Evening primrose - creeping or erect, wild or refined

Evening primrose - creeping or erect, wild or refined

Evening primrose, rather evening primrose

There is no such thing as an evening primrose but evening primrose, erect or creeping, with large flowers, or small, low or nearly a meter high, with swiveling or sucking stumps, it is sometimes also called an evening primrose. This summer flowering species from May to September - Oenothera spp - therefore offers many differences also in sizes and colors. It naturally reseeds itself very easily, sometimes making it invasive. It feels good in dry, stony, stony soils and resists well to periods of drought such as we are going to experience more and more often.

Botanical name:

• Oenothera spp

Plant info:

• Cycle: Perennial plant (some varieties are biennial)
• Foliage: Lapsed
• Hardiness: Hardy plant (-28 ° C)
• Family: Onagraceae, Onagraceae
• Harbor : Creeping or erect habit
• Exhibition: Sun
• Ground : Drained and porous soil
• Sowing: March April
• Plantation: April May
• Flowering: June to October
• Rooting: root or sometimes rhizome
• Cultivation area: Zone 6 see rusticity cards: France or Quebec
• Origin: North America - Central America
• Honey plant: Yes
• Edible plant: No


• Beautiful and generous flowering.
• Rather rapid growth.

What are the benefits of the evening primrose garden?

• It can be grown in all draining soils.
• It is resistant to drought.
• It grows well in stony soil

What exhibition?


What soil?

• Drained, porous, stony soil

Method of multiplication of evening primrose?

• Sowing

When to plant

• In the ground (transplanting): from, April and May.
• In container: may June.

When to sow oenothera?

Under warm shelter (15-20 ° C): from February to April
In the ground: from April to July

How to sow evening primrose?

Under shelter :

• Fill a mini greenhouse, box or even pots with good quality seed soil.
• Coconut lozenges are very suitable for seedlings of evening primrose.
• Water.
• Sow the seeds on the surface.
• Cover the seedlings to maintain a high humidity level.
• to activate germination.
• Keep the soil moist until emergence.
• Aerate the seedlings regularly to prevent damping-off.
• Transplanting in April or May depending on the region.

Sowing in the ground:

• From April or May depending on the region,
• In well prepared soil.
• Clods of earth should be reduced.
• Add potting soil and well-rotted compost.
• If your soil is too rich, add sand to it.
• Water the soil well
• Sow the seeds - clear - cover with a little potting soil
• Lead lightly.

When to plant or transplant evening primrose plants

• From May or April in hot regions.
• In heavy soils wait until May or even June depending on the weather.

How or to transplant oenothera plants:

• Make a hole in the soil a little larger than the root ball in the container.
• Separate the plants about fifty centimeters.
• Scrape around the root ball to free the roots.
• Add a little potting soil at the bottom of the hole.
• In heavy soils, lighten the soil with sand.
• Place the evening primrose in a container.
• Recap and tamp.
• Water.

Maintenance of evening primrose:

• Watch out for slugs and snails when the appearance of young plants.
• During the flowering period, if the weather is drought, water from time to time, the plate is not sensitive to it but the harvest will be poorer if the plant is not ... Hydrated.


• Flowering of the evening primrose appears June and lasts until October.
• As we noted in the introduction, there is not an evening primrose but evening primrose.
• Some with large yellow flowers sometimes pink or white in a flared cup often described as wild.
• Others smaller, more elegant, pink or white, a little lower, thinner, will flood your garden with their fragrance.
• The flowers wilt very quickly, their lifespan is one day, but they follow one another in large numbers throughout the season.


• Oenothera Fructicisa: upright stem and variegated foliage
Evening Primrose Speciosa: covering plant and flowers above the cushion, very fragrant, ribbed pink.
Evening Primrose Sulfurea: with pale yellow flowers with touches of purple when still in bud. They have the particularity of having a color that changes when it becomes mature and then fades from yellow to red.
Oenoth. African Sun: with magnificent golden yellow "poppy" flowers.

What to plant with evening primrose?

• Plant the evening primrose with lavender, nepetas, carlines ...

Use in the garden:

ATa garden: in rockery for the low and covering varieties, in beds for the high evening primrose varieties. And again on an embankment, a low wall, between the stones ...
• Without garden:
in a large pot of at least 40 cm.

Evening primrose quick sheet:

Photo - Photography of Oenothera speciosa, taken in Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan, by デ イ ジ ー under creative commons license: CC-BY-SA-2.5


Item name

Evening primrose, all garden varieties


There is no such thing as an evening primrose but there are evening primrose, erect or creeping, with large flowers, or even smaller, low or nearly a meter high, with pivoting or sucker stumps, wild flowering or more refined. Œnothera is a summer flowering species from May to September, it allows many uses and associations in sunny gardens with poor soils ...


Editor's name

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9 creeping ground cover plants

Some places in our gardens are sometimes a little sparse, or seem a little empty, to the point that we try to hide them or fill them! The easiest and most judicious way to camouflage these little corners of lazy nature is to sow creeping ground cover plants on the surfaces concerned.

These plants will spread over your beds without taking too much height and may even sometimes form, over time, pretty carpets of various colors and reliefs. They will prevent the weeds, at the same time, from thriving too much! Zoom in on 9 of these plants that you might not have thought of.

Guides, letter models, practical sheets. We leave the card to you. Make your choice !

Evening primrose - creeping or erect, wild or refined

Showing 1–18 of 33 results

Perennial aromatic plant

Flower color : White

Foliage color : green

Flowering : May to June

Foliage type : Persistent

Exposure : Sun to shade

Soil type: Regular to light and cool to moist

Consumable part : The foliage and flowers

Hardiness : Very Good -20 ° C

Honey plant : Yes

8cm bucket

Perennial aromatic plant

Flower color: Yellow

Leaf color: bluish green

Height: 80 / 120cm

Flowering: August to Sept.

Type of foliage: Lapsed

Exhibition: Sun

Soil type: Drained light and cool

Shape: Shrubby

Density: 2 per m²

Perfume: Yes

Growth: Fast

Consumable part: Foliage

Hardiness: Very Good -20 ° C

use : Border, solid and in pot

Honey plant : Yes

Protect in winter mulching : no

8cm bucket

Annual and medicinal aromatic plant

Flower color: White

Leaf color: green

Sowing : Spring at 10 ° C

Flowering: August to Sept.

Type of foliage: Lapsed

Exhibition: Sun and partial shade

Soil type: Drained light and cool

Consumable part: Foliage

Hardiness : Very Good -20 ° C

Honey plant : Yes

Protect in winter mulching : annual

8cm bucket

Foliage color : green

use : in the vegetable garden and in pots

Height: 100 cm

Flowering: August to Sept.

Type of foliage: Lapsed

Exhibition: Sun

Perfume: no

Soil type: Drained light and cool

Shape: Erected

Density: 2 per m²

Perfume: no

Growth: Fast

Honey plant : Yes

Protect in winter mulching : no

Consumable part: roots

Hardiness : Very Good -20 ° C

8cm bucket

Perennial aromatic plant

Flower color: White

Leaf color: green

Height: 30 cm

Flowering: june to august

Type of foliage: Semi persistent green

Exhibition: Sun to partial shade

Soil type: Regular fee

Shape: Bristling

Density: 3/4 per m²

Perfume: Yes

Growth: Average

Consumable part: The foliage, the flowers, the stems

Hardiness: Very Good -20 ° C

Protect in winter mulching : no

Honey plant : Yes

Use : massive, vegetable garden, potted

Flora inventory

Botanical inventory of Montbazin

The scrubland, vast wild gardens are the active witnesses of our distant past. By keeping them we respectfully maintain the memory of our ancestors. The many grasses that line the paths were already there in the Neolithic period and the few hedges of trees, sub-trees as well as stone walls mark the site of old agricultural crops or pastures, serving at the same time as windbreaks. and firewood. Let us not forget that Languedoc until the French Revolution was the breadbasket of the kingdom. As for the marshy lands, as in the bottom of Valfalis, they were used as pastures for cows and horses. They were then drained to plant vines.

This vegetation is not only used to feed humans or animals. She has been accompanying them since ancient times. The Mediterranean scrublands contain a multitude of medicinal plants. Getting treatment from a doctor in the 18th century was expensive and uncertain, and few of them practiced in the countryside. Medicine is only in its infancy and the peasants preferred to turn to the monks, herbalists and bonesetters who held the knowledge of the ancients. Among the most used plants there are some with multiple properties and many are those which treat diseases of the skin, venereal diseases, organs, blood system, female diseases, wounds and fractures, insect bites, and also against poison. . In the Middle Ages, thyme was put in the bath water of lepers to disinfect their wounds.

We see here that a very rich flora is within our reach, to know it is to preserve it. The archaeologist and botanist come across ethologists, lepidopterists, ornithologists, entomologists and other naturalists in these half-wild lands, eager to meet the extremely rare subject that will satisfy their passion. The botanical section of Sète and ecologists from Euzières do not fail to pay us a botanical visit in the spring.

I would like to thank the chief botanist of the Montpellier Plant Garden who provided me with his help and immense knowledge, so that we can take a different look at our heritage environment.

Plants presented in alphabetical order of their Latin name
An index of common plant names appears at the end of the list
Photographs taken in Montbazin by Monique Rousseau in 2014 and 2015
Click on the photo to display the plant

AEGILOPS OVATA or oval egelope

Family: graminaceae, poaceaes.
Annual plant with fine fibrous rhizomes, its evergreen, hairy foliage, light green to jade green before turning straw yellow. Narrow, sheathing flat leaves. Blooms from spring to summer during May-July. Found on the edges of paths and uncultivated places.
Location: Mediterranean rim - Montbazin

AGROSTIS CANINA or bentgrass from dogs, or sneezing from dogs

Family: poaceaes.
Perennial, glabrous plant with a creeping stump often stoloniferous. It grows straight (H 70 cm) and spreads quickly. The main growth takes place mainly from spring to summer. Deciduous leaves, dark tripinnate and alternate versts. Brown flowers that organize themselves in a spike. Flowering from June to August.
Location: all of Europe - Montbazin

AJUGA IVA or bugle Yvette

Family: lamiaceae.
Perennial plant, woody at the base, 6 to 20 cm high. The herbaceous stem is covered with long, fine whitish hairs. The pale pink flower. It is found on dry, stony soils. The whole plant is hairy.
Properties: hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, diuretic, vasodilator. She is gifted with a wide spectrum of activities.
Location: Mediterranean region - Montbazin

ALLIUM POLYANTHUM or garlic with many flowers,
commonly known as vine leek

Family: liliaceae.
The vine leek is a perennial herbaceous plant of the liliacea family, the leaves of which are eaten as vegetables. It is also called baragane, pouragane or wild leek. It looks and smells very similar to cultivated leeks. This leek should be picked at the end of winter, it blooms between June and July. He likes the limestone vineyards. It is a stimulant and a diuretic
Location: Midi, West, Center, Corsica and Montbazin

ALTHAEA CANNABINA or fake hemp marshmallow

Family: malvaceae.
Perennial plant, exceeding 1 m, erect, with stellate pubescence and a little rough. Green leaves in the shape of hemp leaves. Flowers pink, axillary, solitary or twin, one to two times as long as the leaf. Flowering June to September.
Location: Montbazin - Southern Europe - Western Asia

or red pigweed, also called pig grass

Family: amarantaceae.
Annual plant 20 to 90 cm tall. The stem (often reddish) and twigs are hairy. The ovoid fruits contain small, black, shiny seeds. These seeds are edible raw or roasted and can be ground into flour for use in bread making or as a thickening agent. It flowers in August-September. Its dissemination is epizoochore. The flowers are predominantly green.
Location: Montbazin, temperate regions

