Interesting

Eleutherococcus

Eleutherococcus


Eleutherococcus (Eleutherococcus) is a thorny shrub or tree that belongs to the Araliaceae family. The berry plant is widespread in the southeast of Siberia, as well as in the western and central parts of China. People call the plant "wild pepper", "free berry", "devil bush", "Siberian ginseng" and refer to garden or medicinal crops. Among the 30 different species, the most famous is Eleutherococcus spiny.

Description of the Eleutherococcus plant

Eleutherococcus has high decorative qualities and many medicinal properties. The thorny shrub consists of a strong branched rhizome with adventitious roots more than 20 m long appearing on it (as it grows). The root part is shallow - in the upper layer of the soil. The average height of several thin trunks with a light gray surface is from 2 m to 5 m. On the trunks there are a large number of straight shoots with sharp thin thorns. Leaves are finger-like compound, dark green in color. During the flowering period, inflorescences appear on the culture - umbrellas of small fragrant purple flowers. Black globular berries with a diameter of about 10 mm ripen in September - October.

Planting Eleutherococcus in open ground

The landing site for Eleutherococcus can be in a light, partial shade or shady area. The most favorable will be cultivation under a tall deciduous tree, which will create light shading for Eleutherococcus with its large shoots with a large amount of leaf mass. The composition of the soil does not matter much - the shrub is capable of growing on any soil, but still a moist and fertile land plot is preferable for berry crops. When grown in temperate climates with mild and snowy winters, shrubs do not need additional shelter for the winter months.

Eleutherococcus can be planted in autumn and spring, in autumn - in late October - early November, in spring - in early March, before sap flow begins. The chosen planting site requires preliminary preparation, which consists in deep digging (up to 30 cm in depth) and thorough cleaning of weeds and the remnants of parts of other plants and debris. When digging up the soil at the site of the future planting, it is recommended to apply approximately 5-6 kg of organic fertilizer (for example, manure) for each square meter of the plot.

The dimensions of the planting pit are 50 cm deep and 50-60 cm in diameter. When planting several crops, it is worth adhering to the interval between them - at least 2 m.The prepared seedling must be placed exactly in the center of the planting pit, carefully spread the root part and also carefully sprinkle with nutritious soil so that the root collar is at a depth of no more than 2.5-3 see the ground in the near-trunk circle after planting, it is necessary to compact it a little, and then carry out the first watering with a weak manganese solution (slightly pink);

To obtain a rich harvest, it is recommended to plant several specimens of Eleutherococcus (not far from each other) in the garden at once, since young shrubs can have only female or male flowers. When planting eleutherococcus seedlings in autumn, it is recommended, with the arrival of the first frost, to take care of protecting the young fragile root system of plants and apply a three-centimeter mulching layer of rotted humus to the trunks.

Care of Eleutherococcus in the garden

Watering

Caring for the plant is so simple that you will have to spend a minimum of your free time on it. The thorny shrub does not need watering, the only exceptions are long dry periods with a long absence of rainfall.

The soil

Caring for the soil, namely weeding and loosening, in the near-stem circle is also not required and even harmful, because the emerging weeds do no harm to the culture. Weeds, on the contrary, prevent the soil from overheating above the root part and retain its moisture. If a moderately aggressive ground cover plant is planted in the near-stem circle and in the immediate vicinity of the shrub, then it will only have a positive effect on the growth and development of Eleutherococcus.

Top dressing and fertilizers

Additional mineral fertilizing is applied once a year in the spring. Each culture is watered with a special nutrient solution consisting of 10 liters of settled water and 2 tbsp. complex fertilizer.

Pruning

Pruning is recommended once or twice a year. In early spring, it is imperative to remove all dried, diseased and damaged shoots. To give the plant a neat and tidy look, you can also carry out a small formative pruning.

Diseases and pests

Another important advantage and positive quality of Eleutherococcus is resistance to pests and diseases. The plant is not afraid of any diseases and is never affected by pests.

Types and varieties of Eleutherococcus

Popular species and varieties found in culture are Eleutherococcus "Sidyachetsvetkovy" (average height - 2.5-3 m), "Henry" (winter-hardy, average height - 1-3 m), "Simona" (heat-loving, average height - about 5 m).

