Common diseases and pests of black currant, treatment and prevention
Black currant is a popular shrub in the garden. Not only its delicious berries are useful, but also fragrant leaves and twigs, which are added when brewing tea or when preserving. But the lack of care and treatment of bushes increases the likelihood of diseases and pests, which leads to a significant decrease in the yield of berries.
Diseases of black currant
Diseases of currant fungal origin often develop during prolonged rains and inclement weather. If the summer is cool and rainy, then the gardener should pay special attention to the plantings of currants. Viral diseases of black currant are more dangerous than fungal diseases: they are more difficult to treat and prevent and can lead to the death of the entire bush.
Common fungal diseases
The most common fungal diseases affecting black currant are:
- septoria (white spot);
- powdery mildew.
Anthracnose is a disease that is common in rainy summers. Isolated yellow-green spots appear on the leaves, which then turn brown, grow and merge with each other, forming necrotic areas. After a while, shoots and berries get sick.
If you do not take any measures, the affected leaves, starting from the lower tiers, completely turn brown, dry out and massively fall off prematurely. Green berries crumble, shoots give a weak growth. Affected bushes are not resistant to frost, and their productivity is reduced by 50–70%.
Blackcurrant leaves in the initial stage of anthracnose damage
Septoria (white spot) is also most likely in rainy, cool summers. Brown spots appear on the leaves, which eventually become whitish with a brown border. With a strong lesion, the spots increase and merge with each other. The leaf dries up and dies. The yield of diseased bushes is reduced by 1.5-2 times.
Blackcurrant septoria leads to a decrease in yield by 1.5-2 times
Rust - red bumps on the back of the leaves, which, when the disease spreads, merge into orange stripes. Fruits can also be affected. Excessive spring watering can provoke the disease. Rust pathogens live on conifers or on a marshy plant - sedge. If there is a swampy reservoir or coniferous plantings next to the garden plot, then it would be better to choose varieties that are resistant to rust damage for growing currants.
Rust bumps merge into stripes when the disease spreads
Powdery mildew is a rare disease of black currant. It manifests itself as a white bloom on the tops of the shoots. Leaves do not grow, deform and die off. If untreated, it also applies to berries.
Powdery mildew can spread to berries if left untreated.
The most dangerous viral diseases of black currant:
- striped mosaic,
- terry (reversion).
Striped mosaic is a dangerous disease in which black currant plantings can be completely lost. It appears as a yellowish pattern around large leaf veins. Carriers - aphids, ticks. Infection will occur if a diseased stalk is grafted onto a healthy bush or healthy and diseased bushes are cut off with the same non-disinfected tool.
The striped mosaic appears as a yellow pattern on the leaves.
Terry is a disease in which black currants become sterile. It is possible to identify the disease only during the flowering of the bushes, although the leaves are also subject to change. They become more elongated, pointed, darker in color, coarser. The teeth are less frequent and larger, without a specific currant smell. Diseased shoots bloom a week later than healthy ones, the flowers acquire a dirty pink or purple hue, the inflorescences are elongated, crumble without forming fruits.
Terry black currant: a - an infected shoot and a modified flower; b - healthy shoot and flower; c - affected branch (photo)
Prevention and treatment of black currant diseases
Unfortunately, bushes infected with terry or striped mosaic cannot be treated. It is impossible to cut only diseased branches of the plant, hoping to stop the spread of the disease. Affected bushes must be completely uprooted and burned.
For the prevention of the disease it is necessary:
- Choose healthy planting material. Take cuttings for grafting only from those bushes on which there are no signs of disease. Do not purchase seedlings from dubious sellers.
- Inspect all bushes periodically. Initially, only a few branches may be affected by the disease. The sooner you remove a diseased plant from the garden, the more chances you have to keep the rest of the blackcurrant plantings healthy.
- Fight infection vectors regularly. Spray the bushes with chemical or biological agents, as well as herbal formulations to prevent the appearance or destruction of aphids and ticks.