ANCHUSA AZUREA or azure buglossus from Italy

Family: borraginaceae.
Plant with large lanceolate leaves with rough hairiness and very bright blue star-shaped flowers, turning purple in panicles in summer. Buglossi like the sun on draining soil, they are not greedy and like scree. They are not very long but are easily reseeded. Deciduous plant. Flowering from June to September.
Location: Montbazin and the Mediterranean region

ANDRYALA INTEGRIFOLIA orryale with whole leaves

Family: asteraceae.
The whole leaf andryala is a herbaceous plant of the dicotyledonous Asteraceae family widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. The height of the adult plant is between 30 and 80 cm. It flowers from July to September.
Location: Mediterranean rim and Montbazin

or wild parsley or donkey parsley

Family: apiécées.
Species protected in Alsace.Perennial herbaceous plant, biennial (sometimes annual), quite large, its root contains an antimitotic lignan, so it is toxic. Its leaves are 2-3 pinnate, glabrous to pubescent. Flowers with white petals. It is found in meadows, roadsides on wet soils.
Location: Montbazin

ARTEMISIA ANNUA or annual mugwort

Family: asteraceae.
The annual mugwort is an annual plant native to China. One of the active substances extracted from its leaves (artemisinin) effectively fights malaria, a disease which, despite official statistics, remains the most devastating on the planet. We just found out that artemisinin is amazingly effective against lung and breast cancer when iron is added (Life Sciences, University of Washington studies).
The stems are between 30 and 100 cm long. Its flowering is summer. Be careful not to confuse it with ambrosia. The leaves of annual mugwort are very divided and have a very strong odor when crumpled between the fingers, while those of ragweed have no odor.
Location: Montbazin and temperate zones

ARUM ITALICUM or arum from Italy

Family: araceae.
Its mode of pollination is amazing, the inflorescence produces heat and emits excrement odors which attract small flies thus ensuring pollination. Perennial plant, its leaves appear in the fall and disappear the following summer. Flowering takes place in April-May The leaves and toxic fruits cause swelling of the tongue, irritation of the throat, vomiting and dilation of the pupils, sometimes convulsions.
Location: Western and Southern Europe, present in Montbazin

ARUNDO DONAX or Cane, cattail reed

Family: Poaceae
Use: planting at the edge of water bodies, hedges. Characteristic of humid places in Mediterranean regions. The inflorescence appears from September to October.
Location: Montbazin and the Mediterranean rim

ARISTOLOCHIA ROTUNDA or round-leaved aristolochia

Family: Aristolochiaceae
Common Mediterranean plant of paths and vines, well known especially in Hérault.
The plant blooms every year from May to June.
Location: Montbazin and Hérault.


Family: Asteraceae
Plant treating abdominal pain. Its leaves and flowery somnities have depurative, hypoglycemic, digestive, deworming, emmenagogic properties. In powder it was used to heal wounds and treat boils
Location: Montbazin and the Mediterranean rim

or astragalus from Montpellier called bastard spar

Family: fabaceae (or legumes).
Perennial plant growing in clumps not exceeding 20 cm. Head-shaped inflorescence, pink, purple or purplish flowers, in groups of 7 to 20, from April to June. The fruits are cylindrical and arched pods of about 3 cm.
Location: limestone soil in the south of France and present in Montbazin

ASTRAGALUS STELLA or star astragalus, or star

Family: fabaceae.
Small annual plant, with bluish flowers, arranged on a peduncle longer than the associated leaves. It is the star pods that gave the plant the name. Flowering from May to June.
Location: Montbazin and the western Mediterranean

AVENA BARBATA or brilliant oats. Grasses

Family: poaceaes.
Annual plant from 25 to 170 cm. Its leaves are flat and shiny, almost hairless. The spikelet has 2 to 3 flowers.
The caryopsis fruits separate when ripe. Blooms from April to May.
Location: Montbazin and the Mediterranean rim

AVENA STERILIS or sterile oats

Family: poaceaes.
Annual plant 60 to 150 cm, flat and broad leaves, dark green in color. Spikelet with 3 or 4 flowers. Flowering from May to July.
Location: Montbazin and the Mediterranean region

BALLOTA NIGRA or black horehound

Family: lamiaceae.
Fast growing perennial 30 to 85 cm. Its leaves are dark green, slightly gray and have a short stalk. Crumpled, the plant emanates a strong nauseating odor reminiscent of musty. Its flavor is acrid and bitter. Flowering lasts all summer from June to September successively. The flowers are hermaphroditic. The fruits are achenes with barochoric spread. The seeds being heavy they will tend to stay close to the mother plant.
Its properties: anxiolytic and antidepressant, it helps fight against nervousness, anxiety and nervous disorders in women during menopause. Also sedative and choleretic. Used as a dewormer and antiemetic. It is not recommended for pregnant women.
Location: western Mediterranean and Montbazin

BETA VULGARIS SUBSP. MARITIMA or sea chard or perry

Family: chenopodiaceae.
Ancestor of beet and cultivated chard. The biennial plant, in spring and autumn from 30 to 80 cm in height. The picking is done before the plant goes up. Blooms from June to September, the flowers are small, green or pinkish. It is a perennial plant. It is attributed emollient, refreshing and laxative virtues. The crushed leaf, in poultice, treats cradle cap and scabs. The leaf is rich in vitamin A and C and mineral elements (potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulfur, iron).
Location: Montbazin and on the fringe of the coast, more on sandy or stony environments

BISCUTELLA LAEVIGATA or common biscutelle, or smooth eyewear

Family: brassicaceaes.
Perennial plant, bristling at the base, with a thick and woody stump, stems 20 to 60 cm, branching. Very variable leaves, the radicals in a rosette, the shoots few, small. Poor flowers. Flowering from May to August.
Location: Central and Southern Europe - Montbazin


Family: poaceae.
This perennial can reach a height of 45 to 90 cm. These flowers are organized in a cluster. Its flowering is from May to July.
Location Montbazin and the western Mediterranean

BRACHYPODIUM RETUSUM or branchy brachiopod

Family: poaceae.
This perennial plant, 20 to 50 cm high, is very abundant in the Mediterranean scrubland, and very popular with sheep. It represents one of the last stages of vegetation evolution before desertification; in this respect, it is closely monitored in the south of France as the day before desertification. Flowering from May to July.
Location: Montbazin in the garrigues

BROMUS LANCEOLATUS or spikelet brome

Family: poaceae.
Annual plant of 20 to 80 cm, with stiff and glabrous stems. Leaves and sheaths are hairy.
Flowering, May and June. It is located in dry and arid places.
Location: Montbazin and the Mediterranean region

BROMUS MADRITENSIS or bromine from Madrid

Family: poaceae.
Annual plant with a height of 10 to 40 cm. Its leaves are glabrous or glabrescent, like the whole plant. Its flowering is from April to June. The inflorescence is green first and then turns reddish. The 3 to 5 cm spikelets are more or less erect and borne on peduncles shorter than them.
Location: dry places in the South and the West as well as in Montbazin

or red bromine

Family: poaceaes.
Annual plant 20 to 60 cm.
Location: South of France - Montbazin

BUNIAS ERUCAGO L. or Bunias false arugula

Family: Brassicacea
Edible, the leaves are eaten in salads. Its fruits are used to treat dropsy, its juice is used as a depurative.
Flowering May - July.
Location: throughout the South, as far as Loire-Inférieure, Auvergne and Saône-et-Loire.

BUPLEURUM FRUCTICOSUM or shrubby buplèvre

Family: apiécées (umbelliferae)
It is the only umbelliferous tree in Europe to have a woody, shrubby habit. This shrub blooms yellow twice a year. The first time in the spring, around May and the second time in the very end of summer. The shrubs continue to bloom weakly between these two peaks. It comes spontaneously on acidic soils. The aromatic bouquet of the flowering plant is quite similar to that of fennel, with a heavier, not very pleasant aromatic note.
Location: southern region and Montbazin

CALAMINTHA NEPETA or calament nepeta, savory nepeta

Family: lamiaceae.
Perennial plant 20 to 80 cm high, green with a pleasant smell. Small leaves, glabrescent, slightly serrated oval. Its pale purplish or white flowers, small. Flowering from July to September. This plant is edible. Harvest all year round. Its scent is minty and camphorated.
Its medicinal properties: carminative, stimulating, stomachic.
Location: dry and stony places in the mountains of Corsica. Distribution Sardinia and Balearic Islands. Present in Montbazin

CAMPHOROSMA MONSPELIACA or Camphorine from Montpellier

Family: Chenopodiaceae
Mini green shrub from the Languedoc garrigues from 20 to 60 cm.
Its crumpled leaves smell like camphor.
Location: Dry and arid places of the South: Roussillon, Languedoc, Provence, Corsica

CARDUUS ACANTHOIDES L. or false acanthus thistle

Family: asteraceae (daisy family).
Thistle-type plants protect themselves from its predators with sharp thorns. The acanthus thistle is one of the thorniest thistles (height 30 to 120 cm) its thorns are present on the edges of the wings and in the middle of the woolly hairs of the pedicels. Leaves alternate, thorny, undersides hairy along the green veins, becoming glabrous upwards. Its habitat: landfills, edges of railways, edges of roads, deposits of ballast soil. Flowering period from July to September.
Location: Finland - Sweden - Montbazin

CARDUUS PYCNOCEPHALUS L. or thistle with tight flower heads

Family: asteraceae.
Annual helophyte plant of 20 to 2 m. Its stems are branched, with narrow wings, thorny, bare at the top and dotted with prickles. Leaves sinuous or pennatifid with long spines. Its flowers are pink (15 to 22) per head, elongated, solitary or clustered, in pairs at the end of the twigs. Fruits: greyish achenes with bristles
Location: Montbazin - Mediterranean rim

CARDUUS TENUIFLORUS CURTIS or thistle with slender flower heads

Family: asteraceae.
It is also known under the names of thin thistle, thistle with small flowers or even carchofle.
Annual or biennial plant of 3 to 10 cm, much less widespread than its cousin the field cirse. It is easily recognized by its winged stems. Its flower heads are, as the name suggests, smaller than those of the field cirse. Flowering May-June, purple flowers. Prefers wasteland or rubble.
Location: Western and Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Montbazin

CAREX HELLARIANA or sedge, or sedges

Family: cyperaceae.
Carex are one of the few plants whose root system is well adapted to asphyxiated and packed or waterlogged soils, possibly acidic. It seems to play a particular biogeochemical role.
Perennial plant 10 to 40 cm high. Its flowering begins in March until June. The flowers are spikes we sometimes distinguish male and female spikes on the same plant. Sedges along with rushes and molinias are among the few plants whose root system is well adapted to asphyxiated or waterlogged soils.
Location: Europe - Western Asia - Africa and Boreal America - Montbazin

CARLINA CORYMBOSA or highbush carline

Family: asteraceae.
Perennial whitish green with erect stem, variable height 10 to 90 cm, alternate and sessile leaves more or less rolled up, with very thorny teeth. Flowering period: July-August. It grows mainly on sunny, sandy or rocky soils.
Location: mainly on the Mediterranean rim present in Montbazin

