Fertilizers for lemon
Lemon at home looks like a small tree with dense dark green leaves with a shiny surface. Indoor lemon blooms for a long period of time and produces fruits that are slightly smaller in size than store ones, but just as healthy, aromatic and pleasant to the taste. With proper care and ideal keeping conditions, 18-20 fruits can be harvested from one such tree.
Proper care of citrus fruits consists in timely moistening of the soil, regular feeding, maintaining the required level of air humidity, lighting and temperature conditions. Full growth and development, as well as the future harvest, depends on meeting all the requirements of the plant. In case of insufficient nutrition and untimely introduction of the necessary fertilizers at a certain stage, the lemon will certainly give a "signal" in the form of falling flowers, an ovary, or just starting to form fruits. Without taking any rescue measures, the lemon can die.
Abundant watering is one of the most important rules for caring for an evergreen plant. Irrigation water should not be cold and must be settled. But watering not only contributes to the moistening of the root part and the growth of the culture, irrigation water also flushes out useful substances, passing through the entire earthen lump. A lack of nutrients is a minimal and poor quality crop. Lemon needs additional fertilizing with nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus throughout the twelve months. For example, poor growth and abundant flowering require nitrogen, and poor flowering and rapid growth require phosphorus.
Nitrogen is a vital substance for citrus fruits, on which the growth of the leafy part and the quality of the stems, full flowering and the formation of the ovary depend. With its lack, external signs appear on indoor lemon: yellow leaves, pale and poor flowering, ovary falling off, growth retardation or cessation.
Phosphorus is a nutrient that affects the formation of fruits, their further quality and external characteristics. Its insufficient amount is indicated by the leaves, which change their green color to brown, then gradually dry up and fall off, and the fruits are irregular in shape with a thick, rough skin.
Fertilizers with potassium content
With a lack of potassium, the entire blow is primarily taken by the leafy part of the plant. The leaves change their green color to bronze-yellow. Their size increases significantly, the surface can be covered with small light spots and droplets of gum. With a prolonged shortage of this useful substance, the plant sheds foliage and dies.
Experienced gardeners recommend the use of complex fertilizers, which contain all the nutrients necessary for lemon - these are not only potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen, but also a large number of microelements important for the full growth and development. Such feeding is especially important from the beginning of May to the beginning of November. Mineral fertilizers can be applied alternately with organic fertilizers. For example, organic feeding from 1 part poultry manure (or manure) and 9 parts warm water has proven itself well.
Water the plant before fertilizing. Top dressing cannot be applied to dry soil. The nutrient solution is added gradually in small portions until it has saturated the entire earthen lump. Its temperature should be as close as possible to the temperature of the potting mix in a container with lemon.
The quality of the crop depends on the attention and care of the plant!
How to feed indoor lemon. Garden World site
What soil is needed for lemon at home: preparation of the substrate
Indoor lemon is a beautiful healthy tree. With proper care, it can bear up to thirty fruits a year. To grow this plant at home, certain conditions are necessary, it is especially difficult to choose the right soil for lemon. It should be light, moderately rich in minerals. It can be purchased in the store or made on your own, taking into account all the plant's requirements for the composition of the soil.
Simple fertilizers [edit | edit code]
Organic fertilizers [edit | edit code]
The most common types of organic fertilizers are vermicompost, humus, peat, extract (concentrate) from seaweed, manure, guano, bird droppings, compost, sapropel, complex organic fertilizers. According to Rosstat data, agricultural enterprises applied organic fertilizers: 1990 - 389.5 million tons, 2010 - 53.0 million tons (a decrease of more than 7 times). It should be noted that organic fertilizers such as compost and manure can be produced and used locally without affecting the production processes of other economic market entities, which makes the statistical recording of their actual use very imprecise.
"Organic fertilizers" are included in this category by their origin (biological): as fertilizers obtained from living or formerly living materials. In addition, organic fertilizers can be characterized as a commodity that meets the demands and requirements of "organic farming" and "eco-friendly" gardening (dacha farming) - related approaches to food and plant production that either significantly restrict or strictly prohibit the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. "Organic fertilizers" as a commercial product usually contain both organic materials and acceptable additions to them, such as powdered natural minerals that are safe to ingest, seashells (crabs, lobsters, lobsters), other prepared foods such as feed meal or seaweed (kelp), grown microorganisms and their waste products. According to the classification, such commercial products should be classified as complex organo-mineral-bacterial fertilizers.