- Apply the correct feeding. An excess of nitrogen-containing drugs can provoke the development of viral diseases. Potassium-phosphorus fertilizers increase the resistance of plants.
To prevent fungal diseases, remove any fallen leaves under the bushes and burn them. At the first signs of illness, which usually appear in early summer, spray the plants with Fitosporin.
In early spring, before the buds bloom, currant bushes and the soil under them are sprayed:
- solution of copper sulfate,
- Bordeaux mixture
- with HOM.
Copper sulfate is an inexpensive but effective drug. Take 100 g of powder in a bucket of water. Copper sulfate dissolves poorly in cold water, so it is better to first stir it in a liter of warm water, and then pour it into a bucket.
Bordeaux mixture is a popular remedy for most gardeners. For spring spraying, a 3% solution is needed. To prepare it, you will need 3 packages of the drug. The composition includes all the same copper sulfate and slaked lime. You can make the Bordeaux mixture yourself. To do this, each component must be dissolved in a separate container in 5 liters of water, and then mixed. When mixing the components, be sure to carefully pour the solution of copper sulfate into the limestone.
When preparing the mixture, you must adhere to the rules indicated on the packaging of the drug!
Pests of black currant and the fight against them
Blackcurrant bushes can infect over 70 insects. Some are very rare or do not cause significant damage. But the most harmful are:
- gall midge,
- kidney mite,
- kidney moth,
- spider mite,
- currant goldfish,
- currant glass jar,
- shoot aphid,
- berry sawer.
How to get rid of gall midges
Gall midges are mosquito-like insects that lay eggs under the bark or in the cracks of the stem, flowers, leaves that have not unfolded. The larvae hibernate under currant bushes in spider cocoons. Infected plants develop reddish swellings on the leaves.
Gall midge and currant leaves affected by it with reddish swellings
- spring and autumn tillage around bushes;
- treatment of plants with Bordeaux mixture;
- cutting and burning affected branches;
- spraying currants with Fitoverm before and after flowering.
How to deal with a fire
Pupae of fireflies hibernate in the ground under bushes. In spring, butterflies come to the surface and lay their eggs directly in flower buds. The hatched larvae eat the ovaries. The berries on the affected shoots are entwined with cobwebs and dry out.
To prevent fire damage to the bushes, the soil under the bushes is dug up in spring and autumn, mulched with a thick layer of cardboard so that it was impossible for butterflies to come to the surface.
- spraying bushes in early spring with insecticides (Aktellik, Lepidotsid);
- collection and destruction of affected branches and berries.
How to deal with a kidney mite
Kidney mite is a serious pest of black currant. If the fight against it is not started on time, then you can lose both the crop and the bush. The main sign of kidney mite damage is swollen, rounded kidneys. At this stage, you can still fight for the plant: cut and burn all the shoots with affected buds.
Affected buds become rounded and do not open.
Ways to fight:
- treatment with sulfur-containing preparations (Neoron, sulfaride, Kinmiks);
- spraying in the fall with Neoron, Apollo preparations.
Sulfur-containing preparations are used three times a season: during bud break, before flowering and a month before the berries ripen. The first spraying is carried out when the air temperature is at least 15 ° C. Drug solutions are prepared according to the attached instructions. A suspension of colloidal sulfur (sulfaride) can be prepared independently: 100 g per bucket of water. This solution is effective at temperatures from 20 ° C.
How to get rid of kidney moths
The pupae of the kidney moth winter under the bark of the currant, and with the arrival of spring, the emerged butterflies lay their eggs on the ovaries, which subsequently destroy the hatched larvae.
To prevent the spread of this pest, you must:
- destroy fallen leaves;
- thin out bushes and plantings;
- spray with Karbofos, Actellik.
How to deal with spider mites
Spider mites are active in hot, dry weather. The presence of a tick on the plant is indicated by light dots on the upper part of the leaf plate. On the back of the leaf, a thin cobweb is visible, on which the mite lives. Tick-affected currant leaves dry up and fall off in the middle of summer.
