Black currant Pygmy: Ural plant resistance and southern tenderness of berries
The name of the Pygmy currant variety in people who first heard it, is very likely to be associated with small berries and a sore mouth. And completely in vain. The berry is large-fruited and very sweet. A description of the rules of planting and leaving - below.
Description of the variety
The authorship of the variety belongs to breeders from the South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato Growing in Chelyabinsk V.S. Ilyin and N.A. Ilyina. The variety was registered in the State Register of Plants in 1999.
The bush is medium-sized, up to 1.5–2 m, not spreading. Shoots are straight. The leaves are large, five-lobed, green, shiny, the top is smoothed. The bark of the shoots has a pinkish tint, the buds are bronze in color. Brush of medium length, with 6-10 large, pale-colored flowers. Berries ripen unevenly, have a fairly large spread in size. The color of the fruit is deep black, the skin is thin.
Black currant berries Pygmy
The variety has increased resistance to extreme temperature conditions and is zoned for the Volgo-Vyatka, Ural, West Siberian, East Siberian, Far Eastern regions.
Table: characteristics of the Pygmy variety
|Berry size medium / maximum||2.3 / 7.7 g|
|Productivity from one bush||5.7 kg|
|Sugar content in berries||9,4%|
|Vitamin C content||150 mg / 100 g|
|Frost resistance||High, withstands cold up to -35aboutC, resistant to late spring frosts|
|Heat resistance||High, up to 30aboutFROM|
|Disease resistance||High to powdery mildew, medium to anthracnose and septoria|
|Pest resistance||Weak to kidney mites|
It is preferable to plant black currants in the fall, 2-3 weeks before the onset of stable frosts, when the soil begins to set. Spring planting has one fundamental drawback. In currants, buds begin to grow very early. And for their good development, an already developed root system is needed. Therefore, in early spring, in March, there is only a small window in time in order to have time to plant a seedling. At this time, the already thawed upper layer of the soil is required, and the average daily temperature should not yet trigger the vegetative processes of active growth of currants. A seedling planted at the wrong time is likely to take root, but it will be weakened. Of course, all this concerns the planting of plants with an open root system. Planting currants purchased in a container can be carried out all season.
A seedling with a closed root system can be planted from early spring to late autumn
Pygmy is not particularly picky about the soil, but it is difficult to achieve large berries and a good harvest on clay or acidic soil. Acidic soil can be brought to neutral by adding dolomite flour or slaked lime at the rate of 1 kg / m2... Heavy clay soil can be improved too. To do this, in the summer, a bucket of humus (compost), 1 glass of superphosphate, 1 matchbox of potassium sulfate (all components per 1 m2... The earth is dug to the depth of the shovel bayonet, while all perennial weeds are selected, especially creeping wheatgrass.
It is better to choose a place for planting a Pygmy in a sunny or light partial shade. Although the bush is erect, compact, it is not worth saving at the distance between the plants, it should be 1.5–2 m.
Pygmies are self-pollinating, but if other varieties of currants grow in the neighborhood, then, as experience shows, cross-pollination will be beneficial in terms of the size of the berries and the yield.
Currant bushes, planted at a distance of 1.5-2 m, will not compete for food and a place in the sun
Selection of seedlings
The first step is to take a closer look at the root system. There should be at least three skeletal (main) roots up to 20 cm long. If you buy a seedling with a closed root system, then all the attention is on the shoots: smooth bark and fresh leaves speak of a healthy plant. The length of the shoots is at least 40 cm, the diameter at the base is at least 6 mm. Immediately before planting, dip the roots well in a clay mash or treat with survival stimulants such as Kornevin or Epin (according to the instructions).
Healthy seedlings before planting
Step-by-step planting process
- A hole is dug, the size of which is determined by the size of the root system, but not less than 40x40 cm. The top layer of fertile land is placed separately.
- A mixture is being prepared for filling the pit: garden soil is mixed with one bucket of humus (compost) with the addition of 1/2 cup of superphosphate, 1/2 of a matchbox of potassium nitrate and 1 cup of wood ash.
- The mixture is poured into the pit and slightly compacted, an elevation is made in the center.
- The ground level in the pit is formed so that the root collar of the seedling is 10-15 cm below ground level. In this case, a good growth of zero shoots from the underground buds of the seedling stems is ensured.
- The pit is covered with earth, while the seedling is gently shaken and the soil around it is rammed so that there are no voids near the roots.
- The earth is compacted, a planting circle with a diameter of 1 meter is made with an annular water-retaining mound.
- The seedling is watered with one bucket of water, the circle is mulched to a height of 10 cm.
- The shoots of the seedling are cut into 3-4 buds, the leaves are removed.
1 - the level of the root collar, 2 - trimming the seedling after planting, 3 - seedling one year after planting
Video: autumn planting of currants
Planting a seedling at an angle of 45 degrees to increase the number of buds covered with soil is justified on heavy clay soils.
Video: mistakes when planting currants
Reproduction of black currant by layering or cuttings is not fundamentally different from planting with seedlings. It is necessary to prepare the hole in the same way and deepen the place of root formation.
When propagating currants by layering, they act according to the planting algorithm
Proper care, including pruning, watering, feeding, will keep the bush for a long time.