Useful properties of Eleutherococcus

Ginseng and Eleutherococcus contain almost the same amount of nutrients, which have long been appreciated by both traditional and official medicine. These two medicinal plants have received well-deserved respect and recognition from specialists. The leaves and the root of the shrub have healing properties. The leafy part is harvested during the flowering period, carefully dried and used for its intended purpose. Plant roots can only be removed from the ground during the spring or fall season.

The composition of the prickly eleutherococcus contains many valuable components that contribute to recovery in the treatment of many diseases. Vegetable fats, essential oils, resins, glycosides and much more make medicinal decoctions, ointments, teas, tinctures based on it. In pharmaceuticals there are various preparations in which this medicinal culture is the main active ingredient - capsules, tablets, pills, syrups, dry and liquid extracts, tinctures, herbal mixtures. Traditional medicine offers its own recipes for the preparation of medicines. Here is some of them:

  • Tea for the treatment of colds and nervous exhaustion - 1 tbsp. crushed leaves need to be poured with boiling water in an amount of 500 ml and left for 10-15 minutes to infuse.
  • Ointment to remove warts - To make the ointment, you will need fresh Eleutherococcus root, garlic, and unsalted lard. Each component must be taken in equal parts and chopped with a meat grinder or blender. The finished ointment is spread in a thin layer on a gauze bandage and fixed on the wart, leaving for 10-12 hours.
  • A decoction to strengthen the body and increase efficiency - to prepare the decoction, you will need 1 liter of hot water and 50 g of chopped roots. The roots must be poured, brought to a boil, boiled for fifteen minutes, and then left to cool completely. It is recommended to strain the broth before use.

The active and valuable components of Eleutherococcus are used:

  • To increase endurance, relieve physical and mental fatigue, improve performance and strengthen immunity;
  • To normalize the functioning of the nervous system and improve the quality of vision;
  • To restore normal metabolism;
  • In the treatment of diabetes mellitus to lower blood sugar levels;
  • To lower cholesterol levels;
  • For the prevention and prevention of cancer;
  • To restore potency in men and as an analgesic for menstruation in women;
  • With nervous disorders, prolonged stress, in the treatment of depression, to eliminate anxiety and irritability, with insomnia and excessive tearfulness;
  • For the treatment of hypertension and with problems with blood vessels, with arrhythmias and during climacteric manifestations;
  • To strengthen hair roots and hair loss;
  • In the treatment of skin diseases.

With all its many advantages, the plant in isolated cases causes intestinal upset and diarrhea.


Chicory - composition, useful properties and harm

Chicory is a perennial plant in the Aster family. It is used as livestock feed, medicine, or herbal supplement in the human diet.

There are several varieties of chicory. Salad is prized for its edible leaves that contain nutrients. And from the dried root, a delicious drink is prepared that replaces coffee.

The homeland of chicory is the Mediterranean region. In 79 AD, Pliny the Elder mentions chicory in his encyclopedia, Stories of a Naturalist. He noted that the plant is useful for insomnia and for purifying the blood. Today, chicory is used as a medicine and an invigorating drink.


Medicinal properties of Eleutherococcus

At present, 8 glycosides have been identified in the roots and rhizomes of Eleutherococcus, which have received the special name eleutherosides A, B1, B2, B4, E, F, G. Unlike panaxazides of ginseng, eleutherosides belong to different classes of chemical compounds. Five of them belong to lignan glycosides - eleutherosides D, E, sesamin (eleutheroside B4), iriodendrin, and some to coumarins (isofraxinidine-eleutheroside B1). In addition, the roots also contain other biologically active substances: phenylpropane derivatives (syringin, coniferyl alcohol), caffeic acid, sterols (sitosterol, daucosterol - eleutheroside A), triterpene saponins, sugars and polysaccharides, essential oil (0.8%), resins , pectin substances, rich in gums, wax (1%), carotenoids (180%). The rhizomes and roots accumulate macro- and microelements: potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, cobalt, chromium, barium, vanadium, iodine, boron. They concentrate strontium and selenium. Sterols, fatty oils, flavonoids, the alkaloid aralin and other biologically active compounds were found in various plant organs.

This amazing plant has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 2,000 years. According to the Chinese classification of medicines, it belongs to windy and moist, strengthening bones and joints. He was prescribed from rheumatism to impotence. But modern scientific research has not confirmed all directions of use. A powerful immunostimulating effect and an increase in performance have been confirmed.