To combat spider mites during the growing season, use the drug Fitoverm.
How to get rid of currant goldfish
The years of the golden currant beetle fall on May-June. At this time, pests lay eggs under the bark of young shoots. The larvae bite into the shoots, eating them from the inside, and remain there for the winter. The plant weakens, yields small yields of small berries.
The main ways of dealing with currant goldfish:
- pruning to a healthy part and burning affected shoots;
- treatment with preparations against leaf-gnawing insects: Lepidocid, bromophos, Alatar.
How to deal with currant glass
The use of any drugs against currant glass is practically useless. The larvae are located inside the stem and are protected from external influences. The most effective way to deal with glass is at the stage of butterflies. The appearance of insects with transparent wings signals that you need to spray the plant with Fitoverm or Lepidocide.
Leaves on infected shoots wither, berries crumble. In the center of the cut branch, you can see the move. Such shoots should be cut to healthy, light-cored wood. Glassy larvae do not penetrate into the roots of the bush.
A glass butterfly, a glass caterpillar inside a shoot gnaws at its own course, when cutting a branch, a damaged core is visible
How to deal with shoot aphids
Aphids are a sucking insect carried by ants. Aphid colonies can be observed on the underside of young leaves and the tops of the shoots. The leaves of infected bushes curl and deform, and the shoots stop growing. Before bud break, spray the plant with Karbofos, Aktellik, Nitrafen. At the time of ripening of berries, you can use the biological product Aktofit for processing.
Shoots affected by aphids are deformed, stop growing, leaves curl
How to get rid of the scabbard
The gradual drying out of an outwardly healthy bush indicates the presence of a pest that feeds on the juice of the bark - the scabbard. If you do not take any measures, then the bush will die. Pests merge with the stem, but if you look closely, you can see them. They look like small flat bumps.
The scabbard feeds on the juice of the bark, from which the shoot dries out over time
For spring treatment from the scabbard, the drug Nitrafen is used. For small areas of infection, you can wipe the bushes with water with the addition of laundry soap and a few drops of kerosene in a bucket of water.
How to deal with a berry sawer
The caterpillars of the berry sawer eat away the fruits from the inside. The berries ripen ahead of time, but it is impossible to eat them. But you will have to collect the affected fruits so that the pests do not get out. Pour the collected berries with water and boil to kill the larvae. If you just throw away the berries, the caterpillars will continue to live, moving into the soil. By transforming into an insect, the berry sawer will continue to harm the currant.
You can get rid of the pest by digging the soil, mulching and hilling the bush. Plants are sprayed with insecticides before flowering.
Traditional methods of combating diseases and pests of black currant
The most common method used by many gardeners is to scald the bushes with boiling water in early spring. This should be done as soon as the snow melts, but before the buds swell. Heat the water to a near boil, then pour into a watering can and pour over the branches over the bushes. Such a procedure will not only help get rid of existing fungi and pest larvae, but also strengthen the plant's immunity.
Many gardeners are now passionate about organic farming and prefer to use either industrial biologics or self-prepared infusions for spraying. Against gnawing and sucking pests, infusions of garlic, yarrow, calendula, dandelion, mustard, hot pepper, wormwood, onions and other insecticidal plants are used. Prepare solutions based on the calculation:
- herbal - a kilogram of crushed raw materials per 10 liters of water;
- garlic - 100 g of garlic per 10 liters;
- onion - 200-200 g of onion mass per 10 liters;
- pepper - 500 g of chopped hot pepper pods per 10 liters;
- mustard - 30-40 g of dry mustard powder per 10 liters.
Insist solutions from 12 to 24 hours. For better adhesion, add laundry or liquid soap. Be sure to spray the leaves from below. But these solutions cannot be applied during flowering.
To prevent fungal diseases, the bushes are treated with:
- a weak solution of potassium permanganate;
- with an ash solution (3 kg per 10 liters of water);
- soda solution (40 g per 10 l of water).