CARTHAMUS LANATUS or woolly safflower

Family: asteraceae.
Species of thistle known as the woolly cattail thistle or saffron thistle. It is familiar to North America where it has been introduced, and considered a noxious weed. Its height can reach 1 m, its pale stem is rigid and pointed, a single plant can produce several stems and form a bush. Its flower is bright yellow. Its fruit is an achene of about half a centimeter.
Location: native of the Mediterranean basin - Montbazin

CATANANCHE CAERULEA or blue catananche, or blue cupidone

Family: asteraceae.
This short-lived perennial forms tufts of gray-green leaves. The rigorous, branched stems bear lilac-blue flowers, resemble cornflowers. Blooms in spring. It prefers chalky slopes exposed to the sun. Cold resistant (-15 °)
Location: Montbazin and the Mediterranean region


Family: asteraceae
Also called Star Centaury or Star Thistle. Plant of 30 to 60 cm with erect stem, branched in spreading branches. Alternate leaves hairy, slightly toothed. Flower heads pinkish, thorny bracts on a very thick base lined with thorns. Dry and sunny places, paths, wasteland. Flowering from June to October.
Location: Montbazin - South-eastern France

or Eritrean knapweed, or little knapweed

Family: gentianaceaes.
It is also known as fever grass. Annual or biennial herbaceous plant. It is a rather low plant, usually forming a solitary erect stem with branching ends, basal rosette leaves, pink flowers in biparal cymes. It grows in wet pastures. Its flowering period: June to August or even September
Location: Atlantic and Mediterranean coast, Corsica. Present in Montbazin

CENTAURIUM MARITIMUM or small sea knapweed

Family: gentianaceaes.
Protected plant in the Aquitaine region and in the Pays de la Loire. It is an annual plant of 5 to 15 cm, glabrous, erect, simple or a little branchy at the top, little leafy. Its flower is yellow, quite large, 2 cm long, stalked. Summer flowering from May to June.
Location: Atlantic and Mediterranean coast, Corsica. Present in Montbazin

or knapweed

Family: asteraceae.
A national plant in Malta since 1971. It is a perennial shrub, confined to cliffs of coral limestone and scree, growing in full sun. The plant flowers between May and July. It is often cultivated in public gardens. The plant is rare in the wild. It is considered by IUCN as one of the 50 most endangered plants of the Mediterranean islands. It has been protected since 1993.
Location: Present in Mediterranean islands and in Montbazin


Family: asteraceae.
Biennial plant 30 to 70cm, with divergent branches, greyish or whitish green, or cottony as well as the leaves. Purpurine flowers. Flowering from June to September. It is a common plant in wasteland and along the paths of the Midi. The stem bears leaves cut into narrow strips.
Location: southern slopes of the Maritime Alps in the Pyrénées-Orientales. Go up to Gap and Lyon

CENTAUREE SOLSTITIALIS or centaury of the solstice

Family: asteraceae.
Biennial herbaceous plant easily recognizable by its yellow flower heads and its bracts terminated by very long thorns. Fairly large, silvery gray in color, downy, with erect branched stems. The plant owes its name to the fact that it begins to flower at the end of June, around the time of the summer solstice, its flowers are pale yellow to golden and are all equal.
Location Mediterranean region and Montbazin. Considered to be harmful in the United States

CENTRANTHUS CALCITRAPAE or centranthe trapdoor

Family: caprifoliaceae.
It is a common species in rocky places. Annual plant from 10 to 60 cm, glabrous, green, often reddish, with slender root. The upper leaves are divided into narrow, more or less toothed segments. The lowest flowers are whole. The flowers form a dense inflorescence and the spur is short. Blooms from April to July.
Location: Montbazin - Mediterranean region of Europe, Asia and Africa

CEPHALARIA LEUCANTHA L. or white cephair

Family: caprifoliaceae.
Perennial plant of about 1 m, glabrescent, with a woody stump emitting numerous furrowed, smooth, hollow stems. Leaves glabrous or a little bristly. White flowers are grouped in rounded flower heads. Flowering from July to September. This species grows on rocky and dry hillsides. This thistle is much less common than its cousin the cirse.
Location: Montbazin - Southern Europe - Western Asia - Northern Africa

MURAL CHENOPODIASTRUM or goosefoot of the walls
or nettle leaves

Family: amarantaceae.
Annual plant 30 to 80 cm high, green or sometimes reddish, with erect, angular stem, usually branching. Strong and unevenly toothed green leaves, with sharp teeth. Small greenish flowers arranged in loose clusters. Flowering June to September. Vermifuge quality plant.
Location: Europe - Montbazin

CHENOPODIUM ALBUM or lamb's quarters

Family: Amaranthaceae
An ancient vegetable, it is used cooked like spinach. Native to Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, and naturalized in other regions
Flowering: from June to October

CHENOPODIUM BONUS HENRICUS or Chenopode bon Henri. Wild spinach

Family: Amaranthaceae - Chenopodiaceae
It is part of the large family of plants used in the diet of our ancestors.
Cultivated in the past, its leaves are eaten raw, in salads or cooked like spinach.

CHONDRILLA JUNCEA L. or rush-stemmed chondril

Family: asteraceae.
Biennial plant, sometimes perennial, which grows in dry, sandy or stony places. Erect, glabrous, almost naked, very branchy with tapering, stiff, spreading branches that can reach 1 m in height. Leaves sinuous or roncined, usually destroyed during flowering. When flowering, there is only a tuft of branched and thin stems, reminiscent of those of the rush. Its flowers are yellow. The fruits are yellow-brown achenes. The young leaves of the rosette can be eaten in salads.
Properties: aperitif and anti-oxidant properties.
Location: Middle and southern Europe - East - North Africa - Montbazin

CIRSIM VULGARE or common lanceolate cirse

Family: asteraceae.
Biennial plant its flowering period: July to October. It can reach 150 cm in height. It grows in open ground.
It is present throughout the territory including Corsica

CIRSIUM ARVENSE or cirse des vignes

Family: asteraceae.
Perennial plant classified as harmful in France. Lilac-colored flower heads. Its root system composed of rhizomes can go down to more than 2 m.

or black-leaved cirse, or white-spotted thistle

Family: asteraceae.
Biennial, whitish, araneous plant. Leaves thin, green and speckled with white above, cottony below, serrated and prickly. The flowers are usually pinkish-purple in color, rarely white, the fruits are bare and black-red. Flowering from May to July. The species grows on open, open, sandy or stony land and in riverbeds.
Location: Montbazin - Mediterranean region

CUSCUTA EPITHYMUM or thyme dodder

Family: cuscutaceae.
Plant which does not produce chlorophyll, parasitic on many shrubs of European moors. Its leaves are practically non-existent. The flowers grouped in glomeruli at the nodes, are pink, fragrant. It is more common on poor or draining soils.
Location: Present in Montbazin, it is however absent or very rare in the south of France. Europe, Asia and southern Africa

CYNODON DACTYLON or quackgrass

Family: poaceaes.
Sometimes also called "Cynodon" improperly. It is undoubtedly of European origin but its distribution is now worldwide. It is used for making rustic turf, requiring less maintenance than other species. Its tendency to be ground cover is also appreciated in this case. However, it is considered potentially toxic to mammals.
Location: Montbazin

CYNOGLOSSUM CRETICUM or Cretan cynoglossus

Family: borraginaceae which contains borage in particular.
Herbaceous plant of 20 to 50 cm, which can be annual, biennial or perennial. Hairy plant whose flowers, most often blue or purple, have five sepals, five petals and five stamens. Flowering April to July.
Location: Montbazin - Mediterranean region

DACTYLIS GLOMERATA or clumped dactyl, or curled dactyl

Family: poaceaes.
In poetry, the dactyl is a foot, that is to say a metric element of Greek and Latin poetry and then by extension, of all poems. Perennial herbaceous plant about 1.20 m high at flowering, forming tufts. Widely cultivated in all continents as a fodder plant. Its pollen is responsible for respiratory allergies. The leaves have a relatively large bluish-green blade. Rich in proteins, it is frequently associated with alfalfa.
Location: all continents

DAUCUS CAROTA or wild carrot

Family: Apiaceae / umbelliferae
Its leaves are diuretic and depurative. Raw carrot poultices were used to treat burns.
Location: all temperate and warm regions of the world, especially the Mediterranean basin

TENUIFOLIA DIPLOTAXIS or yellow arugula - thin-leaved diplotaxis

Family: Brassicaceae
Salad plant. Consume in moderation, as it contains erucic acid. It is stimulating and diuretic, but also expectorant and digestive. It grows in wasteland, especially by rivers and seas.
Location: Central and Southern Europe, Western Asia

DIPSACUS FULLONUM or wild teasel, bird cabaret

Family: dipsacaceae.
Biennial plant 70 to 1.5 m high. Opposite leaves in pairs along the stem are fused together at their base two by two and form a basin in which rainwater can collect, hence the vernacular name of "birdhouse". The flowers, lilac-pink in color, are grouped in oval heads 5 to 9 cm long. Native to North Africa, the Near East and Europe, it has naturalized in all temperate regions. Since ancient times, a variety has been used in the woolen industry for the hand finishing of woolen cloths. In the 19th century, woolen machines still included teasel combs. This use declined. In 1983 it was thought that this variety had disappeared, but some seeds were found at the last specialized seed company.
Properties: it is an aperitif. It could also help treat Lyme disease. For this, it is advisable to put the root in vodka and take 3 drops 3 times a day for a month, then continue 3 days a month for a year.
Location: Montbazin and the Mediterranean region

DRABA VERNA or spring drive, wild broccoli

Family: Brassicaceae
Edible plant once known to cure whitlow. Annual plant, more or less hairy.
Location: Dry and sandy places, throughout France. Europe, Asia, Africa and North America

ECHINOPS RITRO or blue sea urchin or azure ball

Family: asteraceae.
Perennial plant an average size of 80 cm. The erect white hairless or hairy stem bears leathery leaves. Flowering takes place between July and September. It grows spontaneously in uncultivated places in the south of France.

EPILOBIUM HIRSUTUM or spiky fireweed,
or large-flowered fireweed

Family: onagracées.
Plant often exceeding a meter, erect, hairy-bristly. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, denticulate. Flowers of a purple-pink, large (about 2 cm) funnel-shaped, always erect, in leafy clusters. Flowering June to September.
Location: all of Europe to the south of Sweden - Montbazin


Family: asteraceae.
Annual plant 20 to 60 cm high, its upright stem with applied hairs, short and soft on both sides. Lower leaves in a rosette, oblong, toothed. Stem leaves with a single visible vein. Flowers ligulate whitish in capitula.
Risk of confusion with: Conyza sumatrensis or Conyza canadensis
Location: Montbazin

ERYNGIUM CAMPESTRIS or country panicaut
or hundred-headed grass or donkey thistle

Family: apiécées.
It is a thorny perennial plant widely distributed in Europe. 50 to 60 cm high. it has leathery, serrated leaves. The persistent roots can be up to 5 m long. It is considered harmful when it mixes with forages. Its root is known to be a diuretic and an aperitif.