The correct formation of the currant bush in the first years after planting will be decisive for its yield.
The plant produces several so-called zero shoots every year. They grow from the ground and during the growing season reach a length of several tens of centimeters. By the end of next autumn, these will already be two-year-old shoots, the basis for the twigs of the first year. And so on increasing from year to year. To understand the process of pruning currants, it is important to remember:
- The number of branches growing from the ground should be from 10 to 20 pieces.
- Branches 6 years of age or older should be cut.
- The main crop of currants gives on two- and three-year shoots.
In addition to removing weak zero shoots, branches are cut into 3-4 buds every year in the fall. This stimulates the growth of buds in the middle of the bush, on which the berry clusters will form. Broken, close to the ground, overlapping, diseased branches are also pruned.
Video: basic rules for pruning black currants
With proper care of the bush, its timely pruning, Pygmy currants will give a good harvest for 12-15 years. If during this time you do not get tired of it, its life can be extended for another 10 years by radical, under zero, rejuvenating pruning, when all its branches are removed in the fall. At the same time, it is necessary to work with a good pruner and not leave hemp. Rejuvenating pruning can be used to revive a neglected dense bush to a new life, when there is no desire to understand the intricacies of old and new branches.
Watering and loosening
Black currant is by its nature a moisture-loving plant, in the wild it prefers to grow along the banks of rivers, in slightly marshy places. Therefore, it is better not to forget about watering Pygmy, for all the unpretentiousness of this variety, otherwise it will not have enough moisture to pour berries. Pygmy fruits ripen throughout June, so once a week or two, depending on the rainfall, it is necessary to pour 1-2 buckets of water under the bush (first the first, and if moisture quickly goes into the ground, after a quarter of an hour - the second). It is good to devote the next day after watering to weeding under a bush and shallow (5-7 cm), so as not to damage the roots, loosening.
Further, during the collection of berries, and this is in central Russia for the whole of July, watering is stopped. Then twice more before the end of the season (after the end of fruiting and before winter), increased moisture is needed for the bush.
It is better to water currants in the evening with water heated during the day.
If, when planting the Pygmy, the soil was properly prepared, and the necessary fertilizers were introduced into the planting pit, then in the first two years you can limit yourself to spring (during flowering) and autumn (after harvesting) feeding with organic matter, mullein (1: 4) or bird droppings ( 1:10). The application rate is one bucket per bush.
From the third year, the currant enters the fruiting period, therefore, in addition to organic fertilizers in the spring with the beginning of flowering, 30 g of urea (this is about 2 matchboxes) is added under the bush with a slight digging of the soil and mulching it with humus or compost.
By the time the first ovaries appear, it is advisable to feed the bushes with green fertilizer. Any container is 3/4 filled with weeds, nettles, wood lice, dandelions are especially suitable for this purpose. Water is added, also 3/4 of its volume, the dishes are closed and exposed to the sun. After about 1-2 weeks, a characteristic odor will appear. The composition is filtered, 2 parts of water are added and the plants are watered with this fertilizer. Top dressing for a bush can be replaced with foliar, then the ratio of fertilizer and water is made 1: 5.
In the fall, by the time the flower buds form next year (this happens about a month after the end of fruiting), 15–20 g of potassium sulfate and 30–40 g of superphosphate are added to organic fertilizers. Mineral dressing can be replaced by adding 0.5 liters of wood ash.
Shelter for the winter
Since the Pygmy currant variety grows well in a sharply continental climate, for central Russia, its shelter for the winter is classified as a vain effort. But what really helps the currants to survive the winter is enhanced pre-winter watering and autumn feeding.
Disease and pest control
From the list of possible diseases of currant, Pygmy is absolutely resistant to powdery mildew, partially resistant to anthracnose and slightly resistant to septoria.
Table: diseases and control measures
|Disease||Manifestation of the disease||Disease prevention||Control measures|
|White spot (septoria)||The appearance on the leaves of spots of arbitrary shape with a brown border. Over time, black dots may appear. The leaves dry up and fall off.||Regular application of full mineral fertilizer under the bush.||Spraying the bush with a 0.4% solution of copper sulfate. Consumption rate for an adult bush is 2 liters. The use of drugs Cuprozan or Ftolan according to the instructions for them.|
|Terry (reversion)||Viral disease. The leaves become smaller and acquire a purple hue, the flowers become double, the berries are not tied.||Regular application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, as well as foliar dressing with trace elements.||There are no effective drugs against terry. The diseased bush is uprooted and burned.|
|Anthracnose||The leaves are covered with small brown spots, subsequently dry up. The berries become smaller, the growth of young shoots stops.||Do not leave diseased leaves on the bush. They are torn off and burned.||Control measures are similar to those for septoria.|
|Goblet rust||Orange spots appear on the inner surfaces of the leaves with spore pads resembling small glasses. The leaves die off, the ripening of the berries stops.||Improving the fertility of the soil under the bush by introducing humus or compost. The diseased leaves are torn off and burned.||Spraying the bush with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid after flowering.|
|Drying of shoots (tuberculariosis)||Bulges appear on the bark of the shoots, they die off, starting from the top.||Cutting and burning damaged shoots.||Spraying the bush with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid in early spring, after flowering and in autumn.|
Photo gallery: how to recognize a disease
The weak point of the Pygmy is its frequent attack by the kidney mite, which, in addition, is a carrier of dangerous viral diseases. Therefore, monitoring the condition of the buds of the bush is mandatory.