In its activity, the extract of Eleutherococcus is close to the well-known preparations of ginseng. According to some researchers, its active ingredients act on gestagenic, glucocorticoid, and estrogen receptors. This leads to an effect on the pituitary-adrenal system. Anabolic effect is manifested in metabolism. It has adaptogenic properties - it increases the body's resistance to adverse conditions, physical and mental performance increases, and concentration of attention increases. The body becomes more resistant to infectious diseases. There is evidence that Eleutherococcus extract reduces blood sugar. Already after 7-8 days of using Eleutherococcus extract in an exhausted or tired patient, the general condition improves significantly, sleep becomes stronger, headaches go away, mental and physical performance increases, and the skin becomes fresher.

An increase in blood pressure is observed in hypotensive patients after the use of its drugs. However, in hypertensive patients, it does not always increase when taking Eleutherococcus. On the contrary, doctors noted a normalization of blood pressure and an improvement in general well-being. Polysaccharides enhance the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes, which are responsible for nonspecific cellular immunity. In test models, the extract showed antiviral effect and the ability to inhibit the growth of tumor cells. Suppression of the reproduction of rhinoviruses and influenza viruses was noted under the action of the extract. Reduces blood sugar, has a gonadotropic effect. Lowers cholesterol, is an antioxidant. A protective effect is noted with radiation and chemotherapy.

Eleutherococcus extract reduces the duration of the action of hypnotics, especially barbiturates.

Liriodendrin, including chlorogenic acids, is protective against stress-induced ulcers.

Eleutherococcus extract recommended as a general tonic for warts and herpes.

Outwardly, the peoples of the Far East used a decoction, powder and tincture of the roots for poorly healing wounds.

For cooking tincture of eleutherococcus take 160-200 g of dry crushed roots, insist them for two weeks in a liter of vodka, daily shaking the contents of a tightly closed vessel. Then filter and take a tincture of 0.5 teaspoon 2-3 times a day.

Free-berry roots are used in the production of non-alcoholic tonic drinks "Eleutherococcus", "Vigor". This plant is also used in perfumery. It is included in creams that have a regenerating, rejuvenating and tonic effect on the skin.

Contraindications: Arterial hypertension, insomnia - those symptoms in which the use of Eleutherococcus requires consultation with a doctor. In rare cases, stomach upset is possible.

The effectiveness of the use of extracts from the stems, leaves and roots of Eleutherococcus to the diet of animals has been experimentally proven. Its use leads to an increase in their sexual activity and productivity, increased egg production of chickens. Even the bees' bribes increased. So in a subsidiary farm, this plant will be useful from all sides.

About the cultivation of Eleutherococcus - on the encyclopedia page Eleutherococcus

Photo: Elena Malankina, Rita Brilliantova


Perennials

Calamus, form with white-green leaves, Acorus calamus

Exceptionally elegant, resistant and unpretentious plant.
- It grows well both in the reservoir and on land.
- Height 60-80 cm.
- A remarkable feature of the variegated form of calamus is the longitudinal white edging on the leaves.
- Unlike the variegated form of the marsh iris, the variegated color persists throughout the summer.
- Completely winter-hardy in St. Petersburg. It hibernates normally right in the reservoir, freezing into the ice.

Our video about calamus:

Aquilegia (catchment) dwarf from Far Eastern seeds

Unpretentious and winter-hardy perennial aquilegia of an unusual species, grown from Far Eastern seeds.
- Differs from other aquilegia in smaller size and delicate structure.
- Height 30-35 cm.
- Blooms in late May - early June.
- The flowers are red.
- She does not require shelter for the winter.
- Looks good on alpine slides and foreground flower beds.

Aquilegia or catchment, Aqulegia

Unpretentious and winter-hardy perennial.
- Height 50-60 cm.
- The flowers are pink-purple.
- Blooms in late May - early June.
- Peduncles about 50 cm tall, rising above the leaves.
- Does not require shelter for the winter.

Aconite or Kuznetsov's wrestler, Aconitum kusnezoffii

Tall rhizome perennial with blue flowers.
- Height 80-150 cm.
- Stems are straight with split leaves.
- Blooms in late summer with blue flowers in racemose inflorescences.
- Winter-hardy.
- Photo by Valentin Yakubov from plantarium.ru

Anaphalis pearl, Anaphalis margaritacea

Winter-hardy and unpretentious perennial with silvery leaves and white flowers.
- Silvery pubescent leaves.
- White flowers, collected in a corymbose inflorescence.
- Height 30-40 cm.
- Long bloom - the entire second half of summer.
- Grows rapidly, forming elegant, silvery curtains.