EUPHORBIA CYPARISSIAS or spurge small cypress

Family: euphorbiaceae.
Perennial herbaceous plant, glabrous 20 to 50 cm high, light green, with numerous, erect stems, bearing numerous sterile twigs under the umbels. The leaves of the fertile stems are narrowly linear, entire, with a slightly curved edge, those of the sterile twigs are narrow and thin. Flowering takes place between April and June. The fruit is a hairless capsule with chagrined hulls. The milky sap is poisonous and causes skin irritation.
Location: Montbazin - Europe

FICARIA VERNA HUDS or false buttercup

Family: Ranunculaceae.
Its name Ficaire comes from the Latin ficus (fig) because of its tubers which recall its shape. Commonly called buttercup, it is also given the name hemorrhoid herb, in reference to its healing properties against hemorrhoidal pathology. It was also formerly called small Celandine, small Scrophlaire or even herb with fic, because it was believed capable of fighting against warts and small skin lesions. Plant 10 to 25 cm, stem erect, erect, branched, glabrous. Alternate leaves. Yellow and regular flowers.
Location: Montbazin

FUMANA ERICOIDS or false heather

Family: cistaceae.
Other vernacular names Coris leaf fumana.
Perennial plant of 10 to 30 cm, woody that closely resembles the sunflower, their petals are however much smoother, less wrinkled and often less bright yellow. The leaves are very thin, all alternate and mostly hairy and glandular. Its branches are erect. Blooms from April to June.
Location Montbazin - Mediterranean region


Family: papaveraceae.
Fruit oval, flattened and pointed at the top. Flowers in short and very tight clusters, whitish with purple spots of the poppy family. Perennial.
Location: Mediterranean region and Montbazin

GALIUM CORRUDIFOLIUM VILL. or asparagus leaf bedstraw

Family: rubiaceae.
Asparagus leaf bedstraw could be called garrigue bedstraw, so typical of it. Perennial plant of 20 to 50 cm, glabrous, green, very shiny, blackening in herbarium. Flowers whitish, small in a narrow, oblong panicle. Flowering June-July.
Location: Montbazin - Eastern Spain - Italy - Switzerland - Northern Africa

GALIUM ULIGINOSUM or muddy bedstraw

Family: rubiaceae.
Perennial plant 20 to 80 cm, green, glabrous. Leaves in whorls 6-7. White flowers. Flowering June to August. This plant likes muddy or peaty, low acid soils. It is a hygrophilic species. She lives in full sun or partial shade.
Location - Astral and Boreal Europe to Iceland. Common in France except in the Mediterranean region where it is rare. Present in Montbazin

GALIUM VERUM or true bedstraw, or milk-yellow quail

Family: rubiaceae.
Perennial plant found in edges, hedges, brush, paths, meadows and slopes up to 1800 m. Likes dry to semi-dry soils. Plant with a robust quadrangular stem, 15 cm to 1 m long. yellow flowers with 4 cross petals. Properties: antispasmodic - astringent - diuretic.
Decoction: mix 2 tablespoons of the chopped flowering plant with 1 liter of water. Bring to a boil for 5 minutes. Let shoot. Place in a compress on the skin, it relieves pain, burns and acts as a light astringent.
Location: Montbazin

GENISTA SCORPIUS or scorpion broom or thorny broom

Family: fabaceae.
Shrub 1 to 2 m, very thorny, very branched, erect, with striated branches, glabrous, furnished with numerous lateral spines. Very simple leaves, briefly stalked, obovate or lanceolate. Lateral flowers, in bundles on the twigs. Blooms from April to June. Properties: stomachic which facilitate digestion.
Location: Montbazin - Balearic Islands - Spain - Portugal

GERANIUM MOU or soft-leaved geranium

Family: Geraniaceae.
Annual or perennial herbaceous plant, 5 to 25 cm high. Stems erect to erect, branched, hairy, usually reddish. Leaves basal rosette, leaves simple or opposite. Flowers purpurine or regular pink with five petals, pink, deeply toothed on the apex. Flowering from June to September. Likes dry rocky terrain, stony soils, ruins, shores, wastelands, courtyards.
Location: Montbazin - Europe - Western Asia - Northern Africa

GLADIOLUS COMMUNIS or common gladiolus

Family: iridaceae.
Gladiolus means "little sword" in Latin which refers to the shape of these leaves.Perennial plants 40 to 80 cm, glabrous, with globular bulbs which are widely used as ornamental plants in beds or for the production of cut flowers.
Location: Southern Europe - Western Asia - Montbazin

HELIANTHEMUM LEDIFOLIUM L. or ledum leaf helianthemum

Family: cistaceae.
Rare plant, the decree of May 9, 1994, relating to the list of protected plant species, indicates concerning the helianthemum leaf of ledum, that the conservation, destruction, cutting, mutilation, uprooting and sale are prohibited at all times. Annual plant, hairy from 10 to 20 cm, thick, erect or ascending. Lower leaves opposite, oblong, stipulate, upper leaves alternate, lanceolate, without stipule. Flowers pale yellow, speckled with golden yellow, in a loose raceme. Blooms from April to June.
Location: Montbazin


Family: orchidaceae.
Terrestrial orchid. It is sometimes called a goat-scent loroglossus. Robust plant that can reach 1 m. it has many greyish-green leaves that appear in autumn, persist in winter and then wilt when flowering. Greenish flower edged with purple, sepals and petals gathered in a helmet. Flowering from May to July. Species classified as "LC" Least concern.
Location: Mediterranean - Atlantic - Montbazin

formerly Barlia robertiana, giant orchis or orchis with long bracts.

Family: orchidaceae.
Inedible, it has been known since ancient times and is now on the European red list of the IUCN and that of orchids in mainland France. Blooms from January to April
Location: Montbazin

HORDEUM MURINUM or barley rats.
Other vernacular names: mouse barley, wall barley, rattail barley.
In Languedoc: espangassat

Family: poaceae.
Annual plant from 10 to 50 cm, green, with a fibrous root. Stems tufted, leafy to the top. Leaves flat, rough, softly hairy with glabrous sheaths. The roughness of the bristles of the inflorescence prevents the ear from sliding backwards. Flowering from May to August. Sometimes causes trouble in dogs' ears.
Location: Montbazin, Europe, Asia, Africa, America


Family: juncaceae.
Perennial plant of 40 to 80 cl, green with creeping rhizomes. It forms tufts of leafless stems. Brownish flowers placed above the upper third of the stem. Wet places throughout France. Flowering from June to August.
Location: Europe - Western and Boreal Asia - Africa and Boreal America - Australia - Montbazin

LAGURUS OVATUS or ovoid lagure.
Other names: big-pussy or hare-tail

Family: poaceae.
A fairly common annual herbaceous plant in Europe. It is sometimes cultivated as an ornamental plant for its silky and decorative inflorescences, useful for making dry bouquets. The dominant color of its flowers is white. Flowering from May to August.
Location: Mediterranean-Atlantic - Montbazin

LAMIUM HYBRIDUM or dead nettle hybrid red nettle

Family: lamiaceae.
Annual plant of 10 to 30 cm with ascending diffuse stems, quite robust, long bare under the flowers. Leaves all stalked, deeply incised- toothed, brownish green. Flowers purpurine, small. Flowering from March to October. It is found in ruderal shaded sites, such as orchards. Edible plant.
Location: Mediterranean rim - Central Europe - Montbazin

LOLIUM ITALICUM or Italian ryegrass

Family: poaceae.
Annual or biennial plant with erect stems of 60 to 1.2 m, forming large tufts. Very elongated leaves, with acute egg-laying, light green in color. The greenish flowers are grouped in spikes of 20 to 25 cm. Flowering from May to July. This plant is widely cultivated as a forage plant. Its roots can collect water and nutrients up to 1.70 m deep. It quickly improves the quality of poor and compacted soils.
Location: North Africa - Southern Europe - Western Asia - Montbazin

LOLIUM PERENNE or perennial tares,
or perennial ryegrass, common ryegrass

Family: poaceaes.
Perennial plant 20 to 60 cm, glabrous, with erect stem forming tufts. Leaves very elongated, hairless, first folded lengthwise through their entire length, then flat or almost smooth. Greenish flowers grouped in a spike. Flowering from May to October.
Location: Montbazin and Europe

LYTHRUM SALICARIA or purple loosestrife

Family: lythraceaes.
Herbaceous plant, often exceeding a meter. The hairy stem, reddish-brown in color, bears four prominent longitudinal lines. Leaves most often opposite, the upper sessile, quite narrow and lanceolate. Hermaphroditic flowers with a corolla formed of six free purple-pink petals with a slightly wrinkled appearance. Blooms all summer from June. The leaves are edible raw or cooked.
Location: Montbazin - almost all of Europe

MALVA DENDROMORPHA or lavatere, or tree mallow

Family: malvaceae.
Shrub with large purple or purplish flowers are quite similar to those of true mauves, although their color is often more vivid. Flowering from May to July. Use in herbal medicine to treat sprains. The leaves are soaked in hot water and applied as a poultice to the affected area. The seeds are edible. Lighthouse keepers propagated the plant as an alternative to toilet paper.
Location: Montbazin - Mediterranean - Atlantic

MEDICAGO LITTORALIS ROHDE EX LOISEL or alfalfa from the strikes

Family: fabaceae.
Annual or biennial plant from 10 to 30 cm, lying down, hairy or pubescent. Leaflets obovate wedge, toothed above. Flowers yellow, fairly small, 2-4 on peduncles. Flowering May to July.
Location: Montbazin - Mediterranean region

MEDICAGO POLYMORPHA l or spiky alfalfa, or many-fruited alfalfa

Family: fabaceae.
Common plant in places, and rare elsewhere. Annual to biennial, stem recumbent or ascending, hairless or more rarely with sparse small hairs. True leaves reminiscent of those of clover, with long thin petioles, simple, rounded. Leaflets toothed, sometimes with a brown or blackish spot towards their base. Yellow flowers rarely solitary, most often in groups of 2 to 8 on twigs. Blooms from April to July. Fruit, disc-shaped pod.
Location: Montbazin

MEDICAGO RIGUDULA L. or Gérard alfalfa

Family: fabaceae.
Annual or biennial plant from 10 to 50 cm, lying down, hairy or pubescent. Leaflets obovate wedge, dentate. Flowers yellow, 1-2, rarely 3-6 on awned peduncles. Flowering from May to July.
Location: Southern Europe - Western Asia - Northern Africa - Montbazin

MEDICAGO RUGOSA or rough alfalfa

Family: fabaceae.
Extremely rare plant among us. Herbaceous, prostrate or ascending annual plant of 15 to 30 cm. Leaf with obovate leaflets. Flowers yellow, small, with 2-4 flowers in a cluster. Flowering from April to June
Location: Montbazin - Sardinia - Italy Greece - Syria and Palestine - Tunisia and Algeria

OFFICINAL NASTURTIUM or watercress or watercress

Family: brassicaceae.
Vegetable, perennial plant that forms creeping shoots at the bottom of the water, then hollow stems that rise out of the water, it can even without any attachment to the ground. Emerging leaves are pinnate and fleshy, dark green, with a long petiole. The small white flowers appear in clusters. Flowering from June to September. Do not confuse with ground watercress which grows in dry places.
Properties: Contains a lot of iron, calcium as well as vitamin C, therefore fights anemia and scurvy. It contains an interesting amount of magnesium and zinc. Its sodium content is significantly higher than that of most fresh vegetables. Vitamin record: vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin B9, group B vitamin (except B12), vitamin E and vitamin K
Location: Montbazin - very large area of ​​Europe, Asia and North Africa