Table: kidney mites and other pests
|Kidney mite||The presence of a mite in the buds of a plant manifests itself in their abnormally large, round shape. Leaves from such buds become smaller and pale. The yield is declining.|
|Leaf gall aphid||Its length is about 2 mm. The insect feeds on the sap of the leaves. Swellings (galls) appear on the affected leaves, they curl up and wither. Shoots with such leaves dry out.||Treatment with Karbofos, Novaktion, Aktellik according to the instructions for the preparations before bud break and immediately after the appearance of the leaves.|
|Currant glass||The glass butterfly lays eggs in cracks in the bark, and their caterpillars penetrate the middle of the branches and find food there. The branches wither and die.||Treatment with Fitoverm, Akarin or Iskra preparations according to the instructions for them. The first treatment is at the beginning of leaf blooming, the second after 2 weeks.|
|Blackcurrant berry sawfly||The female pest lays eggs in the ovary of the flower, and the larvae emerge from the eggs, penetrate the berries and feed on the seeds. The berries become ribbed, turn black ahead of time. The sawfly often attacks currant bushes over 10 years old.||Collection and destruction of diseased berries. Burning fallen leaves, loosening the soil and removing weeds.||Treatment with Ambush or Etaphos preparations according to the instructions for them after flowering.|
|Spider mite||The usual time for the appearance of a pest up to 0.5 mm in size is May. White specks appear on the underside of the leaves - clutches of eggs. Leaves turn reddish, with cobwebs on the underside.||Burning fallen leaves, loosening the soil and removing weeds. Spraying the bushes with soapy water - the mite does not like high humidity and alkaline environment.|
|Fire||Firefly butterflies lay eggs in the ovary of a flower, and hatched caterpillars feed on fruits. Bunches of currants are wrapped in cobwebs, turn red and dry.||Mulching the soil or covering it with a covering material before currant flowering.||Treatment with Karbofos or Ambush preparations according to the instructions for them immediately after flowering.|
What insects threaten Pygmy - photo
Harvesting and using the crop
If the summer is not extreme in terms of weather conditions, the first berries from the Pygmy can be picked at the beginning of July. Naturally, this should be done in dry weather.
The first handful of Pygmy can be harvested in early July
Currant berries do not ripen at the same time, harvesting can take from three to six weeks. It is quite possible to get 5 kg of fruit from a well-groomed bush. The sweet dessert flavor of the berries is popular with most gardeners, especially children. Since the variety does not give a dry separation of the berry, it is difficult to use it for commercial sale, and transportability is low. In order to still take the berry to the city, it is desirable to collect it with brushes and transport it in a spacious container. The currants will stay in the refrigerator for a week, maximum two.
Pygmy is perfect for traditional blackcurrant preparations: jam, compotes, jelly. The berry is sweet, so you can add less sugar to the workpieces than to sweet and sour varieties. Frozen berries retain all their useful properties, so it is wise to use this method of harvesting.
Sweets will love the Pygmy currant jam
Reviews of gardeners about the variety
The authors gave a strange name to this variety. Neither the size nor the color of the berries of this currant give a clue to explain the name "pygmy". A direct translation from Greek Πυγμαῖοι - "people the size of a fist" also does not explain anything, although the currant is large-fruited, it is far from the size of a fist. Or maybe the point is in the unpretentiousness of this variety, because pygmies are not at all demanding on the conditions of their living in the forests of Africa. Be that as it may, but the Pygmy currant, it seems, still has a long life in the gardens of Russia.
Tula black plum: description and characteristics of the variety, advantages and disadvantages, planting and care features + photos and reviews
Tula black plum is a fairly popular variety among gardeners. This crop has a stable and high yield. And its fruits, due to their juiciness, are widely used to make tasty and healthy drinks.
- 1 Description of plum varieties Tula black
- 2 Features of planting a tree
- 3 Plant care
- 4 Diseases and pests
- 5 Tips for harvesting, storing and processing crops
- 6 Reviews of gardeners
Pygmy currant belongs to the varieties of the middle ripening period. The bush grows up to 1.5–2 meters in height. At the same time, it has a compact size. Branches are spreading, medium leafy. Under the age of one year, the shoots have a pinkish tint, without pubescence. The foliage is dark green in color, large, wrinkled. The sheet plate is glossy. There is a deep, round or triangular notch at the base. The lateral plates are directed to the sides, the central vein is at right angles to the base. Straight teeth can be seen on the outline of the leaf.
The flowers are light, small in size, saucer-shaped. The cluster contains from 5-10 berries.
Pygmy currant fruits are dense, firm, weighing up to 2.5-6 g. The surface of the berries is shiny, black. The skin is thin, rounded in shape. The calyx is closed, the stalk is long, thin, green. The pulp contains a small amount of seeds. The berries are distinguished by a sweet taste and a pleasant currant aroma.