Continental aralia, aralia continentalis

A rare decorative Far Eastern perennial with delicate foliage and a large pyramidal inflorescence.
- Each year, one or more central stems grow from the wintering root, from which large feathery leaves extend.
- The height of an adult plant is 0.5-1 meter.
- The leaves are large, up to 50 cm, feathery.
- It blooms in the second half of summer. Flowers are located on a long, about half a meter, panicle.
- The berries are black, due to the large size of the panicle on which they are located, give the aralia a very unusual look.
- Looks most impressive with a single landing.
- Like other araliaceae, it is used as a medicinal plant.

Our video about rhizome aralia:

Arisema amur, Arisaema amurense

An unusual perennial with a "flower" in the form of a "cobra", and a fruit - an ear, green in summer and reddening as the seeds ripen. The leaves are also unusual - dissected, on a long stem.
- Height - 30-40 cm.
- As a forest plant, it develops quite normally in the shade.
- The hibernating part is a tuber, the size of which increases with the age of the plant.
- Propagated by children, formed at the mother's rhizome, and seeds.
- Tubers are not dug out for the winter, if there is no task to separate the formed children.
- In St. Petersburg, the Amur arizema is quite winter-hardy and does not require special care.

Our videos about Arizem:

Astilbe "Younique Silvery Pink"

Medium-sized astilbe with silvery pink flowers and green openwork leaves.
- Height - about 40 cm.
- Foliage - shiny, dark green, delicate.
- Inflorescences are paniculate, silvery-pink. Flowering - the second half of summer.
- The best location is partial shade.

Astilbe Arends "Bumalda", Astilbe arendsii "Bumalda"

Low astilbe with white-pink flowers and green openwork leaves.
- Height - 30-40 cm.
- Foliage - shiny, dark green, delicate.
- Inflorescences are paniculate, white with a pinkish tinge.
- Blooming - the second half of summer.
- The best location is partial shade.

Astilbe Arendsii "Radius", Astilbe arendsii "Radius"

Excellent, powerful astilbe with red flowers and green openwork leaves.
- Grows quickly and well, does not get sick.
- Height - 80 - 100 cm.
- Foliage - shiny, dark green, delicate.
- Inflorescences are paniculate, red.
- Blooming - the second half of summer.
- The best location is partial shade.

Astilbe Arends "Flamingo", Astilbe arendsii "Flamingo"

Medium-sized astilbe with pink flowers and openwork green leaves.
- Height - up to 70 cm.
- Foliage - shiny, dark green, delicate.
- Inflorescences - paniculate, pink.
- The best location is partial shade.

Astilba dwarf

A very small white and pink astilbe.
- Height 25-30 cm, which is rare in astilbe.
- Hardy and hardy.
- Forms a low rug, green in autumn and blooming in the second half of summer.
- Looks good among ground cover plants. Suitable for the foreground as well.

Astilbe simple-leaved "Aphrodite", Astilbe simplicifolia "Aphrodite"

Low, cheerful astilbe with coral-red flowers and green undivided leaves.
- Height - about 50 cm.
- Foliage - shiny, dark green, with denticles along the edge.
- Inflorescences - paniculate, coral-red.
- The best location is partial shade.

Aster "Christina", Aster dumosus "Kristina"

Low winter hardy aster with white flowers.
- Height 30-50 cm.
- When planted alone, forms dense hemispherical bushes.
- Grows rapidly, forming dense clumps.
- In St. Petersburg, winter-hardy without shelter.

Aster Italian "Gnome", Aster amellus "Gnom"

Perennial, low aster with light lilac flowers.
- Height about 30-40 cm
- Light lilac flowers
- An excellent plant for borders and flower beds.
- It is quite winter-hardy in St. Petersburg.

Our video about the "Gnome" aster:

Shrub aster "Anneke", Aster dumosus "Anneke"

Perennial low bush aster with pink flowers.
- Height about 30 cm
- Flowers are dense, double, large.
- Bloom: August-October.
- Winter hardiness in St. Petersburg.

Aster shrub "Pink Lace", Aster dumosus "Pink Lace"

Low perennial aster. Flowers with bright crimson petals and a yellow center.

Shrub aster "Professor Anton Kippenberg"

Perennial shrub aster. The diameter of the flower is about 3 cm. The bush is quite compact, about 50-60 cm high, grows well. Aster blooms from late August to October.