NEPETA CATARIA or nepeta catnip or catnip

Family: lamiaceae.
This species is also known as catnip or catmint. Indeed, it contains "nepetalactone" product which triggers sex pheromones in the brain of the cat. It is cultivated as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is a herbaceous, perennial plant of 10 to 30 cm. The leaves, entire vigorous and Himantoglossum robertianum formerly Barlia robertiana, giant orchis or orchis with long bracts. Inedible, it has been known since ancient times and is now on the European red list of the IUCN and that of orchids in mainland France. hairy, have an oval-shaped blade with an inverted heart and a crenellated edge. The flowers are white or lilac with some red spots. Properties promote perspiration, used against nervousness, colds, flu and fevers during the Middle Ages. Recommended to facilitate digestion, but also to prevent miscarriages or premature births. It was recommended in the “De Villis” chapter in the time of Charlemagne. Insect repellent.
Location: Montbazin - temperate zones of Europe and Asia

ODONTITES LUTEUS or yellow eyebright

Family: orobanchacées.
Annual plant of 10 to 50 cm, odorless, with branched stem bears linear leaves. The beautiful yellow flowers are all arranged on the same side, forming elongated spikes. Flowering August-October.
Location: Central and Southern Europe - Montbazin

ONOBRYCHIS VICIIFOLIA or cultivated sainfoin or alfalfa.
Also called cultivated esparcette or vetch leaves

Family: fabaceaes.
Erect herbaceous plant, once cultivated as fodder. Its root system is powerful. The plant is 50 to 70 cm tall. Pinnate leaves. Flowers appear in the axils of the upper leaves in long-stalked clusters. They are pink in color marked by purple veins.
Location: Montbazin

ONONIS MINUTISSIMA L or very thin bugrane

Family: fabaceae.
The very slender bugrane is a frequent plant on dry limestone, where it can grow in stone.
Perennial plant of 10 to 40 cm, ascending or erect, almost glabrous. The stems have a long leafless length when the plant is old. Leaves trifoliolate, striated, dentate. Its persistent calyx, giving the impression of long thorns, is characteristic. Flowers yellow, in oval racemes, equaling or exceeding the leaves. Flowering: April to September.
Location: Southern Europe, Spain, Algeria - Montbazin

ONOPORDUM ACANTHIUM or thistle with donkeys

Family: asteraceae.
It is a large biennial plant, reaching up to 2 m in height. The leaves are large, oblong, deeply divided. They are whitish green, very cottony especially on the underside. The purple flowers are united in globular heads. Flowering from June to September. The fruits, achenes, are topped with a feathery tassel of reddish hairs. The fleshy receptacle of the flower heads, rich in inulin, is edible like an artichoke.
Grazed by donkeys hence its common name. The vernacular name (common language) which may possibly designate other species. Wild acanthus, wild artichoke and the Scottish thistle it is emblematic of.
Location: Montbazin - Europe - Central and Western Asia

ONOPORDUM ILLYRICUM or Illyrian thistle

Family: asteraceae.
Other common names: Illyrian thistle - Illyrian donkey's pet
Plant that can reach up to 1.8 m. Thorny thistle native to southwestern Europe. Its narrow sessile leaves with large involucres resemble artichokes. Its purple flowers attract many insects.
Location: Mediterranean region - Montbazin

OPHRYS APIFERA or bee ophrys.
It is a European terrestrial orchid

Family: orchidaceae.
Ophrys means eyebrows. This species is found in full light or in partial shade, on calcareous soils, in lawns, scrublands, underbrush, rockeries, embankments, dunes at the edge of roads. It is pollinated by solitary bees and not by social bees. The plant attracts the insect by producing an odor that mimics the smell of a female bee. In addition, the lip behaves like a decoy which the male bee confuses with the female. Pollen transfer occurs during the ensuing pseudo copulation. If cross-fertilization has not taken place, Ophrys apifera resorts to self-fertilization.
Location: Montbazin - regions from the Atlantic to the Caucasus

OPHRYS ARANIFERA or spider ophrys

Family: orchidaceae.
Perennial plant of 10-35 cm, glabrous. Its leaves are basal. It has an important ground anchoring on which the aerial stems are born. Flowers from April to June. It is a "near threatened" plant.
Location Central and Southern Europe. Present in the Montbazin scrubland


Family: orchidaceae.
Perennial herbaceous plane 50 cm high, robust. It is a terrestrial orchid as opposed to other species. The underground part of the stem has two bulbous, rounded egg-shaped tubers. The aerial part of the stem is short but thin, simple and straightforward. A few radical oblong leaves. The flower is hermaphroditic and irregular. Flowering March - May.
Location: Montbazin - Mediterranean region

ORIGANUM VULGARE or common oregano

Family: lamiaceae.
Other name: Wild marjoram or perennial marjoram. The word "oregano" comes from ancient Greek, meaning "who likes the mountain". Perennial herbaceous plant 30 to 80 cm high. The red, square-sectioned stems are hairy with rounded, green, slightly toothed leaves. Their are pink or purple, and are grouped in small panicles. In France, oregano is used less than marjoram. They have the same condiment and medicinal uses. Oregano is very popular in tomato sauces and goes very well with basil, thyme, etc.
Properties: antiseptic, used in cases of colds or flu as an infusion. It also stimulates digestion also a remedy for spasmodic pains, fatigue and stress. Was known as a love filter. "A few leaves in the meal of the chosen one of his heart."
Location: Europe - Montbazin

OROBANCHE ALBA or thyme broomrape

Family: orobanchacées.
Parasitic herbaceous plant, without chlorophyll, 10 to 30 cm, hairy and glandular. Stem slender, reddish-yellow, slightly swollen at the base. Flowers 15 to 25 cm, erect-spreading, in a loose spike and sparse, with a clove odor. Blooms from April to August.
Location: Montbazin - Europe - Western Asia to the Himalayas - Algeria

PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM or sleeping poppy or wild poppy

Family: papaveraceae
Formerly the Papaver somniferum, was considered a magical plant associated with black magic.
Annual herbaceous plant whose stem can reach up to 1.5 m, it is also cultivated for ornamental or food purposes. The flowers can be white, but they are most often lilac (dirty pink), with a dark purple center. Properties: known for its sedative psychotropic properties. In the 12th century, Sainte Hildegarde indicates that "eating the seed brings sleep". Papaver varieties contain opiate alkaloids, the best known of which are codeine and morphine.
Location: Asian mountains, Europe and Montbazin

PARIETARIA JUDAICA or partisan of Judea

Family: urticaceae.
Its name "Parietaria" was given to it by Clusius, comes from the Latin "parietis" which means wall referring to the fact that it grows on walls. Other names: Recumbent Parietary, Spreading Parietary.
In the South, it is one of the most important allergenic sources. Edible herbaceous perennial, 10 to 40 cm long, with many reddish to reddish stems covered with non-stinging hairs. Deciduous, dark green foliage with paler veins covered with white shaggy hairs and a sticky lapel. Flowering May to October. The pollen that the flowers shed is really allergenic, it can cause asthma attacks.
Astringent, diuretic, emollient and vulnerary properties. Nowadays still prescribed in homeopathy.
Location: Montbazin

PARONYCHIA ARGENTEA or silver paronyque or tea of ​​the Arabs

Family: caryophyllaceae.
Perennial herbaceous annual, biennial or perennial, 20 to 30 cm, thick stump, stems lying-spreading, pubescent. Leaves opposite, ovate, almost glabrous. Usually small white or yellowish-white flowers often hidden by the bracts. Flowering May-June. May bloom from winter to summer.
Location: Southern Europe - Western Asia - Northern Africa - Montbazin

PARONYCHIA CAPITATA or paronyque in mind

Family: caryophyllaceae.
Perennial plant from 5 to 15 cm. Leaves elliptical or lanceolate. Flowers with 5 sepals.
Location: North Africa - Southern Europe - Montbazin

PETRORHAGIA PROLIFERA or tunic proliferates, or carnation proliferates

Family: caryophyllaceae.
Annual plant with taproot. Very common in Corsica, it is found in dry and stony places. With a height of 10 to 40 cm, it flowers from May to September.
Location: All of Europe

PHYSALIS FUSCOMACULATA or physalis viscosa

Family: Solanaceae.
Sticky ground cherry plant native to Virginia, considered a weed. Very rare in our region, it likes wasteland as well as cultivated areas such as vines.

PLANTAGO CORONOPUS or stag horn plantain.
Other names: crow's foot or ox horn plantain.
Its name comes from the shape of its leaves

Family: plantaginaceae.
Annual or biennial plant from 5 to 40 cm, pubescent or hairy. Leaves all spread out in a rosette. The dominant color of the flowers is yellow. Flowering mid-May - early October. Properties: already known in Antiquity, it was used as an astringent in metrorrhagia or to stimulate virginity in young girls who had lost it. Nowadays: diuretic, as plasters against ulcers, mouthwash for gargling or effective solution against conjunctivitis.
Food: leaves of the first year used as a vegetable, this is called a "forgotten vegetable"
Ecological: it is a "witness" plant, when there is only him left on a dune, means that it will very quickly become mobile again, access must be immediately prohibited.
Location: Central and Southern Europe, Western Asia, Northern Africa, Montbazin

POA TRIVIALIS or common bluegrass

Family: poaceaes.
Perennial herbaceous plant of 40 to 90 cm. Fairly fine and soft foliage, it likes shade and cool soils. It retains a beautiful appearance during the winter. On the other hand, it is very sensitive to drought. Its quality is its quick installation.
Location: Montbazin

POLYPODIUM INTERJECTUM or intermediate polypod

Dryopteridaceae polypodiaceae family.
He likes rock gardens near oak trees. It is said to be intermediate because it is located between the common polypod and the southern polypod.
Location: present in Montbazin


Family: portulacaceae.
Annual plant, branchy, lying down, spanning 10 to 30 cm. Its stems are lying or erect, most often reddish. Leaves obovate-oblong, fleshy. The yellow, sessile flowers are solitary or clustered in the axils and at the top of the twigs. Purslane is a characteristic bio-indicator of soils: so lacking in air, so lacking in calcium, so little water-fixing power, so very dry in summer. Purslane is a low energy food, providing few calories. Its leaf is very rich in trace elements: potassium, magnesium and calcium. Also much richer in vitamin C than apple. The concentration of B vitamins is also higher than in most fruits. Excellent country salad.
Location: All of France - Montbazin

POTENTILLA NEUMANNIA or spring cinquefoil

Family: rosaceaes.
Perennial plant 10 to 30 cm high, carpeted, erect, herbaceous, sometimes shrub. Leaves digitate, tarnished or pinnate. Flowers receptacle, yellow. Flowers for long periods from May to September. Very ornamental plant with its foliage and flowers. Use in borders, permanent beds or rock gardens, always in full sun.
Location: Montbazin

RANONCULUS BULBOSUS or bulbous buttercup

Family: ranunculaceaes.
Perennial herbaceous plant, short, swollen in a rounded bulb, with fibrous roots. Stem 20 to 60 cm, erect or ascending, hairy. Leaves oval in their periphery, incised-toothed. Yellow flowers, peculiarities of sepals are hairy, reflected towards the floral peduncle. Blooms from April to July.
Location: Central and northern Europe - Montbazin

RAPISTRUM RUGOSUM or rough rapistre

Hairy herbaceous plant of 30 to 60 cm with numerous branches. Lower leaves petiolate lyreous, the upper ones sessile lanceolate, dentate. Pale yellow flowers with 4 petals and 4 erect sepals, 2 of which are hunchbacked at the base.
Location: Europe - Montbazin