Fertilizers of organic origin (in the original agronomic meaning of the term - animal waste, crop waste, compost and treated sewage sludge (solid substances of biological origin). In addition to manure, materials of animal origin may include processed waste from slaughterhouses - meal made from processed blood, bone meal, flour from poultry feathers, hides, hooves, horns, etc. Some organic parts, for example, treated sewage sludge, may be quite suitable for chemical and bacteriological parameters, but rejected by the industry due to negative public attitudes. On the other hand, correct marketing promotion can promote the fact that, as one of the components of an innovative "organic fertilizer", the use of exactly the same materials, on the contrary, is welcomed by the general public as consistent with the principles of eco-friendly. Regardless of the formulation or composition, most of these products contain it has a lower concentration of nutrients than other types of fertilizers. They can offer opportunities for regeneration or generation of a fertile layer, as well as targeting those who wish to try "natural", "sustainable" gardening and horticulture.
Peat is most often used as a packaged enrichment of the fertile soil layer. This non-classical coal formation, which improves the soil through aeration and water absorption, has no intrinsic plant nutritional value. Therefore, such a product cannot be considered a fertilizer in the definition of the essence of fertilizer applied at the beginning of this article. Coconut (shredded coconut shells), bark, shredded shavings and sawdust from sawmills, when added to soil, act in a similar (but not identical) way to peat and in the same way are "improvers" (or "texturers") of the soil - due to their limited nutritional value. Some organic additives can have the opposite effect on soil nutrition - fresh waste from sawmills can absorb nutrients in the soil before they rot themselves, and can reduce the acidity of the soil. However, organic texturers (such as compost) can increase the availability of soil nutrients by improving cation exchange, or by promoting the growth of microorganisms, which in turn increase the availability of a number of plant nutrients.
Others [edit | edit code]
In addition, there are categories such as:
Fertilizers obtained directly on farms are called local (manure, compost, peat, ash), at chemical plants - industrial.
Recently, the dependence of plants on the concentration of carbon dioxide has also become an object of research. Carbon dioxide is used, in particular, to increase the productivity of plants in greenhouses.
5 types of fertilizers you need to buy for the season
Garden plants cannot develop harmoniously without fertilization. For fast growth, high yields and active flowering, they need intensive nutrition. Use the five-basket method to quickly and correctly select garden fertilizers for the entire season.
It is impossible to grow a beautiful and productive garden without fertilizers, but they must be applied wisely. The optimal composition may vary depending on the season, species and age of the plant. Therefore, if you want to quickly and easily solve a problem, it is best to buy fertilizers where the widest selection is available. For example, in the OBI hypermarket chain. With the help of master consultant Olga Kostyukova, we figured out what types of fertilizers we need to buy in order to fully meet the new season.
Basket 1: Basic (pre-planting) fertilizers
The first fertilizer that you need to buy in the spring is mandatory - pre-planting. It is necessary to fill the soil before sowing and planting any crops. Consumption here is one of the largest, so it is better to take several packages of the same or different types at once.
The easiest and most inexpensive option is to use one universal complete fertilizer for all plants, which contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Inexpensive and for a long time popular among professionals and amateurs types: azofosk, nitrophoska, ammofosk. They contain a basic set of batteries.
An improved version of the universal mineral fertilizer - proprietary complex formulations. In addition to the three main nutrients, they usually contain trace elements, sometimes humic additives, which improve the structure of the soil.
Fertika. Spring-Summer "- fertilizer for the main filling of the soil and spring-summer dressing, contains nitrogen, phosphorescent, potassium and trace elements, suitable for all horticultural crops.
As a rule, for most plants, the soil is filled with one universal fertilizer, because it is too troublesome to create optimal conditions for each flower, tree, vegetable. But for some crops it is still worth choosing a special nutrition program. This is usually done if you have your favorite ornamental plants or want to get the maximum yield.
Many manufacturers produce special fertilizers that take into account the special needs of certain plant groups.
For example, fertilizers for conifers, hydrangeas, rhododendrons usually have a slightly increased acidity, close to the needs of these crops. The composition of fertilizers for beets includes an increased dosage of boron, and sometimes magnesium, roses need a lot of copper for resistance to fungal infections. These are just some examples, of course, there are actually much more features in the nutrition of each plant.
The cost of special fertilizers is usually higher than universal fertilizers. In addition to basic nutrients, they may include trace elements, additives that balance the level of acidity, growth stimulants. Also in this group there are long-acting fertilizers. Their granules are covered with a slowly dissolving shell, so the effect of fertilization lasts the whole season, and there is no need for top dressing.
