Columnar apple and dwarf - tree features, planting and care rules
In many countries of the world that are actively involved in fruit growing, vigorous trees (pears and apple trees) have long been abandoned due to the fact that they are much more difficult to care for, fruiting begins late and the yield rises for a long time. And trees with large crown sizes require significant land areas.
Differences between dwarf apple trees and vigorous ones
A vertical columnar apple tree looks a little unusual in gardens in comparison with traditional spreading apple trees, nevertheless, it is definitely worth planting it in your garden. Like dwarf apple trees, the varieties of which have long been widespread in domestic gardens, columnar trees take up very little space, and yield even more yield than some popular varieties of apple trees.
For example, if 4 vigorous apple trees can be placed on one hundred square meters of a plot, then dwarf trees will fit already 16, and columnar trees - up to 200 seedlings! There is no doubt that the profitability of such an apple orchard will be several times higher under more comfortable working conditions.
Although any gardener can grow dwarf or columnar apple trees, planting and caring for them still have their own characteristics that will need to be taken into account.
Video about fruit trees, columnar apple trees
If a vigorous apple tree is obtained as a result of grafting a varietal cuttings on a "wild" - seed stock, then to obtain a dwarf apple tree, the cutting is grafted onto a clonal stock. Clonal rootstocks have absolutely all the properties of the parent plant; they can be medium-sized and super-dwarf, but most often semi-dwarf and dwarf ones are found. On semi-dwarf rootstocks, apple trees grow up to four meters in height, beginning to bear fruit from the fourth year, and on dwarf rootstocks, trees reach two to three meters and yield crops from the third year.
When buying, dwarf seedlings can be easily identified by the presence of large buds at the ends of the branches and by the fibrous root system with small roots (in vigorous apple trees, the root system is pivotal). Usually the cost of seedlings of dwarf apple trees is higher than that of vigorous ones, due to the complexity of growing clonal rootstocks.
Columnar apple tree
Dwarf apple trees have many advantages:
- start to bear fruit early;
- quickly increase the harvest;
- due to the compact size of the tree, most of the nutrients go to the formation of fruits, and not to the construction of wood;
- apples can be easily plucked from the branches without using additional devices, due to which the presentation of the fruit is preserved better;
- Due to the location of the roots at the surface, dwarf trees can be planted in areas with groundwater, which are quite close to the surface.
Due to early fruiting, dwarf apple trees age faster, but this also has its advantages - you can often replace varieties in the garden with more modern ones.
Due to early fruiting, dwarf apple trees age faster
Planting dwarf apple trees and further care
Since dwarf apple trees take up little space in the garden, it is better to immediately plant several varieties with different fruiting periods. The following varieties of dwarf apple trees are distinguished by good winter hardiness and high yields: late summer variety Wonderful with dessert-flavored apples, autumn varieties Kovrovoe (dessert fruit taste) and Landing (with sweet and sour apples), winter varieties with sour-sweet fruits Snowdrop and Sokolovskoye.
A dwarf apple tree is planted on calm slopes or elevated areas, well illuminated by the sun's rays, although darkening is also permissible. The soil is preferable fertile, the occurrence of groundwater is allowed no closer than one and a half meters from the surface.
Dwarf seedlings can be placed on the site at a distance of two to three meters from each other. The planting pit is dug half a meter deep, about 70 cm in diameter. The top layer is temporarily set aside, and then it is poured onto the bottom of the pit, mixing with a bucket of humus and a bucket of water. A dwarf seedling is placed in the resulting wet mass so that the grafting site is a couple of centimeters above the level of the pit. The seedling is covered with the remaining soil, compacting it, and then a 10 cm high roller is formed along the diameter of the trunk circle.
Planting dwarf apple trees
Caring for dwarf apple trees consists in weekly watering during the summer and loosening the land after watering and rains. Over the summer, it is enough to add infusion of mullein or chicken droppings twice. A small pruning of the tree is done in the first year to create the lower tier of the crown, and in subsequent years, the growths are cut off with good fruiting so that the fruits do not shrink and the apple tree remains young for longer.
Features of planting and caring for columnar apple trees
The neat rows of apple-tree trunks-columns, strewn with apples, like garlands, look very attractive and make it possible to use even the smallest areas of the garden with great benefit. Taking care of columnar apple trees is just as convenient and pleasant as for dwarf trees, and bountiful harvests quickly pay off the cost of buying rather expensive seedlings. Moreover, the taste of apples is more intense, because the fruits ripening on a vertical trunk are constantly under the sun.
However, when growing columnar apple trees in regions with severe winters, there is a risk that the tops of the trunks will freeze slightly, and as a result, instead of one main trunk, two or three will form. In this case, the main trunk should be cut off before the next strong shoot, and only one of the most developed out of several shoots should be left. Replacement shoots grow quickly and bear fruit abundantly.
