Features of growing Altai melon
Remembering the fragrant melon with a delicate taste, many novice gardeners and gardeners dream of growing this yellow beauty on their own plot, in open ground, in a greenhouse. Among the variety of species, such as Ethiopka, Kolkhoznitsa, Aikido, Aman and others, the Altai melon variety occupies an honorable leadership position in terms of characteristics. For what it is so loved by gardeners, what are the features of growing this juicy berry with excellent taste, what problems may arise - you will learn about this from our article.
About the grade
The excellent variety Altai melon was conceived by breeders as a species ideal for harsh climatic zones. It is early ripening, resistant to high humidity.
This melon is distinguished by its elongated fruit shape. The weight of each fruit of the variety is usually about 2 kg. Such fruits surprise with aromatic pulp, which has received from nature a delicate creamy color.
Altai melon is very healthy. It contains vitamins of groups A, B, C, E. It not only increases immunity and hemoglobin, but has a good effect on the functioning of the genitourinary and cardiovascular systems, has a diuretic effect, and is indicated for anemia.
Many gardeners successfully cultivate this wonderful variety in the open field on their backyard plot. It is preliminarily prepared for planting: they dig up and loosen the soil, put high-quality hay in a couple of layers. Having planted seedlings, they must be protected with a film. After about June 20, the film should be removed, and the plantings should be well watered. Fertilizing is permissible only from this moment. Simple ash has proven itself well in this regard. Do not forget to cover the beds with foil during the ripening period at night. Already at the end of August, you can enjoy juicy fruits that were grown in the open field.
Remember that this melon variety responds well to growing in warm ground, and the area must be protected from wind and drafts.
If on your site the soil is clayey, it is recommended to "puff" it with river sand. It should be taken about half a bucket per 1 square meter.
In the greenhouse
Experts advise transferring the pots with seedlings to the greenhouse somewhere at the end of May, where they need to be planted after a couple of weeks. The depth of such plantings should not exceed 5 cm. A distance of 1 meter must be left between crops.
In order to reliably protect the seedlings of this variety from possible freezing until the moment it forms a strong root system, it is better to grow in a shelter created with the help of a film.
To prevent foliage from withering, water your melons regularly and sufficiently.
It is imperative to apply fertilizers so that the culture grows and develops fully. It is advised to do this once every 10 days. Fertilizers must be applied to the soil all the days that the plant grows intensively.
Do not forget to ventilate the greenhouse, since this variety, like many others, really needs fresh air. It is best to open the greenhouse for a while when the weather is pleasant, sunny and warm.
Growing in beds
Before planting a melon of this variety and growing it, you need to correctly prepare the seed. To do this, it is dipped in a 2% saline solution.
For growing viable seedlings, containers with a diameter of 7 cm are perfect.Earth substrate is made from 1 part of peat and 1 - sod land, as well as 2 parts of humus. After all the seeds are embedded in pots with such a mixture, they are tightened with cling film on top.
Growing seedlings should be carried out in a warm enough room. It should not be allowed to dry out, since the quality of the future culture will necessarily suffer as a result. To get strong sprouts, it is recommended to maintain the temperature regime at 18 degrees Celsius. Watering is also needed using water at room temperature.
If the sprouts look weak, you can water them with fertilizers that contain enough nitrogen. Do not forget about the normal lighting system.
Planting on beds is usually done when the seedlings have 3 full leaves. The soil in the beds is covered with humus. In the center of each of them, a trench should be formed, the depth of which will be about 30 cm. It must be filled with sawdust and leaves. Watering of the beds is also carried out.
In order for the seedlings to be planted in normally heated soil, it is preliminarily covered with a dense black film.
Disease and pest control
Most often, fruits of this species, like many others, are overcome by the following ailments - fusarium, powdery mildew and copperhead.
It is realistic to recognize Fusarium by its characteristic features: the foliage changes its usual color, becomes grayish and becomes covered with unpleasant spots. Experts call the cause of fusarium a malignant fungus that penetrates the roots of the culture. If you do not help her in time, she will die after a couple of days. Planting crops annually in different places, carrying out autumn plowing, treating seeds before planting in the ground with a solution of 40% formalin are considered effective methods of combating the disease. You can also save the plants by watering in normal quantities, if you loosen the furrows, destroy the affected melons by burning, and process the plantings with potassium chloride in liquid form.