Basket 2: Fertilizers for feeding
During the season, plants need additional fertilizing. Fruit and berry crops consume a lot of nutrition during the laying of flower buds, greenhouse cucumbers and tomatoes without feeding will not have enough nutrients to form several waves of fruiting. Almost any plants, especially flowering and fruit, develop better if they are periodically fed. Protein in nutrients is so great that sometimes it exceeds the capabilities of the root system: the plant has difficulty absorbing food from the soil, especially in cool weather.
Therefore, fertilizers for top dressing should not only be balanced, but also easily absorbed by plant tissues. Most often, fertilizers for dressing are produced in the form of instant powders or in liquid form. They are introduced in the form of a solution. Moreover, plants can not only be watered, but also sprayed with fertilizer: foliar dressing is very quickly absorbed by plant tissues and is highly effective.
Powders are affordable, have a long shelf life, and are conveniently stored. Most often, powder fertilizers for dressing are universal - their composition is suitable for growing any crops.
"Poligro universal" ("Green pharmacy of the gardener") - fertilizer includes nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and trace elements. Convenient dosage: the sachet is diluted in a bucket of water.
Fertika Lux is a popular water-soluble fertilizer with basic nutrients and microelements.
"Humate +7 iodine" ("August"), in addition to traditional mineral components, includes humic acids, sulfur, iodine. Activates plant immunity.
Liquid fertilizers for top dressing are universal and specialized for certain types of crops. They can also include additional components: stimulants, rare elements, acidity regulators. The composition is selected depending on the type of culture.
"Biocin" is a special supplement for roses, contains a natural stimulant of plant immunity, nourishes roses and reduces their incidence of powdery mildew, rust, and spotting.
"Fertika Kristalon for garden flowers" - the composition of this fertilizer stimulates the formation of strong flower buds, activates flowering.
"Vermicompost for roses" this dressing very well complements the effect of mineral fertilizers. It contains nutrients in the form of organic compounds.
"Pokon For long-lasting flowering of roses" - the fertilizer contains a complex of trace elements, selected taking into account the special needs of roses.
Basket 3: Microfertilizers
This group of fertilizers is usually not used in the garden all the time, but you need to have them on hand in case of a lack of a particular nutrient in plants. In a too rainy or hot summer, when peat or acidity-regulating additives are introduced into the soil, plants may have problems with the assimilation of one or another element. Then it is added additionally in the form of micronutrient fertilizer. For example, in cold weather, the need for copper in plants increases, and in humid and hot summers, many crops begin to lack iron or magnesium. On some types of soils, one or another trace element may be chronically lacking. It is very useful to feed with microelements if the garden is on the sand.
"Micro mix" ("August") is a universal fertilizer mixture - it will help out in case of any metabolic disorders in plants.
"Boric acid" - is used to prevent heart rot in beets, weak and underdeveloped buds in apple and strawberries.
Magnesium sulfate, or Epsom salt, has many beneficial properties for plants. Magnesium is involved in the synthesis of sugars. It promotes the accumulation of sugar in late cabbage heads, beet roots, berries and fruits. Increases the absorption of boron by plants.
"Zinc sulfate" is indispensable for root crops, increases the content of ascorbic acid in vegetables and fruits.
"Micronutrient fertilizer additive" ("Buisk fertilizers") improves acidic soils and not only supplies plants with microelements, but also makes them more accessible to plants.
Basket 4: Lawn Fertilizers
A green lawn requires a special approach to nutrition. Lawn grass grows most of the season and loses a lot of nutrients with mowing. The lawn has increased requirements for the nitrogen content in fertilizers, but it also responds well to the introduction of trace elements, which give the grass resistance to diseases and intense color. Lawn dressing is most often applied dry, since it is rather difficult to evenly fertilize a large area with liquid fertilizer.
Basket 5: Autumn Fertilizers
At the end of the season, fertilizers with a high content of phosphorus and potassium are used to prepare the garden for winter. They contribute to the maturation of tissues in perennial plants, increase their frost resistance.
Potassium nitrate and potassium monophosphate are very poppular - inexpensive and easy-to-use fertilizing. Potassium monophosphate dissolves quickly in water and can be applied with watering.
Superphosphate is also often used for autumn feeding of strawberries, fruit trees and shrubs. But the most convenient to use are universal autumn fertilizers: they can be used to fertilize all the plants in the garden at the end of summer.
"Fertika Autumn" - contains all the basic nutrients (with a predominance of phosphorus and potassium) and a set of microelements to increase the winter hardiness of plants.
"Bona Forte Autumn" is a fertilizer for liquid autumn dressings. It can be used for any plants, but it is especially convenient when preparing flower beds, roses and other flowering shrubs for winter.