RESEDA PHYTEUMA or reseda rapunzel

Family: resedaceae.
Annual or biennial, fairly low herbaceous plant of 10 to 30 cm, frequently branched at the base, with hairy stem. The leaves are generally entire, with a few irregularly lobed leaves. Very small flowers with indented white petals surrounding numerous stamens. Blooms from April to September. The ancients preciously hid their little corners to answer them.
Location: Montbazin- Mediterranean region

ROSTRARIA CRISTATA or crested keurelie

Family: poaceae.
Annual plant from 10 to 50 cm, with fibrous root, forms small tufts. Leaves 1 to 3 mm wide, flat, hairy. Flowering from May to July. Paths and wasteland.
Location: Montbazin - Mediterranean region

RUMEX ACETOSELLA or small sorrel, or barberry in Acadian French

Family: polygonaceae.
Generally considered to be a good indicator of siliceous or acidic soil, hence poor soil. It can grow in fields, but also in calcareous soils where it can be competed with by clover. It can be poisonous to horses and sheep.
Location: Montbazin - temperate regions all over the world


Family: polygonaceae.
Annual plant of 5 to 30 cm, glabrous and often reddish, with slender root. Leaves small, stalked, oval. Flowers hermaphrodite, in whorls of 2-3, in simple racemes. Blooms from April to September.
Location: Montbazin - Mediterranean region


Family: caryophyllaceae.
Also called soap, or soap grass. Plant with robust stems 40 to 80 cm high. Blooms from June to October. The decoction applied to the face effectively combats skin diseases. Has purifying and deworming properties. Fight against tonsillitis and canker sores.
Location: Montbazin

SCABIOSA SUCCISA or Succisa pratensis,
or spring scabious, or Mors-du-Diable

Family: dipsacaceae.
Perennial plant from 30 cm to 1 m in height. Flowering from July to October.
Location near and wet woods throughout France. Present in Montbazin

SCANDIX PECTEN-VENERIS or scandix comb of Venus

Family: apiaceaaes.
Annual herbaceous plant whose leaves are cut several times into thin strips. Height 10 to 30 cm and bloom from February to August.
Location: rather southern, present in Montbazin

SCOLYMUS HISPANICUS or scolyme from Spain,
also called Spanish thistle

Family: asteraceae.
Plant that does not go unnoticed as much by its size as by its color or its quills. Its roots are edible.
Location: Mediterranean species of low altitude. Montbazin

SCORPIURUS SUBVILLOSUS or hairy scorpiure chenillette.

Family: fabaceaes.
She believes in crops, wasteland and on roadsides. The fruits are prickly bumpy and irregularly coiled in spirals. Height from 10 to 50 cm. Flowering March to June.
South of France location

SCORZONERA LACINIATA or scorsonere or salsify

Family: asteraceae.
Annual or semi-annual plant. Found on fallow crops. Light yellow flowers in sizes of 10 to 30 cm bloom from June to August. Edible leaves and roots.
Location France, protected in Lorraine and Aquitaine. Montbazin

SCROPHULARIA PEREGRINA or traveling figwort

Family: scrophulariaceae.
Plant found in cool, grassy places. The dark red flowers are in terminal leafy panicles of about 8 mm. Blooms from April to July. It is an infrequent plant without being rare.
Location South of France and the Mediterranean. Close to maritime influence. Present in Montbazin

SECURIGERA VARIA or CORONILLA VARIA L. or variegated coronilla

Family: fabaceae.
Low growing perennial herbaceous plant. She is originally from Asia and Europe. It is used to fight against erosion. Flowering period June to September, the dominant color of its flowers is blue, white, pink.
Location: European noon - Montbazin

SEDUM ALBUM or white stonecrop

Family: crassulaceae.
Small succulent plant of 5 to 20 cm with alternate leaves, of oval section. The dominant color of its flowers is white. Its flowering period is from July to September. It is with the non-acrid juice of its flowers that we prepare an ointment called "populeum" with healing properties. Green and red in color outside the flowering period.
Location: Montbazin - Central and Mediterranean Europe - Greece - North Africa - Asia Minor

SHERARDIA ARVENSIS or field rubella

Family: rubiaceae.
Annual plant 20 to 40 cm, more or less lying down, hairy. Leaves elliptical, in whorls of 4 or 6. The flowers are very small, mauve, in heads and surrounded by leafy bracts. Blooms from April to September.
Location: Montbazin- Europe - North Africa - Southeast Asia

SIDERITIS ROMANA or Rome crapaudine, or Rome tea

Family: lamiaceae.
Annual or perennial herbaceous plant or even hairy or woolly sub-shrubs. Leaves oval-oblong, green, hairy, with strong teeth and quite numerous. The small yellow, white, purple or purplish flowers are grouped in terminal spikes bloom from May to August. Use as tea.
Location: Mediterranean region - Montbazin

SILENE NUTANS or silenus leaning

Family: caryophyllaceae.
Plant of 20 to 50 cm with white flowers and scalloped petals. Flowering from July to August. The flower only opens in the evening and at night.
Location: in France, threatened in Nord Pas de Calais, appears on the red list of threatened taxa.
Present in Montbazin

SILYBUM MARIANUM or milk thistle

Family: asteraceae.
The qualifier marianum is linked to the Virgin Mary. Legend has it that she, traveling from Judea to Egypt to escape Herod, hid the baby Jesus under a thicket of thistles, where she breastfed him. A few drops of its milk fell on the leaves, hence the characteristic white veins of this species and one of its lactation-promoting properties.
Biennial, robust plant, large in size most often exceeding 1 m, with non-winged stem. Its large pale green leaves are edged with thorny teeth with a very sharp yellow tip. All of them have numerous white veins on the obverse, giving the impression that the leaf is smeared with milk. Flowering in late spring. Properties: Ancient Greeks used it to treat liver and biliary disorders. In the Middle Ages, it was said that Mary's thistle chased away melancholy (also called black bile). In the 19th century, Americans used it to treat varicose veins, menstrual disorders and congestion of the liver. It is also used against dyspepsia.
Culinary use: the leaves are prepared like spinach, after removing the thorns, young shoots like asparagus, flower buds like artichokes and roasted seeds like coffee.
Location: submediterranean perennial wastelands - Montbazin

SOLANUM DULCAMARA or bittersweet nightshade

Family: Solanaceae.
Twirling plant with woody stems can reach 3.5 m in length, it rises above the ground with the help of a support. Its twigs allow it to cling to the trees and shrubs around it, alternate, stalked leaves. Flowering extends over a long period of time, it is possible to observe on the same plant purple flowers with yellow stamens and young fruits ranging from green to orange or even red. The fruits are highly toxic to mammals, but the toxicity may subside with the end of the season, allowing some birds to feed on the last fruits still hanging in winter.
Location: throughout France, mentioned in Europe from the 13th century - Montbazin

SOLANUM NIGRUM or nightshade kills dog, or black nightshade.
Many vernacular names: Moorish grass, morette, nightshade, amourette, devil's tomato, magicians' grass, wolfberry, scab grass, garden blueberry

Family: Solanaceae.
In this family are also found the potato, the eggplant, the tomato and the bittersweet. Formerly Solanum was considered a plant associated with black magic. Annual plant with very variable shapes from 10 to 60 cm, green, glabrous or not very hairy, barely fragrant. Stem and branches erect or diffuse. Dark green leaves, oval, more or less sinuous or toothed. White flowers, small.Flowering from June to September.
Location: Montbazin - all of Europe

SONCHUS ARVENSIS or sow thistle

Family A: asteraceae.
Perennial herbaceous plant with erect habit that can reach 50 cm to 1.5 m. It is propagated mainly by vegetative means (rhizomes). The lower leaves are arranged in a rosette. They are entire, notched lobed, with the teeth directed towards the base, thorny but not prickly, glabrous. The yellow flowers are united in few, long-stalked heads. The fruit is a dark brown “cypsela”. The whole plant contains a milky latex which drains when the stem or leaves are broken. This character avoids any possible confusion with the thistle. You can eat the leaves and roots of this plant. The leaves should be harvested young and can be prepared either raw or cooked, like spinach. They taste slightly bitter and it is best to remove the thorns. The leaves contain mineral salts and are rich in vitamin C. Their protein content is 2% of the dry weight. You can also eat the stems cooked like asparagus. The roasted roots were used as a coffee substitute.
Location: Montbazin - Temperate regions of Eurasia

or prickly or prickly sow thistle

Family: asteraceae.
Annual plant with oblong, sinuous-toothed leaves. Yellow flowers. Flowering from June to October.
Location: the entire surface of the globe

SONCHUS TENERRIMUS or delicate sow thistle

Family: asteraceae.
Biennial or perennial plant with a stem of 20 to 40 cm, erect, glabrous, very branchy from the base, with spreading or diffuse branches. Thin, very soft leaves, embracing the stem by two very acute atria. Its flowers are yellow. Blooms from April to August. Relatively rare plant.
Location: Portugal - Spain - Italy - Croatia - Crete - Algeria - Montbazin

SORGHUM HALEPENSE or Aleppo sorghum

Family: poaceaes.
Perennial plant from 50 to 100 cm with a creeping stump. Flowering from July to September. Found in sandy midday places.
Location in southern Europe. Montbazin

STELLARIA HOLOSTEA or stellar holostée

Family: caryophyllaceae.
Plant that grows on embankments in spring. Also called bird's tongue. Evergreen foliage. Flowering from March to June. Height from 30 to 60 cm.
Location: Europe, Asia, Africa

TARAXACUM FASCIATUM or lion tooth dandelion.
The name "dandelion" is attested from the 15th century
it comes from the diuretic properties of the plant.

Family: asteraceae
It is certainly the most famous country plant. Perennial, in full sun or partial shade, with a fleshy root that penetrates deeply into the soil (more than 50 cm), which allows it to withstand the intense frost in cold regions. The leaves very rich in vitamin C and Beta-carotene with antioxidant effects, the flowers and the roots are also consumed. Very toothed oblong leaves picked from March to April, and yellow flowers from May to August. Other properties: diuretic, tonic and stimulates the liver, laxative, anti-toxic, helps digest, plays a preventive role in gallstones. Its juice has effects against obesity, gout, hypertension, arteriosclerosis….
In him everything is good to eat: for herbal teas, use the whole dried plant. Its young leaves can be used in salads with croutons, eggs, pieces of cheese. Cooked they are eaten like spinach. Flower buds like asparagus… ..
Dandelion lemonade :
1 kg of dandelion flowers picked at midday, 2 dl of water, the zest of 2 lemons, squeezed orange juice, 700 g of brown sugar. Wash, add water, lemon zest and brown sugar. Boil the whole for 15 minutes. Leave to infuse for 12 hours. Filter and bottle.
Location: Mediterranean rim - Montbazin

TEUCRIUM CHAMAEDRYS or small oak germander

Family: lamiaceae.
Rather low perennial herbaceous plant. Small leaves with a toothed edge. Pink colored flowers. Its abundant flowering from June to October makes it a good ground cover. Properties: dried flowering tops are antiseptics, febrifuges, stomachics, tonics, vulnerabilities. Very used by the old ones in annual cure.
Following acute cytolytic hepatitis during a slimming diet with a fatal case (use of the plant in powder form), this plant has been banned from pharmaceutical or other preparation since May 1992: Order of May 12, 1992 published in JORF no. ° 120 of 23 May 1992 page 7008, prohibiting the execution and delivery of magistral preparations or other preparations based on Germandrée-Petit-Chêne.
Location: Mediterranean region and Montbazin

