Rules for planting cucumbers in the open field
Cucumber in its popularity among gardeners is second only to tomatoes. This culture is cultivated by professionals and novices in all regions of the Russian Federation. In order to harvest good harvests every year, you first need to master the basic planting rules.
Dates for planting cucumbers in open ground
The minimum temperature at which cucumbers can develop is +16 ... +18 ° C, the optimal temperature is +24 ... +28 ° C. The earth should warm up to +15 ° C and above. When they get cold for several days (more than a day) to +8 ° C, they die, and at +5 ° C, irreversible processes begin within a day. This means that sowing seeds or planting seedlings in open ground is necessary when all return frosts have passed, and night temperatures will stably stay at +5 ... +8 ° C and above.
In each region, this period occurs at different times, for example, in Tatarstan - usually on May 28, in Komi - in early June, in the Moscow region - in early May. The weather forecast, which today forecasters provide a week in advance, will help to determine the landing date.
Garden bed preparation
The cucumber loves sunny and wind-protected areas, as well as light and fertile soil. Its roots are located in the upper 20 cm, spreading to the sides. For this reason, the culture is compatible with today's fashionable natural agriculture. Deep plowing with a plow or shovel is not needed, it is enough:
- loosen the top 10-15 cm with a flat cutter or a hoe;
- scatter fertilizers;
- using a rake, mix the fertilizer with the ground and level the surface of the bed.
For 1 m², add:
- 2 buckets of humus or compost;
- 2 glasses of wood ash.
If these natural fertilizers are not available, buy a complex mixture for cucumbers, for example, Gumi-Omi (0.7 kg per 100 m²), or nitroammofoska (1 tbsp. L. Per 1 m²). Add old sawdust, last year's leaves, hay dust, etc. to make the soil loose.
Scheme and options for planting cucumbers in the open field
There are two landing options:
- An old method that has come down to us since Soviet times, when all cucumbers were bee-pollinated varieties and were grown in the spread. Round holes (nests) with a diameter of 50–70 cm with sides 5–7 cm high are made on the surface of the beds. 4 cucumbers are usually planted in such a hole in a circle and one in the center.
Planting in a hole is an old method that is suitable for growing in a spread, cucumbers are planted in a circle, whip from the center in different directions
- The modern method has become entrenched due to the filling of the market with seeds of hybrids that grow in one stem and require a vertical garter. In this case, the cucumbers are planted in rows along the trellis. The distance in the row and between the rows is individual for each hybrid, the scheme is indicated on the seed package (50x50 cm, 70x30 cm, etc.). If you buy seedlings on the market, then ask the seller for this information or look on the Internet.
For a vertical garter, cucumbers are seated in rows
The simplest trellis in open ground is two pillars and a mesh stretched between them (nylon, plastic or metal).
To build a trellis, drive metal pipes along the edges of the bed and pull any mesh between them
Open field cucumbers can be grown not only in a regular garden bed, but also:
- in 200-liter barrels with 4-5 plants in each;
Cucumbers in barrels do not need to be tied up, the whips hang down like lianas
- in plastic garbage bags, from sugar or flour, 1-2 plants;
Such a cucumber plantation can be built on virgin soil and even on asphalt.
- in buckets of 1-2 bushes;
If there is very little space on the site, plant cucumbers in buckets
- in high warm bed-boxes (compost heaps).
The box can be built from old slate
In all of the above cases, the filler is vegetable waste and kitchen waste. The soil is poured on top with a layer of 20-25 cm. Stir it with humus (1: 1) and ash (glass on a bucket).
How to sow seeds and plant cucumber seedlings
It is better to germinate the seeds before planting, then you will know for sure: how many cucumbers you will have. Place dry seeds in two in the hole. If both sprout, pinch the lagging behind at the very ground. You cannot pull out by the root, you will damage the neighboring remaining cucumber.
Seed sowing stages:
- Water the day before sowing if the soil is dry. For the prevention of diseases, add potassium permanganate to the water until it is saturated pink or Fitosporin (2 tbsp. Working solution per 10 liters of water).
- Immediately before sowing according to the scheme for your cucumbers, make holes 2-3 cm deep in the ground with a stick or finger.
- Spread out the seeds, sprinkle with earth and compact a little.
- No need to water. Cover crops with agrofibre or cover with loose mulch with a layer of 1–2 cm.