When planting Selechenskaya black currant, you need to adhere to the same rules as when planting other varieties. In order for the seedling to take root and develop into a healthy bush, it is important to complete all stages of the work in a timely manner.
Black currants are usually recommended for planting in spring or autumn. But for Selechenskaya, an autumn planting is still preferable, which should be carried out in late September or early October.
Against spring planting, the fact that black currant buds quickly wake up, and it is not always possible to plant a young plant in time.
For planting the Selechenskaya currant, the autumn period is more suitable
When choosing planting material, first of all pay attention to the root system. Only well-developed and healthy roots, consisting of 3-5 main ones, covered with a fine mesh of auxiliary ones, will give a strong shrub in the future.
The age of the seedling also matters. Young plants 1–2 years old show the best survival rate. Their aboveground part can consist of 1 or 2 shoots at least 30 cm high. The bark and roots must be elastic, without damage.
A healthy and developed root system of the seedling is the key to a strong bush
Selechenskaya currant is extremely selective in relation to soil. She loves fertile, well-aerated lands that do not impede the flow of moisture to the roots. Such qualities are possessed by loams and sandy loams.
The acidity of the soil is of no small importance - it should be neutral or slightly acidic. To deoxidize the soil, it is necessary to add 400-500 g of dolomite flour for each 1 m 2 for digging.
Swampy lowland areas with saline or acidic soil are completely unsuitable for planting Selechenskaya. Currants growing in such conditions will hurt, give small yields and age quickly. On sandy soils without the introduction of large doses of nutrients, Selechenskaya will also grow poorly.
In order for the currants to please with large and sweet berries, you need to choose a sunny place for planting, but preferably with a light shade at noon. It is not worth planting a bush in a dense shade - it will stretch, weaken, the quality of the fruits will decrease. The site for planting black currants should be flat, without depressions and hills. It would be useful to be protected from the north wind in the form of a fence, building or decorative hedge.
Groundwater should pass at a distance of 1–1.5 m from the soil surface.
For planting black currants, flat areas protected from the north wind are suitable
Site preparation and planting pit
Since the plant in one place lives a long life and requires an increased content of nutrients in the soil, then the site must be prepared in advance. A good option would be row crops or perennial grasses, which will saturate the soil with useful substances.
It is a good idea to keep the area under black steam by digging the soil to the depth of a shovel - this will allow the earth to rest.
A planting hole for spring planting is dug in the fall, for autumn planting - a month before the scheduled date, so that the earth has time to settle.
- The site is leveled and cleaned of plant residues.
- They outline the dimensions of the future pit and dig a depression 40 cm deep and 40-50 cm wide.
- The top fertile soil layer, deposited during digging, is mixed with 4-5 kg of rotted manure or humus, 150 g of superphosphate, 200 g of wood ash and 30 g of potassium sulfate. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and put into the pit. So that the nutrients are evenly dissolved in the soil, up to 3 buckets of water are poured on top.
- Given the not too large growth and spreading of the Selechenskaya currant bushes, the distance between the plants should be up to 1 m.The row spacings are made a little wider - 1.5 m.
For planting black currants, the Selechenskaya pits need to be dug up and fertilized in advance
Step-by-step planting process
- Remove some of the soil from the prepared hole. Collect the rest with a slide at the bottom.
- Lower the seedling into the groove, spread the roots along the sides of the embankment.
- Unlike other plants, the root collar of black currant should be deepened by 10 cm, and the seedling itself should be placed at a slight slope. This planting will help the black currant quickly form a lush bush.
To form a lush bush, Selechenskaya is planted at an angle, deepening the root collar by 10 cm
The variety is demanding for the implementation of agrotechnical techniques. In order for the Selechenskaya black currant to bring annual harvests, you need to apply standard care rules, the same as for other varieties, with the exception of some nuances.
Like most black currant varieties, Selechenskaya loves moderately moist soil. This state can only be achieved by timely, abundant watering. But at the same time, it should be remembered that waterlogging will not turn out good.
When scheduling watering, be sure to take into account precipitation.
Mandatory watering is carried out in the following periods:
- shoot growth and ovary formation
- during the period of berry filling
- after harvest
- pre-winter, if autumn is stingy with precipitation.
Insufficient watering will lead to stunted shoot growth, crushing of fruits and loss of taste. In order for the moisture to be of high quality, water must penetrate into the soil to a depth of at least 40 cm. One bush will have to use up to 5 buckets. To prevent moisture from spreading over the surface, circular grooves should be made around the bush at a distance of 30–40 cm from the end of the branches (10 cm deep).
For watering currants, you need to make ring grooves
The next day after watering or rain, you need to lightly loosen the soil cover. There are many benefits to this simple procedure. By breaking down the formed crust, you help to establish air-water circulation in the soil, which has a beneficial effect on the development of the plant. In addition, loosening inhibits the growth of weeds.
Don't forget to mulch the ground under the bush. Dry grass or humus will not only serve as additional food, but will also help to retain moisture in the soil.
To avoid moisture loss, mulch the currant bush after watering.
After planting, subject to the introduction of the necessary substances into the planting pit, the currants are not fertilized for 2 years. At this time, organic matter can be used as mulch, adding in spring and autumn a bucket of humus or manure under each bush.