TEUCRIUM POLIUM or greyish-white germander

Family: lamiaceae.
Perennial plant of 10 to 30 cm with woody, ascending, white-tomentose stem. Leaves sessile, crenate at the top, curled at the edges. Flowers white, rarely purpurine, rather large, globular or ovoid. Flowering: May to August. The leaves are used in cooking and medicine.
Properties: stomachic, hypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhea, antispasmodic. However, care must be taken with its use, due to its known toxicity to the liver and kidneys.
Location: Mediterranean region and Montbazin

TORDYLIUM REPENS or high tordyl

Family: apiaceaaes.
Grows in dry, sunny places, vineyards and wasteland. Its height is 30 to 80 cm bristling with scabrous hairs. Flowering from June to August.
Location: Europe and southern Mediterranean

TRAGOPOGON PORRIFOLIUM leek leaf salsify, white salsify, southern salsify

Family: Asteraceae.
Edible plant with yellow flowers, reaching 20 cm in height.
The young leaves and the root are eaten cooked.
Young, it can be confused with scorzonera laciniata.
Location: in all temperate regions

TRIFOLIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM or narrow leaf clover

Family: fabaceae.
It grows at the end of spring especially in our Mediterranean regions, quite rare in other regions. It is recognized by its elongated inflorescence similar to an ear of grasses, 10 to 40 cm high. Flowering May July.
Location: Southern Europe and Northern Africa

TRIFOLIUM ARVENSE or hare's foot clover

Family: fabaceae.
Common clover throughout Europe. Pinkish-white in color, its inflorescence is characterized by silky hairs with which the calyxes are provided. Found in fields or sandy places. Its height from 5 to 40 cm. Flowering from May to October.
Location: present in Montbazin

TRIFOLIUM CAMPESTRE or lying clover, field clover

Family: fabaceae.
Plant very widely distributed in Western Europe. Adventitious of many cultures. Flowering from May to September. Height from 10 to 30 cm. Yellow or pink flowers grouped in globular, pedunculated heads.
Location: grows both on acidic and basic soils

TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE or meadow clover, or purple clover

Family: fabaceae.
Is the origin of forage varieties of cultivated red clover. It is a perennial plant, 5 to 50 cm tall. The flowers are pink at the top. Its flowering lasts from May to September and over a longer period in the south of France. You can grind the seeds to make flour. Used against coughs and against diarrhea. Is used as a green manure.
Location: common throughout France

TRIFOLIUM REPENS or white clover

Family: fabaceae.
Used as fodder, it is also a weed of cultivated land and gardens. This plant grows up to an altitude of 2750 m and adapts to all types of soil. The stems reach 10 to 40 cm. Note the rare four-leaf shape sought by the ancients. The flowering plant contains cyanides which can adversely affect the health of cattle.
Location in Europe and Asia


Family: asteraceae.
Consists of two species. Dalechampii or picroides. Essentially Mediterranean, which owes their name to their fruit. Plant close to dandelions.
Location: Mediterranean rim

VALERIANELLA DISCOIDEA or valerian doucette discoid. Chewed up

Family: caprifoliaceae.
Mediterranean species that grows in the fields. The leaves are cut into strips. The flowers are pinkish or lilac blooming from April to July. Height from 10 to 30 cm.
Location: This lamb's lettuce is hardly eaten due to the limited abundance of its leaves. Mediterranean regions

VALERIANELLA PUMILA or dwarf doucette

Family: caprifoliaceae.
Annual plant of 20 to 40 cm with pink flowers with flat heads. The genus Valerianella comprises around 50 species of plants called "chews or doucettes". Flowering from May to June. Prefers cooler soils.
Location: southern regions


Family: scrofulariaceae.
Biennial plant of 40 to 1 m, covered with white, cottony down, deciduous with robust and rounded stem. Leaves thick, white-cottony, crenate or dentate-incised oval or elliptical. Yellow flowers with purple throat, large, in a long spike interrupted at the base.
Location: Southern Europe - Montbazin

VERBASCUM CHAIXII or mullein of chaix

Family: scrofulariaceae.
Perennial plant of 40 to 1 m, erect, not very robust stem, covered with silvery hairs. Dark green leaves, crenate or toothed-incised. Yellow flowers with purple throat, quite small. Flowering from June to September. Flower properties: emollient, expectorant, softening, included in the preparation of herbal teas, decoctions and infusions. The flowers after harvest are dried in protection from air and light. In ancient times, they were used against eye inflammation.
Location: Montbazin - Central and Southern Europe

VICIA VILLOSA or hairy vetch or Russian

Family: fabaceae.
It is a leguminous annual plant cultivated as a forage plant. Relatively imposing, it can climb up to 2 m. Fairly common in southern Europe. The stems are covered with hairs and the fruit is an elongated, hairy pod.
Localization present in Montbazin

VINCA MAJOR or periwinkle

Family: gentianales.
Evergreen plant with a sarmentous base on which creeping stems develop forming masses on the ground measuring between 2 and 5 m in diameter and 50 to 70 cm long, dark green in color. The flowers, purple and 3 to 5 cm in diameter, are visible from early spring until fall. It is a common plant in temperate zone gardens for its evergreen foliage, ground cover, spring and summer flowers.
Location: Southern Europe - Montbazin

VIOLA SYLVESTRIS or wood violet

Family: violacéaes.
The dominant color of the flowers is blue The flowering period is from March to June. The flower develops at the end of a peduncle that starts from a branch of the main stem. The leaf is heart-shaped. Depending on the positioning of the petals are called violets or pansies. Used mainly for ornamental purposes. It calms coughs and activates perspiration. Brings a little color to a nice green salad.
Location: Europe up to 1500 m altitude. Present in Montbazin

XANTHIUM SPINOSUM or thorny lampourde

Family: asteraceae.
Plant of South American origin, introduced in the South in the 17th century. It is quite common in vacant lots, hedges and roadsides. Annual plant 30 to 80 cm, with a branchy stem from the base. The leaves are green above, white below, elongated, entire or lobed. Flowering July to September.
Location: Southern Europe - Caucasus - Northern Africa - Montbazin

Index of common names of Montbazin plants

dog bentgrass AGROSTIS CANINA
garlic with many flowers ALLIUM POLYANTHUM
whole leaf andryale ANDRYALA INTEGRIFOLIA
aristolochia with round leaves ARISTOLOCHIA ROTUNDA
annual mugwort ARTEMISIA ANNUA
arum from Italy ARUM ITALICUM
astragalus of Montpellier ASTRAGALUS MONSPESSULANUS
star astragalus ASTRAGALUS STELLA
sterile oats AVENA STERILIS

black horehound BALLOTA NIGRA
maritime chard or perry BETA VULGARIS SUBSP. MARITIMA
branching brachiopod BRACHYPODIUM RETUSUM
spikelet bromegrass BROMUS LANCEOLATUS
red bromine BROMUS RUBENS
bugle Yvette AJUGA IVA
Azure buglossus from Italy ANCHUSA AZUREA
very thin bugrane ONONIS MINUTISSIMA L
faux arugula bunias BUNIAS ERUCAGO

milk-yellow quail GALIUM VERUM
calament nepeta CALAMINTHA NEPETA
Montpellier camphorine CAMPHOROSMA MONSPELIACA
highbush carline CARLINA CORYMBOSA
wild carrot DAUCUS CAROTA
woolly safflower CARTHAMUS LANATUS
centaury of the solstice CENTAUREE SOLSTITIALIS
tight-flowered thistle CARDUUS PYCNOCEPHALUS L.
white spotted thistle CIRSIUM MACULATUM
false acanthus thistle CARDUUS ACANTHOIDES L.
lamb's-quarters CHENOPODIUM ALBUM
houndstooth quackgrass CYNODON DACTYLON
rush-stem chondril CHONDRILLA JUNCEA L.
cirse with spotted leaves CIRSIUM MACULATUM
common cirse lanceolate CIRSIM VULGARE
cirse des vignes CIRSIUM ARVENSE
variegated coronilla SECURIGERA VARIA
crapaudine of Rome SIDERITIS ROMANA
watercress or watercress NASTURTIUM OFFICINALE

agglomerated dactyl DACTYLIS GLOMERATA
cuddly cocksfoot DACTYLIS GLOMERATA
spring drive DRABA VERNA

oval egelope AEGILOPS OVATA
spiky willowherb EPILOBIUM HIRSUTUM
large-flowered fireweed EPILOBIUM HIRSUTUM
kinky erigeron ERIGERON CRISPUS
sneezes dogs AGROSTIS CANINA
spurge small cypress EUPHORBIA CYPARISSIAS
yellow eyebright ODONTITES LUTEUS

false heather FUMANA ERICOIDS
false buttercup FICARIA VERNA HUDS
fumitory on the cob FUMARIA SPICATA

asparagus leaf bedstraw GALIUM CORRUDIFOLIUM VILL.
true gaillet GALIUM VERUM
scorpion broom GENISTA SCORPIUS
soft-leaved geranium GERANIUM MOU
germander grayish white TEUCRIUM POLIUM
germandered small-oak TEUCRIUM CHAMAEDRYS
common gladiolus GLADIOLUS COMMUNIS
big-pussy or tail-lip LAGURUS OVATUS
ALTHAEA CANNABINA faux hemp marshmallow

helianthemum with ledum leaf HELIANTHEMUM LEDIFOLIUM L.
magicians weed SOLANUM NIGRUM
Moorish grass SOLANUM NIGRUM

perennial ryegrass LOLIUM PERENNE
crested keurelie ROSTRARIA CRISTATA

ovoid lagure LAGURUS OVATUS
delicate sow thistle SONCHUS TENERRIMUS
field sow thistle SONCHUS ARVENSIS
spiny or prickly sow thistle SONCHUS ASPER L.
hybrid red nettle cutter LAMIUM HYBRIDUM
thorny lantern XANTHIUM SPINOSUM
alfalfa with many fruits MEDICAGO POLYMORPHA l
alfalfa from Gérard MEDICAGO RIGUDULA L.

mullein of chaix VERBASCUM CHAIXII
bittersweet nightshade SOLANUM DULCAMARA
nightshade kills dog, black nightshade, nightshade SOLANUM NIGRUM
m ors-du-Diable SCABIOSA SUCCISA
garden blueberry SOLANUM NIGRUM

nepeta catnip NEPETA CATARIA

carnation proliferates PETRORHAGIA PROLIFERA
ophrys spider OPHRYS ARANIFERA
orchis with long bracts HIMANTOGLOSSUM ROBERTIANUM
rat barley, mouse barley, wall barley, rattail barley HORDEUM MURINUM
common oregano ORIGANUM VULGARE
Orobanche thyme OROBANCHE ALBA
white stonecrop SEDUM ALBUM
blue sea urchin ECHINOPS RITRO

silver paronyque PARONYCHIA ARGENTEA
paronyque at the head PARONYCHIA CAPITATA
common bluegrass POA TRIVIALIS
sleeping poppy or wild poppy PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM
periwinkle VINCA MAJOR
small sorrel RUMEX ACETOSA
small centaurée maritime CENTAURIUM MARITIMUM
lion's tooth dandelion TARAXACUM FASCIATUM
PLANTAGO CORONOPUS stag horn plantain
common p olypodium POLYPODIUM VULGARE
spring cinquefoil POTENTILLA NEUMANNIA

rough rapistre RAPISTRUM RUGOSUM
Perennial ryegrass, common ryegrass LOLIUM PERENNE
Italian ryegrass LOLIUM ITALICUM
bulbous buttercup RANONCULUS BULBOSUS
reseda rapunzel RESEDA PHYTEUMA
cattail reed ARUNDO DONAX

sainfoin cultivated ONOBRYCHIS VICIIFOLIA
purple loosestrife LYTHRUM SALICARIA
leek leaf salsify, white salsify, southern salsify TRAGOPOGON PORRIFOLIUM
spring scabious SCABIOSA SUCCISA
scandix comb of Venus SCANDIX PECTEN-VENERIS
scolyme from Spain SCOLYMUS HISPANICUS
hairy scorpiure caterpillar SCORPIURUS SUBVILLOSUS
silenus leaning SILENE NUTANS
stellate holostée STELLARIA HOLOSTEA
s uccisa pratensis SCABIOSA SUCCISA

devil's tomato SOLANUM NIGRUM
lying clover, field clover TRIFOLIUM CAMPESTRE
meadow clover or purple clover TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE
tunic proliferates PETRORHAGIA PROLIFERA

valerian discoid doucette VALERIANELLA DISCOIDEA
hairy or Russian vetch VICIA VILLOSA
barberry in Acadian French RUMEX ACETOSA

No matter the weather, as long as it's dry!