Video: thickened sowing of cucumbers in the groove
How to plant cucumber seedlings:
- Water the seedlings well the day before planting and, as is the case with sowing seeds, moisten the soil in the garden bed.
- When transplanting, make holes according to the pattern for your cucumber. The size of each should be approximately equal to the size of the pot and even larger.
- Gently remove the plant from the pot along with a lump of earth. Try not to disturb the root.
- Place the root ball into the hole. If the stalk of the seedling is elongated, it can be buried or poked up to the cotyledons.
- Cover the hole with earth and tamp it a little around the spine.
- Water and mulch.
- Shade the planting for the first 2-3 days. To do this, build small umbrellas or screens from pieces of fabric and pegs. Or you can simply cover each sprout with a leaf of burdock or rhubarb.
To make the cucumbers easier to endure stress, immediately after transplanting, spray them with an Epin solution (0.25 ml per 5 L of water) or another stimulant.
Video: planting cucumber seedlings in open ground
Planting or sowing cucumbers outdoors is not that difficult. The main thing is to choose the right timing and prepare the ground. Modern cucumbers require a vertical garter, so you have to build a trellis.
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What to sow in February for seedlings
The end of winter is the time when active preparation for the agricultural season begins, for example, seedlings are sown in February in most of our country. By providing additional illumination by the time the open ground is heated, the crops on the windowsill have time to build up strong tops.
- Timing for boarding
- Seedling advantages and disadvantages
- What seedlings to sow in the first decade of February
- What to plant in the second decade of February for seedlings
- Celery and parsley
- Leek and turnip
- What seedlings to plant in the third decade of February
- Zucchini, squash, cucumbers
- Elite potatoes
Features of planting watermelons in Siberian greenhouses
The time of planting in a greenhouse depends on how much warmer it is inside than outside. Favorable temperature for watermelons during the day: + 25 ... +30 ⁰C, at night - not lower than +15 ⁰C. In every greenhouse (film, glass, polycarbonate, heated) such conditions develop at different times.
There are few joints in polycarbonate greenhouses and greenhouses, so such structures are more airtight, warmer in them.
In Siberia, polycarbonate greenhouses are common; you can plant watermelons in them after May 20, and plant them in film and glass ones with many joints and cracks at the same time as in open ground. The point of arranging melon in such greenhouses is not getting an early harvest and protection from return frosts, but creating a higher temperature during the day and prolonging fruiting in autumn, as well as shelter from precipitation. In summer in Siberia, it can rain throughout July, and it is contraindicated for watermelons during this period. A light summer greenhouse will play the role of an umbrella.
According to numerous reviews of gardeners, few watermelons are tied in the greenhouse. Few pollinating insects fly into a confined space, even if all doors are open. To get a good harvest, you have to manually pollinate.
In the Siberian greenhouse, varieties and hybrids of early and medium ripening can be grown. Both seed and seedling methods are suitable. Land preparation and planting technology is the same as in the open field. But the layout of the watermelons is more compact - about 70x70 cm, since watermelons in the greenhouse are grown not in the spreads, but on the trellis.
Video: watermelons Ogonyok in a greenhouse in the north of Buryatia
If you are planting in the greenhouse during a period when there is still a risk of return frost, provide additional protection for young watermelons. Cover at night with boxes, fiberglass, newspapers, etc. Dark plastic water bottles are good heat accumulators. Spread them over the melons. During the day the bottles will heat up, and at night they will slowly give off heat, the more such bottles, the more comfortable the watermelons will be. The same technology can be used outdoors.
For direct sowing in open ground, choose early maturing varieties. Mid-season can also be grown in greenhouses and through seedlings. In the open air of Siberia, watermelons should be no earlier than the beginning of June. Until this time, prepare melon. Make the soil on it loose and nutritious.
Precursors and neighbors of the basilica
Planting and caring for basil outdoors is not a hassle. But in order to get a rich harvest, you should adhere to the recommendations for crop rotation. It is best to plant basil in the garden after cucumbers, strawberries, onions, legumes, siderates or potatoes. Tomatoes and beets can also be good predecessors. It is not worth sowing a plant at last year's place. The area for growing basil should be changed annually. After this culture, carrots, zucchini or squash can be planted in the garden. Or more pumpkins.
On a note! Basil plantings can be placed next to crops that are often attacked by pests: aphids, flies, spider mites, and so on. The special spicy smell will scare away these insects.