Powdery mildew can often attack your favorite crops. If you do not fight the disease, plant death is also inevitable. It is possible to recognize the ailment by the spots located at the bottom of the leaf plate, which eventually spread to other areas of the culture. To cure their favorite melons from powdery mildew, gardeners have been successfully using the method of alternating crops on the site for many years. It is also important to get rid of diseased specimens in a timely manner. Spraying with sulfur wettable powder also helps when the first outbreaks of the disease are only noticed. This procedure must be repeated after waiting 10 days.
Copperhead, which is also called anthracnose, is manifested by the presence of brown spots on the surface of the leaves. They most often change and begin to dry out. The whips become much thinner, break off easily. The fruits become irregular in shape, and later begin to rot. In the treatment of this ailment, ground sulfur and Bordeaux liquid have proved to be excellent, with which your favorite crops should be treated.
In addition, the melon is often attacked by harmful insects such as tobacco thrips, spider mites and aphids. You can get rid of parasites by using one of the modern effective drugs, which include Fitoverm, Kemifox, Maxi and others.
Video "Altai melon in a greenhouse"
See what kind of harvest of Altai melon was harvested in the greenhouse method of cultivation.
The cultivation of melons in the middle lane is complicated by the fact that this culture does not tolerate temperature changes, which is not characteristic of the Vietnamese melon variety. Large-fruited varieties give on average 2-3 fruits, which, in bad weather conditions, simply do not have time to ripen and collect the required amount of sugars. Vietnamese sugar melon, on the other hand, gives up to 30 pieces of fruits, but small ones (no more than 200 g). This variety is early ripening, the first melons ripen in July.
Growing Vietnamese melons look very original
Melon cultivation history
The homeland of the melon is considered to be Central and Asia Minor. It is assumed that the domestication of wild plants took place in Northern India and the surrounding regions of Iran and Central Asia. It happened many centuries before our era. In Russia, this fruit appeared in the XV-XVI centuries.
Melon - a native of sultry Asia
Nowadays, melon is cultivated in almost all warm countries of the world. But it is believed that the most delicious fruits are grown in Central Asia.
Since 1994, Turkmenistan has celebrated the annual holiday "Day of the Turkmen melon". In Ukraine, where this culture is also loved, the Melon Fair is held.
Turkmen Melon Day is celebrated annually in Turkmenistan
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Advantages of the Ethiopka melon variety:
- high yield
- the taste is pleasant, the fruits are fragrant and sugar
- tender pulp
- not afraid of the sun, you can grow it right in the open air
- drought and high humidity are not scary
- has an excellent presentation
- has good transportability
- the plant is unpretentious in care.
The melon variety Ethiopka literally in a matter of time received the universal love of summer residents, but the plant also has disadvantages.
Disadvantages of the Ethiopka melon variety:
- Lack of sun - lack of plant growth and development. It is very difficult to grow a melon of this variety in a greenhouse, but impossible in the northern regions. If there is little sunlight in the area where you will be growing the crop, then as much fertilizer as possible should be added to the soil so that the bush matures and begins to produce crops.
- The soil must be moist, drought is not terrible for leaves and fruits, but the root system will quickly die without moisture.
The video below provides an overview of the Ethiopka melon:
Any kind of melon is good for the body, and Ethiopian is no exception. The pulp of the fruit contains potassium, copper, fiber, organic acids. The plant is rich in vitamins C, PP and B. Vitamin C is of particular importance for the body, it strengthens the immune system, reduces the amount of cholesterol in the blood.
Vitamin B regulates metabolism, is responsible for the work of the heart and blood vessels. Folic acid, which is part of the variety, normalizes hormones. The fruits are eaten fresh, the pulp is frozen, dried, delicious marshmallow and sweet jam are prepared.
The fruits of the plant contain a large amount of sugar, which is quickly absorbed by the body, so diabetics need to be careful with this product. The daily allowance is 0.3 kg.