Aster shrub "Alice Haslam", Aster dumosus "Alice Haslam"

Aster shrub "Alice Haslam", Aster dumous "Alice Haslam"
Perennial terry low aster.
- Height - 50-60 cm
- Flowers are double, pink.
- Winters in Petersburg. Blooms: September-October.

Aster novae-angliae "Herbstschnee"

Perennial semi-double aster. The flowers are white with a yellow center. In St. Petersburg it is quite winter-hardy.

Astra new English "Rosa Sieger" ("Rosa Sieger")

Perennial winter-hardy aster with pink flowers.

Aster novae-angliae "Rubinschatz"

Perennial aster with purple-red double flowers. Winter hardiness.

Aster novo-belgian "Arctic", Aster novi-belgii

Winter-hardy white terry aster.
- Height - about a meter.
- Flowers are white, double, 4 cm in diameter.
- Good branching, so it blooms profusely.
- Not damaged by autumn frosts, color until November.
- In St. Petersburg it winters without shelter.

Our video about the "Arctic" aster:

Aster novi-belgii "Violetta"

Winter-hardy blue-violet aster. Height 90-100 cm.

Flowering - September, October.

Aster novi-belgii "Dauerblau"

Perennial caste winter-hardy aster with blue-violet flowers. Sprawling bush 130-150 cm high.Blossoms: September-November

Aster novi-belgii "Marie Ballard"

Perennial terry aster.

Aster pink, early

Perennial early resistant aster with light pink flowers.
- Height about 90-120 cm.
- The first aster we have is blooming.
- Abundant and long flowering - from late August to October.
- Flowers are light pink with a yellow center.
- Hardy without shelter.

Astra lilac mix, medium height

Lilac aster, medium-sized. It is quite stable and unpretentious.

Aster, light lilac, Aster

Perennial medium-high resistant aster with light lilac flowers.
- Height - 130-140 cm.
- Flowers are semi-double with a yellow center.
- Hardy without shelter.
- Bloom - September-October.

Ayuga or tenacious, purple-leaved form, Ajuga reptans "Variegata Rubra"

Ground cover, creeping, flowering, resistant perennial.
- Leaves are purple with green areas. The coloration is most pronounced when planted in a sunny place.
- It blooms with blue flowers in paniculate inflorescences about 20 cm high.
- Ayuga is absolutely winter-hardy and unpretentious.
- Grows in breadth due to the "mustache", like strawberries.


Reproduction

The free berry reproduces both by seeds and by segments of rhizomes (much easier and faster). The seeds have an underdeveloped embryo and germinate only in the second year. This moment must be remembered well and not be disappointed if you do not get seedlings in the first year. Stratification is required to accelerate seed germination and seedling in the first year. To do this, the seeds after harvesting are kept in wet sand at a temperature of 18-20 ° for 4-5 months, then at 0 ° + 3 ° for 2-3 months. Field germination of such seeds (40-50%) is due to the fact that some of them rot during stratification, while others are damaged by fungal diseases while still on the mother plant. Therefore, after collecting, we recommend immersing the seeds in a 1-2% solution of potassium permanganate for 1-2 hours, and then stratification.

The most effective vegetative propagation of free berries by root cuttings 12-15 cm long, 0.6-1.5 cm in diameter, on which dormant buds are located. You can also use green cuttings (summer shoots) in the third decade of June - the first half of July. The high efficiency of the use of BCI on cuttings was noted. Rooting accelerated and the number of roots was higher.

In the first year, seedlings, cuttings and young seedlings need light shading, which can be done with wooden battens, non-woven covering material, etc. But you need to be more careful with the latter - it must either lie on supports, or it must be constantly lifted so that the plants are well ventilated. In the second year, plants can be grown without shading.


How to collect and store chicory

The chicory root is harvested in the fall, when the upper vegetative part dries up. Better to dry it outdoors, cut into rings, and then fry in the oven until brown.

Store dry chicory in cool, dark places without direct sunlight. Use tightly twisted containers or linen bags for full preservation. When buying a finished product in a store, make sure that the packaging is intact and do not use after the expiration date.

Store fresh chicory leaves in the refrigerator for no more than 2-3 days. For long-term harvesting, freezing is recommended - this way you can store the leaves for up to 6 months. It is better to pre-pour boiling water over the chicory and let the water drain.

Eat only healthy foods that will help you lead a healthy lifestyle!


Watch the video: Eleuthero Eleutherococcus senticosus Avena Botanicals