Growing basil on the site
With what to plant peonies in a flower bed
A person who strives for harmony and beauty in the garden, for sure, may have a logical question - with what can you plant peonies in a flower bed? To make flowers look the most advantageous and beautiful, they should be planted next to suitable plants and according to the rules of landscape design:
- The important point is the color combination. You should not plant a peony in front of or next to flowers of the same shade if they bloom at the same time (red with red, pink with pink).
- It is also important what kind of flowers you plant next to the peony. Irises, delphiniums, lilies, bells, daisies, clematis look harmoniously. But they should have contrasting colors so as not to merge and mutually drown out the beauty.
- An even green lawn or just green grass looks appropriate between flowers.
- Flowers look great against the background of large trees and shrubs, including against the background of juniper and thuja.
- Excessive proximity with other colors is not recommended, as they will interfere with normal care.
The photos below show options for placing peonies in a flower bed with other flowers and plants:
Five rules for harvesting
- evening watering is prohibited. A high level of humidity and a decrease in temperature can cause the appearance of spider mites or powdery mildew.
- until the cucumbers form the third leaf, they must be watered with warm water so as not to harm the immune system of the plants and stop their growth. In the future, the plant is watered in moderation at the root, only in the morning
- top dressing is an important feature. After the third leaf, add mullein at the rate of "one in ten" or chicken droppings (1 in 20). The second stage occurs during the flowering period. Ammophos or nitrophos is used here in the amount of fifty grams per bucket of water. At the same time, foliar feeding is carried out, for which manganese, boron, zinc and copper are used. The amount of the drug (1 gram) is added to ten liters of water
- the plant needs to be formed... The cucumber does not branch intensively, forms a small number of lateral branches. For this reason, at the stage of the fourth leaf, it is necessary to pinch the tops. This will enable each leaf to create new shoots, increasing yields.
- loosening the soil is carried out in the aisle, the depth should be about ten centimeters. After laying the third leaf, the depth of the procedure is halved so as not to damage the roots.
To achieve maximum efficiency in this way, it is necessary to organize the right care. Seeds are planted in well-fertilized soil, watering and loosening are carried out in a timely manner, weeds are constantly removed.
Planting in a greenhouse
How to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse? The technology is practically the same as in the open field. It is important to properly prepare the soil for tomatoes, organize watering. The technique has its own secrets.
They begin to prepare the earth in the fall. Humus or humus is introduced into it. A humus feeding method that works well for indoor use:
- remove the top layer of soil about 20 cm thick
- dig a groove
- take a three-year-old humus (it can be cooked in a barrel or compost pit)
- fill the ditch with humus by half and cover the bed with the removed layer of earth.
In the spring, such a bed is dug up and loosened.
In early spring, it is useful to stay in a greenhouse for earthworms. They form a very useful substance for plants - humus. The worm passes through itself the earth, the remains of plants, insects. The output is a fermented natural fertilizer. In addition, worms dig holes in the ground, loosen the soil and enrich it with oxygen.
Earthworm settlement rules:
- stock up on worms at the rate of 5-10 individuals per 1 m²
- dig holes in the ground and place 2-3 worms in each
- cover the hole with earth
- water the area with a hose.
It is important to cover the greenhouse with plastic wrap. If the worms do not have time to dig deeply into the ground, they will die in the frost.
Planting tomatoes in a greenhouse is carried out 1-2 weeks earlier than in an open garden. The technique is almost the same as on a regular garden bed. More often it is recommended to use the trench method in greenhouses. If the variety is tall or the seedlings are large, you can use the snake method:
- dig a hole about 25 cm deep
- add a handful of wood ash, 2-3 kg of humus to the resulting earth, 1 tbsp each. l. phosphate and potash fertilizers
- stir the ground
- peel the lower part of the stem of the seedling so that 4-5 leaves remain
- spread the stem into the hole so that it twists like a snake (hence the name of the method)
- carefully sprinkle the planting material with a mixture of soil and fertilizers, ram
- water the entire area with a hose.
It is important to ensure good watering of the plants in the greenhouse, because natural moisture does not enter there. It is best to equip a special drainage system. If this is not possible, a hose should be brought to the greenhouse. It is important to keep an eye on moisture: overflow is harmful to tomatoes. In conditions of high humidity, pests easily settle in the greenhouse. Before planting tomatoes there, be sure to disinfect all structures and soil.