100 g of Ethiopian melon contains 33 Kcal. Thanks to such a low indicator, the product can be eaten by everyone who follows their figure. You can use a simple diet and follow it for 1 month:
- breakfast - 0.3 melon
- lunch - a liquid dish
- dinner - salad.
Melon is a melon crop, an annual plant that has large, aromatic, sweet fruits. They have an oval or round shape and many shades, from white-yellow to brown. The number of fruits on one plant, as well as their characteristics, depends on the variety. The stem of the plant is creeping and strongly branching, the leaves are rounded, petiolate. The plant loves moderately moist neutral or slightly alkaline soil, light, warmth and fresh air. Poorly tolerates cold, an excess of mineral and organic fertilizers, sprinkling with cold water. The article will focus on how to grow a melon.
Melon varieties for open field
There are many varieties of melon with different characteristics. Before planting a melon in the open field, you should take into account the peculiarities of the climate and soil. For central Russia, early-ripening varieties are more suitable, which do not have high yields and large fruits, are used for consumption in the summer.
- Collective farmer". Sufficiently productive mid-season variety. The small fruits have a smooth orange or dark green surface. They differ in sweet taste, pronounced aroma, white and juicy pulp. Weight reaches 2 kg.
- "Cossack". This mid-season variety gives a high yield. Round or oval-round smooth fruits have an orange skin, a sparse mesh is visible on the surface. Delicate white pulp has an amazing taste and a pronounced melon aroma.
- "Amber". This is a mid-early variety, oval elongated fruits have a smooth surface, bright yellow color, thick, juicy and white flesh. Weight reaches approximately 2.5 kg.
- Altayskaya. A fast ripening variety. Small fruits weigh from 1 to 2 kg, have yellow-orange or white aromatic flesh and thin rind.
- "Pineapple". Early variety. The oval fruits have an orange-golden skin and a sweet light pink flesh.
- "Golden". Medium early grade. Small-sized fruits weigh from 1.5 to 2 kg, have aromatic dense pulp.
- Canaria. Early ripening variety. The oval-shaped fruits have smooth yellow skin and juicy pale green pulp. The weight can be up to 2 kg.
- Millennium. Early maturing variety. Suitable for growing outdoors. Small fruits have a smooth mesh skin, white granular sweet flesh.
- "Story". An early ripening variety with amicable fruit ripening. Suitable for growing outdoors. Melons have a yellow reticulated skin, sweet light creamy flesh, mild aroma. Weight reaches 1.8 kg.
- Blondie. Mid-season variety. Small flattened fruits weigh about 600 grams. They are distinguished by a thin peel, divided into segments by gray-green stripes, bright orange flesh with a lot of sugar and carotene.
- "Moon". Medium early grade. The fruits have a smooth yellow mesh surface, creamy pulp, pleasant taste and aroma.
- "Assol". Mid-season variety. Oval-round fruits have a smooth yellow striped skin, grainy tender greenish pulp, delicate taste and aroma.
- "Iroquois". Medium early grade. Segmented fruits have a coarse mesh skin, orange juicy pulp, sweet taste. Weight reaches 2 kg.
- "Charlotte". The mid-early variety is suitable for open ground. Medium-sized, dark yellow fruits contain aromatic, delicate orange pulp. The weight can be up to 2 kg.
Selection and preparation of a site for growing melon
- Since the melon is a thermophilic plant, it must be planted in open ground on a piece of land that will be sufficiently illuminated, well warmed up and protected from the wind. The cultivated soil must pass moisture and air well, have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction.
- Already in the fall, you should prepare a place for spring planting. To do this, you need to dig up the ridge shallowly and fertilize it with humus or peat, mix the clay soil with river sand.
- At the end of March, last year's weeds are removed from the ground, the soil is again dug up and fertilized with mineral fertilizers. In the second decade of May, the soil must be well moistened and covered with plastic wrap, as a result of which the soil warms up to the required depth.