Disease and Pest Resistant Blackcurrant Varieties
New varieties of black currant are relatively resistant to some diseases and pests. It is optimal to plant several varieties on the site, which have different ripening periods and resistance to most diseases.
Table: Blackcurrant varieties resistant to common diseases and some pests
Photo gallery: the main varieties of currants that are resistant to diseases and pests
Video: harvesting black currant varieties Centaur
There are a lot of diseases that black currant is susceptible to, there are even more pests, but it is possible and necessary to fight them. When choosing varieties of currants for a site, remember that with proper and timely care, the stability and yield of currant bushes increases significantly.
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To have a bountiful harvest, you have to sweat a lot. Experienced summer residents and gardeners have learned this truth well. To their chagrin, the extremely undesirable and time-consuming process of pest control is often added to the usual care of crops. Was no exception in this sense and black currant - pests and control of them, photos and other details we have posted here in taking care of you.
Blackcurrant can be a tasty morsel for more than 70 species of insects, which, as a result of their actions, we have come to call pests. Most summer residents had or will have to fight with some of them, while others are quite rare. We will consider pests of the first category so that meeting with them will not be a big blow for you. So who does blackcurrant most often suffer from?
You need to know the enemy by sight - pests of black currant with photos and methods of struggle
Owners of black currant should be afraid of this pest most of all. If the protection of the bushes is not started in a timely manner, there is a high probability of not only losing the harvest of this season, but also the whole plant. The first sign of kidney mite damage to currants is swollen buds (pictured). It is at this moment that it is important to take action. In the absence of proper measures, the plant as a whole will develop very poorly, the leaves will be deformed and there will be very few of them, as well as flowers. A weakened plant will become susceptible to disease and pests.
Swollen kidneys - a sign of the presence of a kidney mite
To prevent such a development of events, the following measures must be taken:
• If swollen buds are noticed, they should be immediately cut off along with part of the shoot and burned (if most of the plant is affected, it must be cut to ground level).
• You can plant onions and garlic side by side.
• Fighting by spraying the bushes with boiling water (before the buds appear or in late autumn) may be effective.
• Sprinkle with garlic water (100 g crushed garlic / 10 l).
• A pest-infested plant can be treated with a sulfur-containing product.
• Spraying black currant with acaricides (Apollo, Neoron, Nissaran) is possible only after the autumn harvest, as they are toxic.
In the photo: a kidney with kidney mite larvae in section
In addition to black currant, this pest is very fond of gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, cucumbers. It is especially active in hot dry summers. Often the currant, which grows in the southern regions, suffers from it. As a result of the harm they cause, leaves are lost. What can be done?
Spider mites are active during the hot season
Such measures will help:
• Good autumn cleaning and loosening of the adjacent territory.
• Regular cleaning of weeds.
• Spraying with different infusions, for example, from garlic or onions.
• Planting next to onions or garlic.
• Carrying out spraying before vegetation with Trichlormetaphos-3. If necessary, repeat the procedure before and after flowering.
From a spider mite, currant leaves dry out
Problems are caused by the larvae of this insect. They develop inside the ovaries and eat away the seeds. For this reason, black currant berries ripen very quickly, but are not edible. Moreover, if they are not collected and destroyed in time, the pests will be able to gnaw through the peel and get out. Fighting them next year will be inevitable. You can see an adult insect and a larva in the photo.
In the photo: currant sawfly
So, the following measures are required against the sawfly:
• Collect and destroy all infected berries by mid-July.
• If the pests were noticed last year, then the fight by spraying with insecticides (chlorophos, pyrethrum powder) should be started before flowering, otherwise - after flowering (it is better not to eat this season's harvest).
• In the fall, it is necessary to dig up the soil around, after carefully removing all the leaves.
• It is advised to huddle the bushes and cover the ground with a layer of 8 cm.