Dwarf seedlings can be placed on the site at a distance of two to three meters from each other
The following varieties of columnar apple trees are most suitable for growing in different climatic conditions: President with light yellow apples of dessert taste, Ostankino with large red fruits, Vasyugan with striped sweet and sour apples, Iksha variety of increased winter hardiness, Moscow necklace - the leader in yield, etc. etc.
Planting columnar apple trees:
- choose annual seedlings, as they take root better and do not tolerate various diseases, unlike older seedlings;
- the root system of the seedling must remain elastic, not dry;
- the optimal distance for columnar seedlings is 30 cm, row spacing can be left about one meter wide;
- the planting pit should be of such a size that the root system is freely placed in them;
- seedlings are installed in a pit with soil fertilized with humus, straightening the roots, and leaving the grafting site of the tree above the ground;
- after planting, the trunk circle should be well shed with water and left to "rest" the young apple tree.
Traditional pruning of branches is not necessary for columnar apple trees. Instead, lateral shoots are removed in the spring with pruning shears.
Video about the columnar apple tree "Arbat"
From the moment the leaves of the apple tree bloom, it should be watered with a urea solution at intervals of two weeks (three dressings are enough). In the middle of summer, it is recommended to feed the trees with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. For prevention, it is necessary to spray apple trees from insect pests and from fungal diseases.
Fruiting of the columnar apple continues for 10-15 years, after which the ringlets on the trunk begin to dry out, and the yield falls irreversibly. The tree itself can grow up to 50 years old, retaining its natural columnar shape.
Features of the dwarf apple tree
The dwarf apple tree is not a new type of apple tree. To obtain such a plant, a varietal cutting is taken, which is grafted onto a clonal dwarf stock. The resulting apple trees do not exceed 250 cm in height. The average life span of such apple trees, if properly cared for, is from 20 to 30 years, while ordinary vigorous apple trees live slightly longer - from 35 to 40 years.
It happens that columnar apple trees are mistaken for dwarf trees, but these are different forms. Distinguish between medium-sized and vigorous columnar apple trees, however, there are also dwarf columnar apple trees, but this plant form does not have a crown. And in a dwarf apple tree, the crown shape is the same as that of an ordinary apple tree, only it is slightly smaller.
To distinguish dwarf apple seedlings, it is necessary to pay attention to the root system and trunk when choosing. In undersized seedlings, the trunks have branches that appear in the early stages of growth. The root system has a fibrous structure, and its firmness and elasticity indicate the high quality of the seedling, due to which the apples bear abundant fruit. In standard varieties, the roots are taproots.
3 Planting columnar trees: where and how to do it?
Like many garden trees, apple trees with a narrow pyramidal crown prefer open, well-lit spaces. However, some varieties, in particular, the same Currency, do well in light partial shade. In addition, almost all columnar varieties are moisture-loving, therefore, professionals recommend planting them in lowlands, but on condition that there is no high groundwater.
The soil must be well drained, since stagnation of water in the area with pyramidal apple trees is not desirable - this can lead to decay of the roots and the formation of favorable conditions for the appearance of fungal diseases.
Once you've found a suitable spot, it's time to start preparing the soil. The fact is that if the seedlings of an ordinary apple tree can be safely rooted in any soil, adding a little minerals and organics during planting and feeding them in the future, then it is more difficult with columnar varieties. With a very dense planting (and only this option is considered the most productive) with a gap between seedlings of about 40 centimeters, the trees will very quickly deplete the soil. Even though the crown diameter rarely exceeds 30 centimeters, and the roots are compact, each tree will consume a considerable amount of nutrients. Therefore, you need to fertilize the soil in advance with both organic matter and minerals.
To begin with, holes are dug with the previously indicated gap, the best scheme is a linear one with a distance between rows from 1 to 2 meters. This should be done in autumn for spring planting and in spring for autumn planting. We pour 2 tablespoons of potassium and superphosphate into each pit, as well as up to 4 kilograms of humus or compost. If there is a need to lower the acidity of the soil, be sure to add 50 grams of dolomite flour to the loose soil at the bottom of the pit. A full complex of mineral fertilizers should not be applied for the simple reason that this may turn out to be too heavy a load for immature roots, but it is allowed to add a growth regulator to the soil when planting.
Before placing a seedling in open ground in spring (or autumn), carefully examine it, and if you notice that the bark has wrinkled a little at the top, closer to the growth bud, be sure to place the roots in warm water for 10 hours. Then you can cut off the very tips of the secondary roots so that they develop more actively and absorb moisture more easily. Now we restore the shape of the previously dug hole, removing part of the compost, place the seedling in it and sprinkle the underground part to the trunk. The root collar or the place of the scion, if it is a normal variety on a dwarf rootstock, should remain above the surface, approximately 5 centimeters from the ground. Next, you need to pour 3 buckets of warm water under each tree, cover the soil with mulch and drive a trellis nearby.