- Before planting the melon, the soil must be dug up again, fertilized with manure and enriched with nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
Preparing melon seeds for planting
- To grow quality seedlings, you need to properly prepare the seeds. You can prepare them yourself or purchase ready-made ones. For a good harvest, seeds of three years ago are more suitable, since plants with the absence of female inflorescences develop from fresh ones, as a result of which they are incapable of fruiting.
- They develop faster and bear high-quality fruits in the future, large seeds treated with microelements. For processing, a 0.05% solution of zinc sulfate and boric acid is used, in which the seeds are soaked for 12 hours, after which they are dried.
- For growing melons in a zone in central Russia, it is recommended to harden the seeds before planting. To carry out the procedure, it is necessary to heat the water to 35 degrees and place the seeds in it for a couple of hours. Then take them out and leave for a day at temperatures up to 20 degrees under gauze. After the allotted time, the temperature drops to 2 degrees and the seeds are left for another 18 hours.After that, they are kept for another 6 hours at a 20-degree temperature. Within 5 days before planting seeds, the procedure must be carried out several times.
Growing melon seedlings
- Before planting seeds, they need to be soaked in water for a day, this will help to discard low-quality specimens that float to the surface. It is better to plant seeds in separate containers (disposable plastic cups), the diameter of which is 10 cm or more, this will help not to damage the seedlings in the process of planting them in the ground.
- In the second half of March or April, seeds are sown in prepared containers filled with soil purchased in a specialized store or mixed independently from turf, peat, humus, mineral fertilizers and wood ash.
- Seeds are placed at a depth of approximately 5 cm, 2 or 3 in each cup, before the first shoots appear, they must be covered with foil or glass. After 7 days, after the first shoots appear, you need to thin them out, leaving one of the strongest.
- While the seedlings will stand on the windowsill, they need sunlight and a temperature within 25 degrees. In rainy and cloudy weather, the temperature in the room with the seedlings should be lowered to 20 degrees, this will prevent them from stretching.
- Seedlings need feeding, when the first true leaf appears, it is enriched with superphosphate, potassium chloride or ammonium nitrate in accordance with the recommendations on the package. After 14 days, the procedure is repeated.
- With the appearance of 3 full-fledged leaves, you can pinch the seedlings, which will lead to the formation of side shoots. When watering, you need to ensure that water does not fall on the stem and leaves, it should be moderate.
Growing melon outdoors
- When 4 leaves appear in the seedlings, it is planted in open ground, it should be well moistened beforehand.
- The distance between the dug holes should be from 50 cm to 1 meter.
- If the root collar is ruined during planting, the plant will become susceptible to fungal diseases. To prevent this from happening, the seedlings are planted together with an earthen clod, the top of which should protrude slightly above the hole. In this case, the plant should not be buried in the soil.
- To prevent the formation of mold, a solution of potassium permanganate in a weak concentration must be poured into the hole before planting.
- After planting, melon seedlings are watered at the root so as not to damage the leaves and sprinkle with dry earth on top. After 30 days, all weak shoots must be cut out from each plant, while leaving only 4 strong branches.
- To increase productivity, it is necessary to leave no more than three of all well-formed ovaries on the stem, which are located at some distance from each other, this will contribute to the fact that the fruits become tasty and large. In addition, remove any non-ovary shoots.
In order to protect the seedlings from night and day temperature changes, they must be covered with plastic wrap at night, which will save the melon from the rain. Melon planted in open ground requires constant care during the entire growth period.
- Top dressing. The first feeding with mullein, chicken manure or saltpeter is carried out 14 days after planting. When the fruits become the size of a small apple, the plants need to be fed again with mineral fertilizers. Further, feeding is carried out every ten days before the start of fruit ripening. You can alternate between mineral and organic fertilizers, an excess of nitrogen fertilizers usually leads to a delay in the fruiting period.
- Watering. Watering should be moderate enough, if a lot of dew falls on the beds with melons, you can stop it altogether. It should also be done about 30 days before harvest, which will make the fruit more sugary and better preserve it. Warm water (temperature 22 to 25 degrees) should be supplied between the rows to prevent it from getting on the stems and leaves. In dry and sunny weather, watering the melons is required twice a day.