Starting from the 3rd year after planting, nutrients are added three times during the season. Selechenskaya responds equally well to organic matter and mineral fertilizers. For each type of feeding, there is a period and method of application.
- In early spring, so that the plant wakes up and starts growing quickly, up to 45 g of urea is added under a shallow digging under a young bush and 25–30 g under an adult. After that, the land is watered and mulched with organic matter.
- In summer, after moistening, it is very useful to water the soil under the bush with a solution of chicken manure (diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10). 10 liters of the mixture is enough for one plant.
- Autumn dressing contains potassium sulfate (15–20 g) and superphosphate (40–50 g). Instead of mineral fertilizers, you can use wood ash (200-400 g). Fertilizers are embedded in the ground 10-15 cm deep, after which the soil around the bush is covered with humus or manure (6-7 kg).
The first 4 years from the moment of planting Selechenskaya are extremely important in terms of forming a bush and maintaining its productivity.
- In the spring, before the buds bloom, the shoots of a young seedling are cut half the length or even 2/3.
- In the 2nd year, the base of the bush is formed, that is, 4–5 strong shoots are laid. The rest are removed. To help the seedling grow young fruit branches and new shoots, pinching of the tops of skeletal branches is carried out in the middle of summer.
- On the 3rd and 4th year, the procedure is repeated. Last year's branches are pinched into 2 buds. Of the growing young shoots, 3-5 of the strongest are left, the rest are cut out.
- In the 5th year, the formation of a bush is considered complete if it has at least 4 main shoots of each age.
Forming pruning of Selechenskaya is carried out in the first 4 years after planting
All branches over 6 years old are cut close to the ground. This is necessary to rejuvenate the bush. In the future, you need to thin out the plant, removing weak, crooked shoots, which have practically no fruit buds.
Carrying out thinning pruning, you need to leave no more than 4 strong shoots of zero age. The distance between them should be at least 10-15 cm.
Shelter for the winter
The Selechenskaya black currant is a frost-resistant crop. Strong and healthy plants can withstand frosts below -30 0 С, therefore they do not need additional shelters. But some measures need to be taken.
- Be sure to carry out a set of preparatory measures before the beginning of winter: they remove the foliage, apply fertilizers, dig up the soil, water (if the autumn is dry).
- The branches of the bushes are tied together so that strong gusts of wind do not break them.
- The root area is covered with a layer of mulch (manure, humus, peat, sawdust).
- After the snow falls, a snowdrift is poured into the root area. This natural defense perfectly protects the currants from frost.
Young seedlings or weakened plants need additional protection. Before the onset of frost, the bushes are wrapped in breathable non-woven material.
For Selechenskaya seedlings, you need to make a shelter before the onset of frost
Video: caring for black currants
Currant "Pygmy": description of the variety, photos, reviews
None of us will be left indifferent by the tempting aroma of black currant. We like to eat these berries in handfuls, sitting comfortably near a sprawling bush sprinkled with numerous fruits. There are many types of this amazing garden berry.
Among all this splendor, we would like to choose a variety that will delight you not only with the abundance of berries and their excellent taste, but also with the ease of growing and care, as well as resistance to all natural disasters. Blackcurrant Pygmy is a hybrid characterized by all these virtues, and not only them.
Description of the variety and its characteristics
Pygmy is an elite variety of black currant, whose homeland is the distant Urals. The author of the hybrid, created at the end of the last century, is the breeder V. Ilyin. The hybrid was bred by crossing the Dove Seedling with Bradthorpe.
In 1999, this species was registered in the State Register of our country for cultivation over a vast territory.
Neat bushes of compact size will serve as an excellent hedge for any summer cottage or garden plots:
- plant height usually does not even reach 2 meters
- strong and flexible branches and shoots, directed at an angle to the sun, form a semi-sprawling, rounded bush of medium density
- the color of young shoots is pinkish, and perennial ones are light brown
- large openwork leaves, with a pronounced shine, slightly wrinkled, deep green, have five lobes
- small, saucer-shaped, pinkish flowers form tassel-like inflorescences. Each inflorescence - 6-10 flowers
- plants have flowers of both sexes, that is, they perfectly pollinate themselves
- flowering occurs in early-mid May and lasts just over a month
- the fruiting of the bushes occurs 2-3 years after planting. Fruit ripening is extended.
Description of berries
Despite the name, the berries are beautiful and large:
- the size of one berry can reach 8 g
- fruits - round and black
- juicy and very fragrant greenish pulp covered with a thin skin. There are several small seeds inside the berries
- berry taste - refreshing, very rich sweet, with a strong currant aroma.
On a five-point scale, the taste of Pygmy fruits is rated at 5 points.
Berries of the variety are eaten fresh. They are rubbed with sugar, delicious preserves, jams and compotes are prepared from the fruits. Currants are frozen, added to baked goods and desserts. It is used in winemaking. During heat treatment, the berries do not lose their beneficial properties.
Useful properties of black currant
The fruits and leaves of black currant are rich in content:
- vitamins A, B, C, E, P, K
- tannic acids
- essential oils
- salts of potassium, phosphorus and iron
- phosphoric acid
- micro- and macroelements - sulfur, sodium, magnesium, manganese, silver, copper
- pectins, sugar, etc.