Columnar apple trees for successful growth and fruiting require very specific rules for care and planting. This is due to the peculiarities of the tree: the absence of side branches, a very large number of fruits on short branches and, most importantly, a superficial weak root system. Read about planting cucumbers on the windowsill in winter here.
It is necessary to distinguish columnar apple trees from varieties grafted onto dwarf rootstocks and molded accordingly. The former includes only those hybrids whose gene code contains the Co gene. The latter are ordinary apple trees, although they begin to bear fruit much earlier due to the dwarf stock.
The absence of lateral branches makes the apple tree very "slender". The pyramidal crown in diameter hardly reaches 50 cm.
Columnar hybrids are very sun-loving. For such a large number of fruits to ripen, there must be a lot of sun.
- For apple trees, a southern or western site is chosen so that the sun illuminates the site all day. Do not allow some of the trees to fall into the shade of taller plants or a fence.
- The distance between trees remains minimal - 40-50 cm, the distance between rows is 1 m. Accordingly, the area for the garden will also be minimal: 16 apple trees can be placed on a square with an area of 1.5 * 3 m.
- It is necessary to take into account the presence of the required amount of moisture. But, although columnar apple trees require watering, they do not tolerate high groundwater. If the level reaches more than 2 m, the site is not suitable for planting. If there is no choice, you will have to equip a reliable drainage.
- Another requirement is the absence of strong winds and drafts. Like any spurt plants, hybrids are sensitive to any kind of influences: strong frosts, strong winds. Therefore, when planting trees, they must dig a support into the hole, to which the seedling is tied.
For apple trees, the best soil is considered to be light soils - sandy loam and loamy. However, for varieties designed for rapid growth and intense fruiting, this soil is too poor. As a result, it is necessary to fertilize even suitable soil.
- Superphosphate, manure and compost are introduced into loamy soils. Moreover, fertilizers are placed in the holes prepared for planting immediately after digging so that the fertilizers have time to be processed. Fresh manure cannot be introduced under the roots of plants.
- Soils with a high clay content for apple trees are heavy, poorly permeable to water and air. To make such soil lighter, sand and sawdust are introduced into the ground. If planting is planned in the fall, then in the spring the pits prepared for planting are sown with green manure - plants that enrich the soil with nitrogenous compounds. Siderata, when they gain green mass, are dug up from the ground. In this form, the pits are left until autumn.
- Dolomitized lime is added to sandy soils to enrich the soil with magnesium, which is lacking in sandy soils. Also, when planting apple trees, an obligatory element is the arrangement of drainage.
- Peat soils are too acidic, which is not suitable for apple trees. To neutralize acidity, chalk or slaked lime is added to the soil.
If seedlings with a closed root system are purchased - in a container, then they are planted along with a lump of earth.
The trench under the tree must be prepared in advance. The minimum period is 3 weeks for the earth to settle and compact. Otherwise, the plant will not have sufficient support.
- The best solution is to prepare the pit in a few months. So, if the apple tree is planted in the fall, then the holes are dug in the spring, and if the planting is planned for the spring, the hole is dug in the fall.During this time, the soil is really well compacted, and the fertilizers laid down during digging are processed and turned into a nutrient mixture for the plant.
You cannot plant a plant in a newly dug hole. The root system of the columnar apple tree is rather weak and will not be able to adapt quickly enough.
You can plant a tree both in autumn and winter. There are no specific recommendations on this, but it is believed that planting in the spring is preferable, since the seedling will take root well during the season and will be able to endure the first winter without problems. Read about planting and caring for the Russian beauty pear here.
- In the spring, columnar apple trees are planted before bud break. Landing in open ground is done in the most common way.
- In autumn, the tree is planted in late September - early October, while the weather is warm. At least a month should pass before the first frost.
For planting, it is better to purchase a one-year-old seedling. It adapts better to new soil and grows faster.
If required, drainage is laid on the bottom of the pit - crushed stone, sand, gravel. Additives are also added if required to modify the soil. Then the fertile part of the land is mixed with fertilizers: 3-4 buckets of humus, 100 superphosphate, 50-100 g of potassium fertilizer. This mixture is placed in a pit and leveled. After 2 weeks, the soil will sag and compact, and by the time of planting, the fertilizers will be completely processed. About the characteristics of the pear variety Just Maria will tell you this link.
If it is not possible to wait six months, then before planting, the soil with fertilizers is separated from the roots of the seedling with a layer of soil.