In the photo: caterpillar of the currant sawfly
Often, black currants (pests and control of them, photos and useful tips are the main topic of this article) suffers from gooseberry moth. It hibernates in the form of a pupa on the ground under the bushes, and in the spring, having reborn as a butterfly, debugs eggs directly into flowers. The larvae eat ovaries and berries. Outwardly diseased berries differ in that they are entwined with cobwebs. What should be done to preserve the harvest?
A sign of the work of the gooseberry moth is a spider web on the berries
There are such ways to deal with the fire:
• Deep autumn digging and mulching of the soil, hilling bushes.
• Covering the soil around with foil or paper (this way the butterflies will not get out).
• Spraying with infusions made from wood ash or mustard.
• Collection and destruction of affected berries and the pests themselves.
• Spring treatment with suitable preparations (Lepidocid, Bitoxibacillin, Actellic).
This butterfly, whose wings are covered with black and yellow spots (pictured), is most addicted to gooseberries, which is evident from its name, but often attacks currants. She debugs eggs on the back of the leaves, and the already appeared caterpillar gluttonously gnaws at the leaves. In the middle of summer, these gray pests turn into pupae hanging from branches.
Cute gooseberry moth
The following steps can be taken against the gooseberry moth:
• Thorough cleaning and cultivation of the land.
• Carefully collect pupae in July.
• In the fall, treat with urea.
• Spraying with suitable products (Fitoverm, Parisian greens, arsenic calcium DDT.
Gooseberry moth before metamorphosis
This garden pest gets its name from its transparent wings (see photo). The larvae of the butterfly gnaw their passages inside the stems of the currants, as a result of which the casting turns yellow, and the berries wither. It is best to start fighting them in the summer, but then you can notice their presence in the stems only by cutting the damaged branch. Usually they will be found out only next spring. Fighting glass is extremely difficult. It is most effective to start a battle during the period when butterflies appear. Determine this moment by placing fermented currant jam under the bushes.
Currant glass jar has transparent wings
Ways to fight:
• It is important to prune and remove damaged shoots on time.
• Weed control and careful pruning of shoots (the glass does not penetrate the roots).
• Application of biological preparations (Fitoverm, Lepidocid).
• Treatment with toxic drugs (Iskra-M, Kinmiks, Fufanon).
The glass lady gnaws the trunk of the currant
Leaf, flower and shoot gall midge
The name of the varieties of these small mosquitoes depends on the period in which they fly out and in which part of the plant they settle after wintering under a black currant or raspberry bush. If a large number of gall midges attack a plant, then its leaves will turn red and fall off, and the plant itself will soon dry up. The insect lays eggs in cracks or under the bark of the plant stem.
In the photo: gall midge
• Processing with Bordeaux liquid.
• Cutting and destruction of infected branches by fire.
• Spraying with Karbofos, Fufanon or Fitoverm (only before flowering).
• Thorough tillage in autumn and spring.
After exposure to gall midges, the leaves turn red and fall off.
The insect is very fond of gooseberries and black currants. It feeds on the sap of the leaves, which causes them to curl and die. Females love to lay eggs near the buds of young currant shoots.
In the photo: aphids suck juice from currant leaves
• Application of herbal decoctions from dandelion, calendula, potato tops.
• Treatment with soapy water (30 g / 10 l) or white mustard solution.
• Spraying before bud break, which should be repeated if necessary (Carbafox, Nitrofen, Vatellix, Actellik, Antitlin).
• Planting around nectar-bearing plants to lure insects that will help fight aphids.
Leaves curl from loss of juice
This beetle, which you see in the photo, settling in a black currant bush, never leaves it, gradually eating up its stem from the inside. The plant, naturally, becomes weakened, and the berries on it become smaller. The beetle lays eggs on the branches, after which it fills with mucus, which, after drying, serves as their protection.
• Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology.
• Destruction of infected shoots.
• Processing with Parisian greens, DDT, calcium arsenic acid.