- Loosening. Loosening and weeding should be carried out as the soil is compacted (usually up to 4 times during the entire growing season) and weeds appear. It is required to loosen the soil deeper between the rows the first two times, then, to a depth of no more than 5 cm. Near the stem, loosening is carried out with extreme caution and shallow, so as not to damage the root system. When the side loops are formed, the plant hides, a roll of earth is scooped up to the stem. Half-meter shoots are directed towards the opposite row, this is done so that they do not fit between the rows.
- Pinching the melon. Pinching the growth point after the formation of 5 leaves will help ensure the rapid growth of lateral shoots. Two lateral young shoots can be pinned to the ground and also pinched the growing point. Thanks to this, all the nutrients are consumed in the fruit, and not wasted in the greens.
Features of growing melon
- To increase the number of ovaries and improve their development, you can additionally pollinate female flowers yourself. To do this, you need to cut off one male flower and remove all petals from it. After that, apply the column of his anther to the stigmas of several female flowers in turn. It is recommended to carry out the procedure in the morning.
- In the event that only one fruit grows well, and the rest began to turn yellow and stopped developing, it is recommended to additionally feed the plant.
- Under each already formed fruit, it is necessary to put a plate, a piece of roofing material or a tile, this will help to avoid decay of the melon in contact with wet ground, and also protect the fruit from the wireworm. In order for the melon to ripen evenly from all sides, it must be systematically carefully turned over.
- Usually the fruits ripen in early August. The fact that it is ripe enough and can be removed is evidenced by a change in the color of the peel, the appearance of a pattern on it in the form of a grid, and the peel also slightly bends when pressed, becomes softer. In addition, melons are made very aromatic.
Features of growing melon varieties Kolkhoznitsa
A collective farmer is not a hybrid, so you do not need to buy her seeds every year, you can use it from your harvest, but it is worth periodically updating the seed fund. It is better not to sow seeds from last year's fruits: melon seeds are stored for a long time, and in the second and third years they become better, give less barren flowers. The Kolkhoznitsa variety, like all melons, can be grown both through seedlings and bypassing this stage. But direct sowing of seeds in a garden bed is used only in warm regions.
Pre-planting seed preparation consists in calibration and disinfection in a dark solution of potassium permanganate (30–40 minutes). When growing melons in the open field, it is advisable to harden the seeds by placing them wet for a day in the refrigerator. Since the variety is susceptible to fungal diseases, it will be useful to treat the seeds before sowing with a fungicide solution according to the instructions, for example, Strobi or Tiovit-Jet.
In recent years, you can often trust the producers and not carry out unnecessary seed treatment
Growing melon seedlings Kolkhoznitsa does not differ from that for other varieties and begins about 40 days before planting seedlings in the ground. Planting is possible, despite the cold resistance of the variety, only when real heat comes, that is, for example, in the middle lane earlier than the beginning of summer. If the seeds are sown directly into the garden bed, this can be done a week earlier. When grown in greenhouses, you can start this work 2-3 weeks earlier.
Melons are grown on light neutral soils, under sunlight, protected from the winds. The slightest waterlogging of the soil is fatal to plants, so they try to choose small hills. The garden bed is prepared in the same way as for cucumbers. It is best to plant melons after siderates, you can after onions, potatoes, cabbage, not after melons and nightshade crops.
Since the whips of the Kolkhoz woman are long, significant gaps are left between the plants: at least 80 cm in a row and up to 1.5 m between rows. Seeds are sown to a depth of about 3 cm, and seedlings from pots - exactly to the same depth as they grew at home. Melon does not tolerate transplantation, but if it is performed with a clod of earth without disturbing the root system, everything will go fine, only the plant should not be deeper than it used to. In both planting options, the holes are sprinkled with a thin layer of dry sand. The first 7-10 days, the seedlings are kept under hoods or spunbond.
Melon takes up a lot of space in the garden, so it is planted freely
The collective farmer is cold-resistant, but in those regions where night temperatures can drop to 5 ° C and below, it is better not to remove the spunbond far and, if necessary, cover the garden bed. The main points of care are well known to gardeners. Melons are watered only with water heated in the sun, gently, at the root, without eroding the soil. In the absence of rain, this is done weekly, but after fruit setting, watering is reduced, and soon canceled altogether. The soil should be slightly moist until the end of flowering, but adult bushes do not need this: the roots of the melon are long, they themselves find the right amount of moisture.