Planting is done according to the standard pattern of Mantet, Golden and Granny Smith apple trees. Planting time - autumn or spring, does not matter.
- Before planting, inspect the seedling. If the bark on it is slightly wrinkled, and the roots are dry, the plant is placed in a container with warm water for 10 hours. You can cut off the tips of secondary roots in order to stimulate their growth.
- Part of the soil is removed from the pit, and some kind of slide is formed at the bottom.
- The seedling is set so that the roots are located on the hill. The roots should be spread out, not confused with each other. It is necessary to ensure that the root collar rises 5 cm above the soil level. A stake for a tree is also placed in the hole.
- The seedling is sprinkled with a fertile part of the earth, the soil is compacted. Then the seedling is watered with warm water - 3 buckets.
If the apple tree was planted correctly, then in the first season it should give 20-30 cm of growth.
With good care, the seedling can produce flowers in the first year. In this case, the ovary must be completely removed. It is better for the tree to root well or adapt than to grow the first crop with the last of its strength.
The columnar apple blossoms and bears fruit very actively. At the same time, the root system of the tree is poorly developed, it is located very close to the soil surface. These characteristics determine the features of care.
Despite the fact that the absence of side branches is a distinctive feature of the spurt hybrid, pruning is still necessary, especially if the branches are too strong. If you leave too many buds - more than 5, the quality of the apples deteriorates, there is a risk of fruit dumping.
The most important thing that needs to be done in any case is to preserve the apical bud for 2-3 years, while the tree is capable of growing. Removal of the bud stops growth and stimulates the development of lateral branches.
It is very important to carry out not only top dressing in the near-trunk circle, but also to loosen the soil, weed, since small weeds take nutrients from the tree. Sanitization of the soil around the trunk is required. Pamyat Zhegalov will tell you about the pear variety in this article.
Columnar hybrids need regular and abundant watering: superficial roots cannot get water from the depths of the soil. Water the seedlings twice a week, if the summer is dry, then every other day. Volume - 1-2 buckets for each apple tree.
Drip irrigation is preferable. To do this, use drip hoses or tapes. The system can be purchased ready-made or made by yourself.
In the second year of life, the apple tree can be watered less often - once a week. In the absence of rain, they arrange "bathing": they water the trees with a hose, wetting the foliage and bark.
Be sure to mulch the soil after watering to retain the maximum amount of moisture.
Fertilizers and feeding
Columnar apple trees need to be fed from spring to autumn. However, different fertilizers are used in accordance with the stage of vegetation development.
- In spring and autumn, during loosening, organic fertilizers are added - slurry in a ratio of 1:10 or chicken droppings in a ratio of 1:30. The second type of fertilizer can only be used in a very diluted form, as it can burn the roots of the plant.
- Before the buds swell, 50 g of carbamide or ammonium nitrate is also introduced into the trunk circle under each tree.
- The following dressings are introduced every 2-3 weeks. First, dry fertilizer is laid out along the perimeter of the crown in the near-stem circle - 60 g of nitroammofoska under each apple tree. After another 2 weeks, the nitroammofoska is re-injected.
Columnar apple trees respond very well to foliar feeding. The most popular is a solution of urea at the rate of 2-3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water. The solution is sprayed on the apple tree when the leaves appear. The urea apple tree is sprayed 3 times a year. Sodium humate is also used - when an ovary appears, as well as phytosporin and solutions of other trace elements.
- Starting in August, they refuse fertilizing containing nitrogen and organic matter. But potassium and phosphorus are introduced - in the form of wood ash, for example, since these elements stimulate the growth of shoots and the tree will need it in spring.
Treatments for pests and diseases
Different types of hybrids are resistant to a number of diseases: scab, powdery mildew. However, this does not exclude preventive treatment, but also the fight against fruit rot, for example, milky shine and others.
- Special preparations are used for this. For example, against fruit rot - "Skor" 2 ml each, "Cyram" 50 g each. Treatment is carried out twice: first when buds appear, then after flowering. If necessary, repeat the treatment after another 10-14 days. To prevent mosaics, thermotherapy is performed.
In some diseases, it is necessary to process not only the tree itself, but also the near-stem circle.
- As practice shows, apple trees suffer more from insect pests: currant and fruit rolls, bark beetles, aphids, flares and honeydew. To preserve the apple tree, it is necessary to use insecticides: Fitosporin, Trichotdermin, Iskra-M. Folk remedies are also used: a decoction of onion peels, a mixture of 100 g of red pepper in 10 liters of water.
Mechanical means also help against insects. For example, a tape made of corrugated paper, which is wrapped around the trunk of an apple tree: it prevents insects from moving up the trunk.