Culture berries are used for:
- renal and hepatic ailments
- cardiovascular diseases
- Alzheimer's disease
- bronchopulmonary pathologies
- diabetes mellitus
- eye diseases
- gastrointestinal diseases
- oncology, etc.
Ripening and harvesting terms
This hybrid is a medium-early ripening variety. The first berries begin to ripen by the end of June. Ripening of Pygmy fruits is extended for 1.5-2 months. Harvested as the berries ripen.
Pygmy currant is a high-yielding variety, the plants of which begin to bear fruit as early as 2-3 years after planting. One adult shrub yields from 2 to 6 kg of juicy berries. With mass cultivation, from 6.5 to 23 tons of fruits are harvested per hectare, depending on the region of cultivation and the age of the plant.
Storage times and transportability
If the berries are not removed in time, then they can remain on the bushes for a long time, without crumbling and without losing their marketability and taste. The harvested crop can also be stored for a long time in cool conditions.
The berries are stored in the refrigerator for 4 weeks. Pygmy is a transportable variety that tolerates long-distance transportation well. It is popular with commercial farms.
Climate and regions of cultivation
This variety is characterized by high frost resistance (down to -35 ° C) and excellent drought resistance. It is resistant to all weather disasters, unpretentious to soils and climatic conditions.
The pygmy is intended for cultivation in the Urals and Siberia, in the Volga-Vyatka region and in the Middle Belt, in Altai and the Far East. In addition, it is cultivated in other regions, as well as in the CIS countries.
Diseases and pests
The hybrid has a strong immunity to a number of ailments and pests. But do not forget about the preventive treatment of plants from:
- septoria. Shrubs are treated for disease in early spring with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid (for 10 liters of water - 100 g of copper sulfate and 150 g of lime)
- powdery mildew. The disease will be able to prevent spraying the bushes with a 2% solution of Nitrafen
- anthracnose, the prevention of which is the spring treatment with Bordeaux liquid
- gooseberry aphid. The drugs Karbofos and Actellik will save from the disease, as well as a simple folk method - spraying with a solution prepared from 10 liters of water, 1.5 kg of wood ash and 80 g of grated laundry soap
- kidney mite. Colloidal sulfur or the drug Nitrafen will help prevent the raid of the pest.
Advantages and disadvantages
A hybrid has many benefits:
- generous harvests
- elongation of fruiting
- excellent qualities of fruits
- resistance to adverse weather conditions
- unpretentiousness to soil and climate
- resistance to fungal diseases and pests.
In order for the hybrid to develop well and please with high and stable yields, it is worthwhile to take a responsible attitude to planting plants:
- the landing site is chosen to be spacious, sunny and dry. Groundwater should not approach the surface of the earth closer than 2 meters
- although the Pygmy is unpretentious to soils, it is still worth giving preference to light and loose, slightly acidic fertile soil
- planting is carried out either in the spring, after the soil has completely warmed up, or in the fall, before the onset of the first frost
- the site is dug up, cleaned of weeds and roots, properly fertilized
- the hole is prepared 2 weeks before planting the seedling. Pit size - 40 x 60
- up to half the hole is covered with fertile soil taken from above, mixed with humus, potassium sulfate and superphosphate
- the seedling is chosen strong, healthy, with well-developed roots
- the root system of the seedling is moistened in a clay mash and placed in a hole
- the hole is buried with earth, tamped and watered abundantly
- the distance around the planting is sprinkled with mulch - straw, humus, peat or rotted cow dung.
High-quality care will allow you to grow a healthy and strong plant, which will not only give a bountiful harvest, but also become an excellent decoration for a summer cottage or garden plot:
- currants need abundant watering. In order for the bush to grow well and bear fruit, it must be watered once a month. Especially the introduction of moisture is necessary when fruits begin to set.
- Plants need feeding several times per season. In the spring, before budding, as well as after flowering, the bushes are fertilized with organic matter and ammonium nitrate, before flowering, an infusion of chicken manure is used as a top dressing, immediately after harvesting, the currants are fed with potassium sulfate and superphosphate, and before the onset of winter - with phosphorus and potassium
- the ground around the plantings is carefully loosened so as not to damage the roots. By loosening, provide oxygen access to the roots
- in order to exclude morbidity, the soil near the bushes is periodically weeded and cleaned of organic debris, in which fungal spores and larvae of insect pests can multiply
- annually do preventive treatment of plants from diseases
- in spring and autumn, bushes need thinning, shaping and sanitary pruning.
Reviews of gardeners about the Pygmy currant
Pygmy is a high-yielding winter-hardy variety that is popular among gardeners and gardeners in all regions of our vast country.
Elena, 37 years old
“Among several types of black currant growing in my area, I prefer the Pygmy hybrid. The bush was planted only two years ago, and already bears fruit with might and main and gives very large and sweet berries, which my children eat with pleasure. The variety is unpretentious in cultivation and with dignity endures all the hardships of our Siberian climate. "
Igor, 44 years old
“Pygmy is a fruitful variety that produces very sweet berries that are as large as cherries. The harvest is enough to just eat the fruits fresh, and to make preparations for the winter. Extended fruiting allows you to feast on fresh currants until the end of summer. This type of berry is loved by all members of my family. "
Description of the variety and reviews of gardeners about it allow us to draw the appropriate conclusions:
- Pygmy is a high-yielding blackcurrant hybrid with generous yields
- the variety is characterized by excellent frost resistance and drought resistance
- it grows well in any climate, even the most severe, and on any soil.