In the photo: the larva of the currant goldfish
This cute butterfly (see photo) can cause irreparable harm to black currant bushes. They winter in the form of pupae under the bark of a bush, and from the moment the ovaries form, they mercilessly eat them. Eggs are debugged directly on the ovary.
• Thoroughly destroy all last year's remains.
• Avoid dense plantings.
• Spraying with Karbofos (no more than two times).
• Processing with infusion of onions, mustard or decoction of tobacco.
Kidney moth before metamorphosis
How these pests, feeding on the juice of the currant bark, look like, can be seen in the photo. The first sign that they have settled on a bush is its gradual drying out. If you look closely, you can easily find motionless brown flat bodies on the stem.
Scabbard sucks juice from the bark
Ways to fight:
• Spring treatment with Nitrofen.
• Rubbing the stems with a specially prepared mixture of soap, kerosene and water (40 grams / 10 drops / 10 liters).
• Destruction of damaged branches.
The shield can destroy the currant bush
As you can see, black currant has a lot of dangerous enemies, so getting a bountiful harvest of its valuable fruits is not always an easy task. Remember that black currants, pests and the fight against them, photos and some details about which are presented in this article, are the most valuable product for health, and therefore worth any effort.
Listen to the article
Currant is a bush with a height of one to two and a half meters with alternate palm-shaped three to five-lobed leaves with large teeth along the edge. The currant blooms with racemose inflorescences, consisting of 5-10 small flowers with five petals, five stamens and five sepals. Berries up to 1 cm in diameter ripen by the end of July. The currant bush can begin to bear fruit the next year after planting. Currants are shade-tolerant, but develops better in well-lit areas.
Of the many plant species, black currants (Ribes nigrum), red currants (Ribes rubrum) and white currants (Ribes niveum) are most often grown in culture; recently, yellow currants have also begun to gain popularity. Most of the berries are formed on the shoots of the first, second and third year of life. Currant berries are a storehouse of organic acids, vitamins, macro- and microelements necessary for humans.
Black currant is useful for vitamin deficiency, hypertension, atherosclerosis, bronchitis, renal and hepatic colic, gastritis and other diseases. For the treatment and prevention of diseases, not only berries and products from them are used, but also the leaves and flowers of the plant. However, the currant itself is sometimes exposed to diseases and invasions of insect pests, and the gardener is faced with the task of diagnosing currant diseases in time and correctly so as not to be late with their treatment. As a preventive measure, correct planting and care of currants, as well as their preventive treatment, are very important.
Preventive measures against diseases
Treatment of any culture is unnecessary trouble, loss of time, additional financial costs. It is not a fact that it will be possible to achieve a complete cure, but losing fruit-bearing berries is always very offensive.
To avoid this, it is enough to adhere to simple rules for caring for the crop, timely preventive spraying. For such procedures, often quite simple and economical formulations according to folk recipes, effective precisely for the prevention of diseases.
- annual pruning of bushes (sanitary, shaping) with obligatory disinfection of sections with copper sulfate
- collection of plant residues (foliage, branches) in autumn
- digging row spacings
- timely watering of bushes (especially in hot summer)
- control over the state of soil moisture, mulching
- replacement of old plantings with young bushes
- spring treatment of currant bushes with a solution of 1% Bordeaux mixture
- planting healthy seedlings
- regular extermination of pests on the site, since many insects carry viruses
- treatment of bushes throughout the growing season with infusions of wormwood, garlic, tobacco dust (to repel pests).
It is required to follow the recommendations when planting seedlings, maintaining the distance between the bushes, deepening the root collar by 4-5 cm, followed by trimming the shoots. When feeding, the introduction of fresh manure is excluded, using humus-sprinkle, well-rotted compost as nitrogen fertilizers.
The list of black currant diseases is large, but with proper care and attention, the gardener may not meet with most of the infections. Observing agricultural techniques and not forgetting about prevention, you can save the culture from diseases, and yourself from unnecessary laborious work.