- Another pest of the columnar apple tree is rodents.
It is impossible to let the development of the tree take its course. Apple pruning is carried out more than once a year.
Only the lateral shoots are removed, the apical bud should not be touched. The purpose of pruning is to thin out in order to provide better illumination of the fruit and to replace old branches with new ones.
- In the first year of life, all side branches are cut off from the tree so that no more than 2 buds remain on each. In the next 2-3 years, fruit links are formed, and the extra lateral links are removed immediately, while they are still green: lignified ones heal much longer.
- Formative pruning in the spring is carried out until the buds swell. To do this, from the two shoots that grew on last year's branch, cut off the one that is placed more vertically - leave 2 buds. On a more horizontal one, the ovary appears already this year, and on a more vertical one, 2 new shoots are formed.
- For 3 years, those branches that have given fruit are removed, and the same procedure is performed with the remaining ones: a more vertically located branch is cut off.
The fruit link functions for 3-4 years. Then it must be completely cut off - to the ring, and new links must be formed in the same way.
If actively developing extra shoots are found in the summer, they are pinched. As a rule, if spring pruning is done correctly, this is not necessary. Autumn pruning is carried out only if there is a need for it. Find out about the features of growing Family onions in this article.
A shallow root system ensures that moisture is only absorbed from the topsoil. Because of this, there is a need for mandatory mulching after each watering. Moreover, it is best to use dry peat or humus for this. However, there is another option - tinning.
This means sowing herbs or cereals in the trunk circle. For the apple tree, they are not competitors, since their roots lie very shallow in the soil. But at the same time they prevent moisture evaporation. Spicy herbs are periodically thinned out, and cereals are mowed.
A lot of fruits are tied to the apple tree, it is prone to overload. However, this deteriorates the taste of apples, they do not reach the prescribed weight. To avoid this, the ovary should be regulated.
- In the first year of life, the entire ovary is removed.
- In the second year, half of the flowers are eliminated during flowering. Then, when the fruits begin to set, remove another half. When the ovary reaches the size of a cherry, 2 fruits are left. When it grows to the size of a walnut, only 1, the best ovary, is left. Thus, they ensure that one, the best fruit remains on each branch.
If the ovary is not thinned, the crop will be unstable. In addition, overloading leads to poor fruit ripening.
Shelter for the winter
Although there are many frost-resistant varieties among the columnar apple trees, it is still better to cover the tree for the winter. Moreover, it is necessary to cover both the trunk of the apple tree and the near-trunk circle.
Straw must not be used to cover the trunk. It provides good thermal insulation, but mice hibernate in it.
For the winter, the land around the tree is covered with spruce branches, sawdust, dry peat. The materials must be dry, as it is important to protect the roots from both moisture and freezing. If in the summer the land was mulched with straw, then in the fall this layer is removed.
The trunk of the tree is also covered with spruce branches or sawdust. A fine-mesh metal mesh is fixed on top to protect the apple tree from rodents.
Caring for an apple tree seedling in the first year of life
Growing apple trees is a long-term and responsible process. No matter what time of the year you plant a tree, you need to start caring for it from its first spring, and we will tell you what measures are necessary to ensure that your seedling is guaranteed to turn into a strong healthy tree, which in the future will cope with any problems by itself ... Proper planting and caring for an apple tree in the first year of life is very important, because the health and productivity of the tree depends on them for many years. After planting, shorten the stem of the apple tree by two to three buds to stimulate the growth of the side shoots.
If your seedling has already formed skeletal branches, check if they are longer than the central shoot, and if longer, then shorten them. For the first five to six weeks after planting, pour a bucket of water under the seedling weekly, unless it rains throughout the spring. Then the interval between watering is increased to two to three weeks, although in extreme heat it will be necessary to water the apple tree twice a week. The amount of water poured under the apple tree at a time is increased to two or three buckets.
And be sure to mulch the near-trunk area with compost, vermicompost, chicken droppings or rotted manure, and on top of the organic layer put a layer of dry grass or straw 5 cm thick.Under such a shelter, ideal conditions are created for the life of earthworms, which loosen and fertilize the soil to that depth where the roots of the apple tree feed. This makes the soil light and fertile, in addition, mulch inhibits the growth of weeds, and you do not have to endlessly wield a hoe.
If flowers appear on the seedling, cut them off this year and next, as flowering depletes the weak strength of the young plant. In May, make two foliar feeding of the seedling with a solution of sodium humate or Effekton: dilute a tablespoon of the preparation in ten liters of water and spray the leaves of the apple tree. One tree will take about two liters of solution.