The soil is loosened often, but not deeply. Weeds annoy young plants, but when the bushes close, you can forget about weeding. They feed 3-4 times a season, trying to use organic fertilizers - infusions of mullein, chicken droppings, cut grasses. The last feeding is given when the fruits grow to the size of a medium apple. In the absence of organic matter, it is possible to use, for example, azofoska.
The collective farmer respects organic fertilizers
Melon bushes necessarily form, and Kolkhoz Woman is no exception. Since this is a varietal melon, mainly female flowers form on the lateral shoots. Therefore, after the 5-6th leaf, the main lash is pinched, and when the lateral ones develop, 3-4 shoots are left in the south and only two in colder regions. The flowers that appear after the formation of the ovaries are removed, and the ovaries themselves are normalized as they grow. On the collective farmer's bush, you can leave only 5-6 fruits spaced evenly. In bad weather, the bush may not stretch even that much, so the load is further reduced. All newly emerging shoots are removed.
Any sheet materials are placed under the fruits as they grow so that they do not come into contact with the ground.
The collective farmer is not resistant to disease, therefore, preventive measures are taken. The soil is periodically treated with colloidal sulfur preparations, sprinkled with wood ash, affecting the leaves. Some onions or garlic are planted next to the melons. If the disease has attacked, they try to do with folk remedies, with progression - Bordeaux liquid. However, chemicals cannot be used during flowering and less than a month before the fruit is ripe.
It is especially important to carry out such activities when growing in a greenhouse. The greenhouse must be ventilated periodically. Often, during greenhouse cultivation, melons are put on trellises, and the fruits, so that they do not fall, are hung in nets. Otherwise, everything is done in the greenhouse in the same way as in open ground.
In the Altai Territory, which is not far from Omsk, sprouted seeds are planted in the ground, excellent melons grow.Vladres
I have been growing melons for 6 years. Varieties for the Moscow region (middle lane) should be chosen early, but also for seedlings in April. (Some varieties are better at the beginning, others at the end.) In the garden, try to create conditions for maximum warmth and light. For example, in a sunny place, in advance, a week before planting, cover the ground with black lutrasil, later, when growing, keep the film always closed on arcs from the north side - open only from the south. But even with all the efforts, the yield fluctuates depending on what kind of summer is. The most successful varieties are those with small fruits. After the fourth true leaf, the stem is pinched, because the fruits are tied better on the lateral stems.
If there is manure, make a warm bed. Down the manure is fresh, and from above, see 25 land. Just be sure to pinch the bushes over 3 - 5 leaves for the formation of second-order shoots.Evgeny
Last year I planted Caramel and Honey Tale, for seedlings in early May, in early June, melons had time to ripen, not honey, of course, but quite sweet, nevertheless, I somehow lacked the richness of taste, or something, while I think is it worth planting this year.Peppercorn
Caramel is one of the earliest ripening varieties
The middle lane and Siberia are completely different growing conditions, so it is wrong to generalize them. It is also incorrect to contrast melons of early, middle, late ripening. They just complement each other. The main thing is that they have time to ripen and be tasty, give a good harvest and not get sick in a particular region.Yuri
Last year, the Kolkhoz woman grew melon on her plot - the harvest turned out to be excellent, just like from the south, if you remember the summer last year was very hot. And this year there is also a harvest, but the melons are very small and they are not ripe, I thought they would ripen by autumn, but the tops of them all dried up.Medic
Melon "Altai" - very early, ripens when sown with seeds, very aromatic, but unfortunately not sweet, very small percentage of sugars in it. The gold of the Scythians - the average ripening period, I do not have time to ripen, north-west of the Perm Territory.Fech
Growing a melon outdoors is easy, as long as the weather permits: this culture loves warmth, dryness and light. She also loves space, which should be taken into account if you want to plant this wonderful culture.