil Gold MC, v.d. (ae mancozeb + mefenoxam, 640 + 40 g / kg). The targets of the defeat are late blight, alternaria. Processing four times per season.
- Rinkotseb. Targets - late blight, Alternaria, three times per season.
- Strobe. The goal is late blight and powdery mildew.
That's all, we have described to you all the tomato diseases that you can encounter when working in the garden or in film shelters. As you can see, there are methods of dealing with them, and they are very effective. Only in a few cases can the battle for the harvest be lost without a chance of victory. Use all available methods, and you will not be afraid of any diseases, we wish you success in this difficult struggle.
Downy mildew - downy mildew
Have small but numerous light yellow spots appeared on the leaves of cucumbers? A week passed - the spots increased in size, and the leaves themselves turned brown and began to dry out? This means that cucumbers are infected with downy mildew, or peronosporosis, a very dangerous and common disease that can affect plants at any stage of their development.
Downy mildew - Peronosporosis. Photo from the site greentalk.ru
Possible causes of occurrence
This is a fungal disease that develops rapidly in high humidity. Watering the plant with cold water can provoke growth.
How to warn
Observe agricultural practices: do not thicken the crops, maintain crop rotation, harvest the fruits in a timely manner and do not water the plants with cold water.
Having found the first signs of the disease, stop watering and feeding. To stop the spread of downy mildew, treat the plants with a warm (about + 25 ° C) solution of polycarbacin, copper oxychloride or Bordeaux liquid (mix 100 g of copper sulfate and fresh lime with 10 liters of warm (about + 25 ° C) water).
Also, to combat downy mildew, the preparations "Ordan" and "Ridomil" are used. After processing the plants, try to keep the temperature inside the greenhouse or greenhouse from falling below + 25 ° C. If you grow your cucumbers outdoors, just cover them with plastic overnight.
To prevent the occurrence of downy mildew, it is useful to periodically treat the plants with a solution of whey.
You can choose drugs to fight cucumber diseases in our catalog, which combines the offers of large garden online stores. Select drugs.
Diseases and pests of pepper
Diseases and pests of pepper
Sweet pepper is a fairly resistant crop, in any case, it is not as susceptible to diseases as tomato, and it is not as badly damaged by pests as eggplant. However, under certain conditions, this plant can suffer from infections and insects. Therefore, every person involved in the cultivation of sweet peppers should be ready to face problems and be able to quickly solve them. And now let's talk in more detail about the malicious agents that the gardener may have to fight on his site.
Top dressing of cucumber seedlings
As soon as the first true leaf appears on the cucumbers, they are fed with organic matter mixed with superphosphate. As an organic fertilizer, you can take slurry (1: 1), which is diluted in a bucket of water. Superphosphate for a bucket of water will need 20 grams.
If there is no organic matter, then you can prepare the following nutritional composition in 5 liters of water:
- potassium sulfate - 4 grams
- superphosphate - 8 grams
- ammonium nitrate - 3.5 grams.
Of the ready-made complex fertilizers, sodium humate, potassium humate and Effekton are suitable (1 tbsp. L for 1 bucket of water).
The second and third feed can be produced from the same mineral fertilizers, which will be needed twice as much. The solution should be more concentrated.
If the seedlings of cucumbers grow in a greenhouse, then spraying with weakly concentrated solutions of trace elements is very useful for it.
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