Apple tree care in summer
When the rhythm of watering is established, you can switch to other things, because until the fall, caring for the seedling will consist only in regular watering and protection from pests. As a preventive measure, so as not to resort to the use of chemicals in the event of the occupation of a young tree by harmful insects, you can attract birds to the garden. Arrange feeders and titmouses in the trees so that the birds know that there is food waiting for them. They will fly in and peck pests from your trees.
If, for any reason, pests do appear on the apple tree, there is no point in using poisonous chemicals: while the tree is small and there are few leaves on it, pick up the pests with your hands and destroy them.
If the heat comes, then you can water the tree by sprinkling. This should be done in the evening: in the bright sun, a drop can cause burns.
In order to provide air access to the roots, make punctures in the soil 30-40 cm deep in several places around the apple tree at a distance of 60 cm from the trunk.
In June, two more feeding of the young apple tree should be done on the leaves with a solution of sodium humate or Effekton. In July, sprinkle a couple of glasses of ash in the circle near the trunk before the next watering.
How to care for the fall
In autumn, trees are spud up to a height of 15-20 cm, the trunk circle is mulched with humus, peat or compost, and the trunks of young trees are whitewashed with a solution of chalk. If rodents are raging in your area in winter, for which the bark of the apple tree is a delicacy, tie the trunks of young trees with spruce branches or reeds so that the hares do not get to the bark. How to feed an apple tree before a long winter? In the first year of life, an apple tree does not need autumn feeding - it has enough organic matter in mulch.
Apple-tree columnar Medoc
However, first things first!
Columnar apple tree Currency ripens relatively late, namely in late September - early October. Of course, the wait will take a long time, but the wait will be fully rewarded, and you will be able to collect many large golden-yellow fruits with thin skin and playful blush. The weight of each such apple ranges from 140 to 250 grams.
The taste of Currency is special and you will like it, even if you really cannot attribute yourself to admirers of this fruit. Delicate aroma, soft white juicy pulp, sweet dessert relish…. These words will still not be enough to fully describe what you see and feel! You just have to try!
Another of the big "pluses" that the variety has is its unique resistance to scab, which allows you to avoid the use of various chemicals in order to fight diseases. In addition, the currency is very resistant to frost.
Each year, such columnar apple trees bring about 5-6 kilograms of high-quality harvest. Even in the first year, planted in the spring with annuals, the variety will delight you with a small amount of delicious apples. The tree will reach the maximum level of its fruiting somewhere in 4 - 5 years after planting and will delight you at this rate for at least 15 years.
Columnar apple Medoc
The Medoc variety is a great illustration of apples that can be grown to be eaten right away.They are not intended for long-term storage, so if you want to absorb as many vitamins as possible and just feel the beauty of taste and aroma, you need to eat the harvest within a month.
The columnar apple-tree Medoc is a medium-sized tree up to 2.2 meters high with a small compact and small-sized crown. Fruits ripen in late summer - early autumn. At this time, you can collect from one tree from 5 to 8 kilograms of medium and large fruits, weighing from 100 to 250 grams each. You can eat apples of the Medoc variety, both fresh and give them to various types of home processing.
It is quite simple to recognize the variety - its rounded fruits are yellow-white in color and covered with dense skin. Their pleasant, pronounced sweet honey taste, which, moreover, gave rise to such a name, will surely be to the taste of many. The pulp of such apples is light, juicy and grainy.
The apple tree Medoc is very convenient to transplant, which is greatly facilitated by a rather powerful root system. Due to its extremely good winter hardiness, the variety can withstand prolonged frosts down to -40 ° C. In addition, such columnar apple trees have good pest resistance.
Of course, the varieties of columnar apple trees are very diverse and you can opt for either one of these two, or give preference to some other interesting name. These two options are perfect for those who live in cold regions and cannot imagine their diet without a juicy sweet apple.
Share useful information:
Along with this article, they usually read:
Columnar apple-tree President vs Arbat: comparing varieties. Have you decided to plant a columnar apple tree of the President or Arbat variety on your plot? Well, then you will definitely not regret it - their small shiny fruits of bright colors will charm you with their rich aroma and sweet and sour taste! Planting columnar apple trees: how to plant and shape the crown of a tree. In order for the columnar apple tree not to disappoint you, remember that it is very important to plant its seedlings correctly. So, what should you first look at some recommendations and only then get down to work? Caring for columnar apple trees: what to do if the tree does not bear fruit and does not bloom. The dream of any gardener is healthy, fruiting trees of the columnar apple tree. In order to make this idea a reality, you will need to apply some effort, observing the most important recommendations for tree care! Columnar apple seedlings: where to buy and how to choose healthy seedlings. Do you want to choose the right seedlings of a columnar apple tree? Then take some free time and read the main points that will allow you to recognize a quality product and avoid frustration.