Diseases and pests of culture
So that currants do not have any problems with possible diseases and pests, it is worth paying more attention to preventive measures. Also, do not neglect the rules of care - a well-groomed plant always has good immunity.
Diseases characteristic of black currant Bagheera - table
By what symptoms can the disease be recognized in time - photo galleryLeaves on rusty currant bushes are covered with orange growths Septoria can lead to almost complete loss of foliage Terry deforms leaves and flowers
What pests affect Bagheera currants - table
Signs of currant pests in the photoBuds affected by kidney mites look like small cabbage heads The glassy larva eats away at the core of the shoot, which leads to its shrinkage Gallic aphid settled on currants causes leaf deformation
Currant Vigorous (black): advantages and disadvantages
Currant is a berry rich in vitamins, has tasty and medicinal properties. Among the wide variety of varieties, it is necessary to choose exactly the one that would meet all the requirements of the gardener. A great advantage among its fellows is the Yadrenaya black currant variety, which is famous for its huge harvest and large fruits.
Characteristics and description of the currant variety
Vigorous - a young hybrid variety was bred by breeders in Altai as a result of a complex crossing of various black currant varieties.
It is widely used in the West Siberian and Volgo-Vyatka regions. They easily adapt to different climatic conditions, they feel great in the Siberian climate with harsh winters and dry summers.
The variety is early ripening, begins to bear fruit in the first year of planting.
Currant bush Vigorous compact, reaches a height of 1.5 m, does not scatter branches. Evenly covered with brushes and leaves, does not thicken the crown, and gives up to 12 berries per cluster.
The leaves are small, wrinkled, slightly curled inward. The skin of the fruit is soft, but dense, it is not felt during eating.
Thanks to the shell, the berries are not damaged during harvesting, and the yield from one bush is from 4 to 6 kg.
Ripening of berries occurs by mid-summer, but you should not rush, wait five days, the berry will not crumble and will be filled with sweet juice. The taste is sweetish with sourness. The sour taste of the berry of this variety is explained by the high content of vitamin C. The sugar content of the fruit is 9%. The weight of the berries ranges from 5 to 7g, in some cases the weight reached 9g.
The advantages of the variety include:
- early maturity
- large and sweet berries
- high frost resistance
- leadership in vitamin C.
There are also disadvantages of this variety:
- poor transportability
- the berry is not stored for a long time, requires immediate processing
- requires a lot of attention from gardeners
- often affected by anthracnose
- a short period of a bush's life - up to 10 years. A decrease in yield is observed for 3-4 years. Black currants of this variety require more careful pruning and bush shaping.
Site selection, soil preparation and rules for planting currants
The shrub can also be planted in spring, but before bud break, and in the autumn months until mid-October.
But most gardeners are inclined to plant currants in the autumn, as it will be able to get used to the place before frost and will start growing early next year and will please with a small harvest.
Currant is a thermophilic plant, it loves the sun, but it will feel great in partial shade. It is only necessary to protect it from drafts and harsh winds.
Prefers light, slightly acidic soils containing humus, does not tolerate swampy areas. If the soil has high acidity, then a mixture of 250 g of dolomite flour and 500 g of wood ash is added to 1 square meter.
If the land on the site is heavy and contains a large amount of clay, then it is lightened and sand, broken brick or expanded clay, humus are brought in.
Attention should be paid to the groundwater level. It must be at a depth of at least 2m, otherwise the shrub will not take root and develop well. If this is the only suitable place, then you can prepare a small mound with a height of at least half a meter or pour drainage into the planting pits.
They make markings for planting pits and dig them out with a depth and width of half a meter. If the soil is not fertile, then the hole needs to be dug deeper and more fertile soil mixed with humus and fertilizers should be put there.
The top layer of earth is mixed with rotted manure, 100 g of Superphosphate and some potash fertilizers are added. It should be noted that fresh manure is not recommended to be added to the soil, its effect will negatively affect the development of the root system of the shrub. A mixture of soil and fertilizers is poured onto the bottom of the planting pit with a mound and covered (you can use a film). The soil should sink a little.
The yield of currants depends on high-quality planting material. The seedling should not have any damage, kidney mite infestations and various diseases. When purchased from nurseries, all seedlings must have a variety certificate.
Before planting, all dry and damaged roots are cut off from the seedling, healthy roots are shortened by 4-6 cm and disinfected by placing them in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for several hours. Then, a couple of hours before planting, the roots of the bush are dipped in a solution of clay, cow dung and water, so that they are completely covered with the solution.
The soil in the planting pit is carefully shed and the seedling is placed in an inclined state on a mound. This method is suitable for forming a bush with a wide base, but if you want to have a compact currant bush on the site, then the seedling is installed vertically.
Two people take part in planting the shrub, one holds and gently spreads its roots, and the second sprinkles it with soil, making sure that the root collar of the bush is buried 6 cm into the ground.