Resistant, stonecrop, another name for sedum, can be grown almost everywhere in France, in both hot and cold climates. It endures frost and bad weather as well as heat waves and drought. Sun exposure is essential, as is well-drained soil. Rapidly growing, sedum thrives in heat and even in arid conditions. The soil should be porous, dry, rather sandy. Any excess moisture will be fatal to the sedum.

The Oscope Garden, all the flora and fauna of our parks and gardens

Indian lilacLagerstroemia indica

ID card :

Synonym: Summer lilac,
Nicknames: Crepe Flower Tree or Muslin Flower Tree.
Indian lilacs are trees of the family of Lythraceae.
There are very many hybrids resulting from the crossing of Lagerstroemia indica originally from China, and Lagerstroemia speciosa from India and Burma.
Height: These bushy shrubs are 2 to 8 m high depending on the cultivar, or even less for the dwarf varieties.
Foliage: Deciduous dark green leaves which take on flamboyant colors - from purple to orange-red - in autumn.
Flowering: From July to September in racemes of 10 to 20 cm long of small pink, purple or white flowers, crumpled and wavy.
Fruits: Capsules barely one centimeter in diameter, blackish containing a multitude of small, poisonous winged seeds.
Winter interest: In winter, this elegant-looking shrub remains decorative with its bark peeling off in irregular spots, marbled with soft, pinkish and creamy hues.
Hardiness: Up to -15 ° C once properly installed.

Culture sheet:

Use: Some small cultivars are interesting for small gardens and container culture.
Planting: The ideal period to plant an Indian lilac is in autumn (in October-November), in the regions further north, prefer to install them in March-April.
Exposure: They appreciate hot situations and full sun to fully flower.
Soil: All rich, cool, well-drained soils. These shrubs are drought tolerant once installed.

  • These shrubs usually have a bushy, clump-like growth habit, but they can easily be stemmed from a suitable pruning.
  • Prune this shrub annually when it begins to bud in February-March - this will encourage flowering or help rejuvenate an old subject. As with most shrubs, prune branches that cross, remove dead branches, thin out the center of the shrub to promote sun penetration and therefore flowering. Remove suckers that grow at the base of the shrub,

  • Each year, add organic fertilizer (compost, crushed horn or well-decomposed manure).
  • Water regularly for 2 years after planting your shrubs in the ground. For those in vats, fertilizer and watering are of course essential and should be more frequent than in the ground.
  • Disease: Indian lilacs are susceptible to powdery mildew.

  • By seed (but you will have to wait 3 to 5 years to see the first flowering).
  • By cuttings from hardened twigs which is a safer and more efficient method:
    • In August cut off the ends of young, non-flowering side branches 15 to 20 cm long,
    • Remove a few leaves from the base and the end.
    • Plant it cuttings in a mixture of sand and peat in equal parts, under frame, then wait until the end of winter.
    • In the spring, replant your cuttings in a sheltered place, watering regularly throughout the summer.
    • Grow your cuttings like this for a year before planting your young Lagerstroemia in their final place.

Other colors of blooms. mauve, pinkish white, light pink, fuchsia.

Vegetables to discover (3 of 3): parsnip with Jerusalem artichoke

That's it, you have the gardening bug and you want to further explore the wonderful world of growing vegetables. You are in the right place.

In this last text of a series of three, I present to you parsnip, sweet potato, rhubarb, arugula, soybean edamame, tomatillo, tetragon and Jerusalem artichoke,

If you haven't read the other two articles, here they are: # 1 and # 2.

For each of the vegetables, the best places to find the seeds are indicated by numbers. These refer to the Quebec seed suppliers presented at the end of this article.


Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) is a close relative of the carrot. Like the latter, it is cultivated for its root and it requires very good soil preparation. But the comparison ends when it comes to growth and productivity. In fact, parsnips need a long period of growth to reach maturity, so they are less suited to colder regions. In addition, it requires four times more space in the garden than the carrot, so it is less productive than the latter for the same area.

The parsnip is sown in the ground 2 to 3 weeks before the last frost. Parsnip seeds have a short lifespan and their germination rate is never 100%. For this reason, it is better to use very fresh seeds and do a dense sowing (every 4 cm) then, thin out every 8 to 12 cm. Germination is very slow, it can take up to three weeks. During this period, the soil should be kept moist.

Parsnip ripens 120 to 140 days after sowing. Very cold hardy, it can be harvested very late and even survive winter if the garden has good snow cover.

Be careful, the leaves of parsnip contain furanocoumarins, toxic compounds that can cause skin irritation. For this reason, it is best to wear gloves when harvesting.

You will find parsnip seeds here: 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7


Sweet potato (Ipomea batata) also called sweet potato is a perennial vegetable plant grown as an annual. It is not a close relative of the potato (potato) even if like the latter, we eat its tubers. The potato is a cold climate plant, while the sweet potato, native to tropical regions, requires a lot of heat to reach maturity.

One of the secrets of growing the sweet potato crop is the choice of cultivar. The latter must be adapted to the short growing season in Quebec. The second secret concerns the use of a black geotextile to cover the ground in order to increase the temperature. Finally, in colder regions, tunnel or greenhouse cultivation is essential.

The sweet potato is ideally grown by transplanting rooted cuttings two weeks before the last frost into the ground.

The sweet potato is mature 100 to 140 days after transplanting the cuttings. The leaves of the sweet potato are also edible.

You will find sweet potato cuttings in a few garden centers. Otherwise, it is possible to use sweet potato tubers in some health food stores (make sure they are sweet potatoes produced in Quebec) to make cuttings indoors during the winter. .


Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a must in Quebec gardens. It is a hardy perennial up to zone 2 that is cultivated in order to consume the petioles of the leaves which have a tangy taste. Once installed, rhubarb will look great both in a corner of the vegetable garden and in an edible landscaping, for many years to come.

Rhubarb is ideally grown by transplanting young plants. This way, the harvest can begin two years later. But if you are willing to wait up to four years, you can proceed with a seedling started indoors or directly in the garden.

Be careful, the leaves (the leaf blades in fact) of rhubarb are poisonous. They should not be eaten or put in the compost. However, it is possible to make them an insect repellent or simply place them at the base of the plants when harvesting.

You can find rhubarb plants at your local garden center and rhubarb seeds here: 2, 3, 4 and 8


Arugula with white flowers

The most commonly cultivated arugula is the white-flowered arugula (Eruca sativa) or vegetable arugula. But we also find the arugula with yellow flowers (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) also called narrow-leaf arugula or wild arugula. The latter behaves like a perennial when there is sufficient snow cover to protect it.

Arugula appreciates the cool conditions of spring and fall. In summer, it is best to grow it in a partially shaded section of the garden. Otherwise, heat and sun help cause it to go to seed.

In the spring, the arugula is sown in the ground as soon as the soil can be worked. For a fall harvest, you can also do a late summer sowing 4 to 6 weeks before the first frost.

Arugula is mature 30 to 45 days after sowing. Harvesting the leaves gradually from the bottom helps stimulate new leaf production.

You will find arugula seeds here: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8

Soy edamame

Edamame soy (Wisteria max. ) is a plant of the Fabaceae family whose seeds are eaten which have a slight nutty taste. Edamame soybean (pronounced "edamame") should be known because it is easy to grow and is a valuable source of plant protein in our diet.

Edamame soybeans are grown by sowing the seeds in the ground every 15 to 20 cm once the risk of frost has passed. Depending on the variety, the plant reaches 40 to 60 cm in height.

Pods are ready for harvest 70-85 days after sowing. They are picked regularly while they are still green and the seeds are well developed. The pods should be steamed or boiled in water. The seeds are then easily extracted by pressing lightly on the pods.

You will find edamame soybean seeds here: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8


The tetragon (Tetragonia tetragonioides) also called "New Zealand spinach" is a pretty creeping plant whose fleshy triangular leaves are eaten. It is a good alternative to spinach, as it does not tend to go to seed in heat like the latter. On the contrary, the Tetragon appreciates the hot summer months.

The tetragon can be started by indoor sowing 4 weeks before the last frost or sown directly in the garden after the risk of frost. In either case, it's a good idea to soak the seeds in lukewarm water for 24 hours before sowing. In the garden, the seedlings should be spaced 15 cm apart, then thinned out every 45 cm.

The tetragon is mature 50 to 60 days after sowing, but harvesting the ends of the stems can be done as soon as the plant reaches 8 cm, which promotes branching. Plants must be harvested whole before the risk of frost. The leaves can be eaten raw or cooked.

You will find tetragon seeds here: 7 and 8


The tomatillo ( Physalis oxocarpa) also called tomatillo is a close relative of the ground cherry. Like the latter, the tomatillo produces a fruit that is surrounded by an envelope that resembles paper.

The tomatillo is an erect plant whose height can exceed 1.5m. Its fruit, larger than that of the ground cherry, reaches 2 to 3 cm in diameter. It can be green, yellow or purple.

Tomatillo is grown from indoor seedlings made 10 to 12 weeks before the last frost and transplanting is done after the latter. Since tomatillo is self-sterile, it is necessary to grow at least two plants.

Fruits are mature 75 to 90 days after transplanting. They are consumed, among others, in the famous salsa verde Mexican.

You will find tomatillo seeds here: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8

Jerusalem artichoke

Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a perennial vegetable plant whose tubers are eaten. It is sometimes called "Jerusalem artichoke" or "winter artichoke" because of its taste reminiscent of artichoke.

Very easy to grow, Jerusalem artichoke can even become invasive, which is why it should be grown outside of the vegetable garden. Moreover, when it is bordered by lawn or by inert materials, the risk of invasion is negligible. Jerusalem artichoke can be very useful as a windbreak or to camouflage a fence or the compost pile.

Jerusalem artichoke is grown by planting tubers in the spring when the soil can be worked, or again in the fall.

Jerusalem artichoke ripens 120 days after planting. Harvesting can be done in the fall after a few frosts or in the spring. A few small tubers left in the ground will suffice to restart the cultivation of the next season.

You can find Jerusalem artichoke tubers at a health food store near you.

The seed companies

To learn more about growing parsnips, sweet potatoes, rhubarb, arugula, tetragon, tomatillo and Jerusalem artichoke, visit My Healthy Vegetable Garden.

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