Most people, when they mention the word "garden", represent a large plot of land with spreading trees. In fact, in recent years, breeders have taken a truly revolutionary step by creating almost miniature trees that are distinguished by high yields. It is to such plants that the columnar apple tree belongs.
The height of the columnar apple trees does not exceed 2.5 m. Moreover, their width is only about 0.5 m. There are no long lateral branches around the central shoot. These trees are distinguished by their early maturity. In some cases, with regular soil fertilization, they produce crops in the first year after planting. The columnar apple tree produces a good harvest only if the plant is provided with ideal conditions for development.
Depending on the height, columnar apple trees are divided into:
Until recently, such plants were grown only in specialized industrial gardens, but over time, they began to appear more and more often in household plots. Amateur gardeners have appreciated all the advantages of such miniature trees. In some farms, you can find apple trees that are not grown in the open field, but in large flowerpots. Such trees are not only a source of fruit, but also an element of landscape design.
Disadvantages of columnar apple trees
Despite all their advantages, these trees have 2 big disadvantages that prevent their rapid spread in domestic gardens:
- They have a pretty high price tag.
- Short fruiting period. So, already 5-8 years after planting the seedlings, the yield of these apple trees is significantly reduced, which necessitates frequent replacement of trees with young ones.
Most suitable for planting. It is best to purchase seedlings of columnar apple trees in special nurseries with a good reputation. When choosing a planting material, not only the type of tree is taken into account, but also its condition. So, the seedling should not be dry, show signs of mechanical damage and disease. It should be free of foliage and pests. You should also take into account the frost resistance of the purchased plant, since even the best varieties that are not adapted to cold winters will not be able to grow in our climate. When transporting seedlings, their root system is wrapped with a damp cloth and covered with polyethylene.
Columnar apple trees (varieties):
- summer ("Medoc", "President")
- autumn ("Vasyugan", "Jin", "Titania")
- winter ("Moscow" and "Amber necklace", Currency "," Bolero "," Arbat ").
Columnar apple trees: planting and care.
Columnar apple trees appeared not so long ago, only in the middle of the last century. Quite by accident, a Canadian gardener discovered in his apple orchard an unusual twig on a tree, densely covered with fruits. For the sake of experiment, he grafted it on the stock and received a seedling with a vertical crown shape. This is how the first variety of columnar apple appeared, called Vazhak. Breeders all over the world enthusiastically began to develop new varieties. As it turned out, this trait is perfectly transmitted during seed reproduction.
Apple trees are columnar in appearance and resemble a cypress or pyramidal poplar of dwarf growth with a small number of lateral branches. On the trunks of such trees, ringlets are located in large numbers, but there are quite a few side branches, so pruning columnar apple trees has its own characteristics. The strength of its wood is much higher than that of ordinary apple trees. Columnar apple trees are able to withstand a harvest of fruits weighing 6-12 kg.
It should be noted that the trees bear fruit surprisingly well for only 15-17 years, then the ringlets gradually dry out, although the apple tree itself can live up to 50 years. When buying a columnar apple seedling, carefully examine the root system. Be aware that if a tree with large vertical root branches, it will not bear much fruit. Excellent fruiting of the "column" is noted only on the dwarf rootstock, which has a fibrous root system.
Columnar apple tree - care
Almost all varieties of columnar apple have poor frost resistance, therefore very often, even in warm winters, the top and flower buds freeze near the tree. With a damaged apical bud, three to four replacement shoots grow from nearby dormant buds. Choose the strongest and healthiest one, cut off the rest. This should be done if you want to have an apple tree in the form of a column. If you want to leave all the grown shoots, you will get an ordinary apple tree on a dwarf rootstock.
The columnar apple tree, which is cared for according to all the rules, will bear fruit annually. In favorable conditions, the tree will yield at least 8-10 kg of fruit. However, in order to receive such abundant fruiting, you will have to work hard. Without proper agricultural technology, you will not see high yields; at best, you will get 1-2 kg of sour small apples. Such a garden requires reliable protection from pests, pathogens, and weeds. Columnar apple trees especially suffer from hares: be sure to make protective shelters for the winter.
The columnar garden needs to be fed annually with fertilizers, and they must be timely. The first feeding is done at the beginning of May, and the subsequent ones - every two weeks. For feeding, use a liquid solution of cow or horse manure, chicken droppings, complex fertilizers. Lack of moisture negatively affects the future harvest, after watering, be sure to mulch the soil. In the absence of a drip irrigation system, the young garden is saturated with moisture every two to three days.
Columnar apple - varieties
A columnar apple garden is a great option for amateur gardeners, especially on a small personal plot. So far, large-scale columnar gardens are quite rare, because 20-22 thousand seedlings are needed to plant one hectare of land. Therefore, such apple trees are in demand in the country or in the estate, mainly for personal use. To be with apples all year round, plant apple trees of different ripening times. Keep in mind that you should not mix plantings of different varieties.