Saplings are planted in rows at a distance of at least 2.5 m and at least 2 m between the bushes.
The bush is cut in more than half, leaving no more than 4 leaf buds, and watered with warm water. One bush takes about 4 liters. After absorbing water, the soil around the bush is sprinkled with peat or hay is laid. In no case should sawdust be used, as they lead to acidification of the soil.
The black currant shrub belongs to the gooseberry family, therefore, the location of the gooseberry next to it will adversely affect the development of the currant. But any vegetables located in the neighborhood, garlic and onions will be friends with currants, and protect from the invasion of a kidney mite.
Currant care Vigorous
This variety is very moody and requires proper attention. It requires pruning, careful weeding and deep loosening of the land near the bush, observing regular watering, applying up to 4 times of fertilizer per season.
Pruning is the most important procedure on which the correct formation of the bush depends. It is carried out immediately after planting, leaving no more than 4 shoots. In the next 2-3 years, remove excess basal shoots, weak and damaged, keeping stronger shoots. Prune close to the soil so that there are no stumps.
Sections are treated with garden pitch. In the fifth year, the formation of the bush ends and up to 15 well-developed branches should remain on it, among which a third of the shoots are young up to 5 years. In the spring, pruning is carried out before the shoots bloom, and in the fall - until the first frost.
Further, watering should be reduced to once a week, increasing the water consumption per bush to 30 liters. To prepare the currants for winter, watering is stopped in the fall, only watered abundantly again at the end of September.
Feeding currants is divided into the following stages:
- If the plant was planted in the fall, then additional feeding in the spring is not required, and if the seedling is planted in the spring, then after three weeks, 20-25 g of urea is added to 1 square meter. Fertilizer is applied directly to the soil and immediately sealed. Water thoroughly. In subsequent years, the fertilizer dose is halved. 7-10 days after the introduction of urea, the plant is watered with slurry, which is prepared from cow or bird droppings and water.
- As soon as the buds begin to bloom, the bush must be fed with wood ash or a mixture of Superphosphate (60g) and Potassium sulfate (40g).
- After flowering, the currants must be sprayed with such a solution: each ingredient is diluted in half a glass of water - 5 g of potassium permanganate, 2-3 g of Boric acid, 25 g of Copper sulfate, mix and bring the volume to 10 liters with water.
- After picking the berries, after two months, 25 liters of humus mixed with superphosphate and potassium are introduced into the soil.
To prepare the bush for winter, at the beginning of autumn, the soil near the currants is covered with a layer of foliage or peat to a height of at least 5 cm. In young shrubs, branches are tied and carefully, so as not to break, bend to the ground, covering with any airy material.
Preventive measures and pest control
The most dangerous insect attacking currant bushes is the kidney mite. But the variety Yadrenaya staunchly resists it, but it can get sick with fungal diseases and attract other parasites. Let us consider in detail what affects the currants of this variety:
- One of the fungal diseases affecting the leaves of the plant is anthracnose. Dark spots affect the leaf, as a result of which it curls and dries.For prevention in the spring, it is necessary to spray with a solution of Bordeaux liquid, diluted according to the instructions. If, nevertheless, the bush got sick in the summer, then it is already necessary to spray with Copper sulfate, 40 g of which is diluted in 10 liters of water. One adult bush takes almost two liters of solution. And in the fall, the plant is treated with Captan according to the instructions.
- Currants are prone to damage by terry, which is a viral disease. To determine whether the bush is sick or not, you need to carefully examine it. In spring, when blooming the upper leaves, pay attention to their shape. In a healthy currant, the leaf is five-pointed and has a fragrant odor, and in the affected bush, the leaves are deformed, become three-lobed and odorless. Also, the disease with 100% probability is determined by the currant flowers, they also deform and become terry, and the flower brushes acquire a lilac color. The carriers of the disease are spider mites, aphids. The disease tolerates winter very well in the plant itself. Therefore, drastic measures should be taken to combat this disease so that it does not spread throughout the entire site. The diseased plant is uprooted and burned.
- Spider mites are also dangerous for currants. The mite winters well, and in the spring it climbs to the very top of the bush and damages the blossoming shoots. Damage to the bush can be seen as early as May. Small white spots appear on the leaves, they stop growing and dry out. Hot and warm weather is favorable for this kind of tick. For the fight, special preparations are used, such as Mekafost, Thedion, etc. Experienced gardeners use the folk method: a glass of wood ash is poured with a liter of boiling water, mixed with shavings of laundry soap and sprayed with a bush. Processing is carried out at least 3 times. If it rains, repeat the spraying. Spring whitewashing of currant shoots with a solution of lime with the addition of copper sulfate will not be superfluous.
- Gall midges are small mosquitoes that damage young leaves. The larvae live inside the shoots and destroy their tissue. The shoots dry, break and the leaves fall off them. To prevent this disease, it is often necessary to loosen the soil under the bush, carefully cut off damaged shoots and not leave hemp. If the plant has previously hurt, then it is necessary in early spring, before the flowering of currants, to spray with Karbofos according to the instructions.
So, despite the capriciousness of this variety, the black currant Yadrenaya will delight you with a rich harvest and a refreshing taste of berries, you just need to pay a little attention and take care of it.