If you want to pamper your family with your own apples in winter, plant winter varieties: Moscow necklace, Amber necklace, Currency, Bolero. The early-growing variety Moscow Necklace tends to be overloaded with crops, but it is resistant to scab.
On average, trees of this type grow up to two and a half meters in height with a crown width of only half a meter. The tree has a main trunk and absolutely no side branches. The fruits ripen very quickly, and within a year after planting, you can harvest. A columnar tree can be:
Often such a tree is not grown in an open area, but in a pot. And although earlier such plants could only be found in special tree nurseries, now anyone can buy and plant them. The Ostankino apple tree, which is described below, is one of the most popular varieties of this type of fruit trees. The apple taste and convenient shape attract both domestic and foreign gardeners.
The Ostankino apple tree, reviews of which we have carefully studied, has a number of specific advantages. Based on the statements of the owners, the following conclusions were made:
- trees are compact in size, which allows you to plant a significant number of plants on a relatively small plot of land
- the small size of the roots allows you to grow a tree in a pot
- the variety is very resistant to frost, therefore it is allowed to plant it both in spring and autumn
- the apple tree rarely gets sick, which makes it possible to have many beautiful fruits without additional treatment with chemicals
- even in the absence of a sufficient amount of sunlight during the period of fruit ovary, the Ostankino apple variety forms a large number of them, this does not affect the quality of the harvest in any way.
From all of the above, it becomes clear why this plant is so popular among gardeners. Although there are also negative reviews:
- high cost of seedlings
- limited service life. Gardeners are saddened by the fact that after seven to eight years the harvest becomes more scarce, and they have to replace the old tree with a young one.
What do you need to know when planting a tree like the Ostankino columnar apple tree? There are several recommendations for growing this particular type of plant:
- when choosing a seedling, carefully study its appearance, it should not be damaged, suspicious insects, the roots should be intact, and the tree itself should be fresh
- when planting a tree on the site, correctly position the seedlings, when planting a large number, the distance between them should not be less than 1 meter
- when digging a hole for planting, take into account the size of the root system, it should be spacious in the hole
- recharge the soil regularly, as the apple tree loves to grow in fertile soil and the first recharge should be done before planting
- watering the tree is also required, while it is recommended to take settled warm water
- follow the shape of the tree, although such trees do not have a crown, but you need to look after the top: if it is damaged, then two or three new ones will grow in its place, of which you need to choose the healthiest one, and remove the rest
- when lateral branches appear, they must be removed immediately, and the cut point should be lubricated with linseed oil.
Apple-tree columnar Medok: variety description, photos, reviews
Everyone knows about the usefulness and high taste of products such as apples, pears, cherries, etc. Plums are also on the same line with them. There are many varieties of plums. One of them is the Renclode plum ...
Business Geese and ducks: breeds, features, description, cultivation and care
Most often, the owners of farmsteads in Russia, of course, keep chickens. But waterfowl is also quite popular among farmers in our country. Moreover, in most cases, they are divorced in suburban areas, of course ...
Home comfort Apple tree "Christmas": description, photos, reviews, care and cultivation features
Today we will talk about what a Christmas apple tree is. Description, photos, reviews of gardeners - this is the information that interests a novice summer resident. How not to be mistaken in choosing an apple tree? How do ...
Home comfort Apple tree Freshness: description, photos, reviews, care and cultivation features
Apples are perhaps the richest fruit in vitamins and microelements that grows in our area. This fact prompts many gardeners to start an apple tree on their site. However, here in front of a person appears ...
Business Tomato "Golden Heart": customer reviews, variety description, cultivation and care
Preparing for the beginning of the summer cottage season, any of us plans what and where to grow, anticipating a good harvest. And every gardener knows that the quantity and quality of harvested vegetables and root crops will depend not only on ...
Home comfort Apple tree Red Chief: description, planting and care
Apples are a world-famous fruit that has not only a pleasant taste, but also a lot of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Therefore, apple trees can often be found in personal plots, near houses and in summer cottages ...
Zhigulevskoe apple tree description
Apple tree Zhigulevskoe: variety description, photos, reviews A common fruit tree in the central region of the Russian Federation, is a hybrid ...
Apples are not just a tasty fruit, but also contain a storehouse of vitamins, ...
In the mid-thirties, a variety of apple trees "Medunitsa" was bred, which was obtained in the process of crossing varieties ...
Apple tree bogatyr variety description
Apple tree hero, description, photo, reviews
Apple variety "Cherished": description, cultivation and care It is difficult to imagine a garden in which apple trees do not grow. ...