Despite the huge amount of fertilizers produced by modern industry, it is not so difficult to understand their use. You will not have to spend a lot of time searching if you come to the OBI hypermarket: here you can buy everything you need in one place at an affordable price. A competent master consultant will help you choose the best fertilizers for any purpose.
Symptoms of a lack of lightIf there is a lack of light, the lemon can shed its leaves. Photo: GardenWeb
How to tell if lemons lack light? It's very simple: with a lack of lighting, lemons grow poorly and bear fruit, and more often do not produce fruit at all, lemons simply do not tie. The shoots on poorly lit lemons are thin and the leaves are small and poorly developed.
Signs of a lack of light for lemons:
- Lemons do not bloom, no ovaries
- The lemon does not grow, the stems are elongated, the leaves are small.
Symptoms of a lack of lighting appear with a decrease in daylight hours, in September-October, therefore, starting in October, or when signs of a lack of light are noticed, they begin to illuminate with phytolamps, lengthening the daylight hours.
In winter, all lemons that are far from the window require additional lighting. In summer, lemons are still illuminated in inclement weather. When supplemented with phyto-lamps and sodium lamps DNaT (DNaZ), indoor lemons grow better, bloom and bear fruit.
Excessive lighting is harmful to lemon, burns appear. Photo: GardenWeb Sunburn on a lemon leaf. Photo: Gardenista
Excess light threatens only lemons, which grow in the rooms of houses in the southern regions of the country. In the south, indoor lemons often have to be shaded to protect them from direct sunlight, when burns appear on the leaves, in the form of gray or brown spots. To shade the lemon, it is good to use blinds or gauze hung on the window next to the lemon.
How to propagate lemons by cuttings
Cuttings are lengths of a shoot, green or lignified. Cuttings are cut from healthy indoor lemon trees, from the tops of strong, current or last year's shoots.
You should not cut cuttings from lemons that grow in natural conditions and take them home, for example, from tropical countries - they will take a long time to take root and it is impossible to wait for fruits from them.
Cuttings are cut with a sharp knife or pruner. The lower cut of the cutting is oblique, and the upper cut is straight, 5 mm above the last kidney on a branch.
Remove the leaves at the bottom of the cut cutting so that they do not rot from contact with wet soil when planting in soil.
It is enough to leave them on the handle, cutting them in half, to reduce the loss of moisture, which is so necessary for quick rooting.
Green cuttings are rooted in the greenhouse for a month
It is recommended to disinfect the cuttings with potassium permanganate or treat with heteroauxin, soaking in Heteroauxin - a synthetic drug that stimulates the formation of roots, contributing to the accelerated development of shoots and leaves. The recommended concentration of the growth stimulant is 1 tablet per 1 liter of water.
Cuttings of indoor lemons are rooted in small, individual, pots, diameter The small size of the pot facilitates future transplantation of the rooted cuttings.
Drainage from small stones is laid at the bottom of the pot, and a substrate for lemons on top. Steamed sand is poured onto the surface of the substrate. Sand layer thickness - For grafting lemons, choose a loose and light substrate with a neutral reaction, which has good air and water permeability.
A hole is made in the center of the pot, 2 cm deep and the lower end of a lemon cut, powdered with ash, is planted in it. After planting, the soil around the cutting should be compacted with your fingers and moistened with a sprayer.
Cover the pot with a shank with a transparent bag or jar to provide a humid greenhouse environment. The air humidity is increased by daily spraying of the soil and cutting with warm water, with a temperature + 30- 35 ° C.
The greenhouse must be regularly ventilated. It is easier and more convenient to provide an influx of fresh air - remove the can or film one hour before the scheduled spraying.
Pots with lemon cuttings are illuminated with diffused sunlight or sodium lamps, avoiding burns. Rooting temperature of cuttings °C.
Duration of rooting of lemon tree cuttings - As young shoots grow, the cuttings begin to harden, accustoming them to room air, regularly removing the jar or film, gradually increasing the airing time.
During the first year, the young lemon is transplanted times (transferred) into larger pots.
With proper crown formation, indoor lemons grown from cuttings of a fruiting lemon tree give a crop through .
What to do to prevent the lemon from throwing off the ovary
If the plant periodically blooms, but continues to shed the ovary, then this is the first sign of problems in caring for it. First you need to understand why the fruits fall. If the problem lies in mineral starvation, then complex fertilizers for indoor flowers are introduced into the soil; they can be purchased in specialized stores. Sometimes mineral feeding does not help and then the lemon tree is transplanted into another pot with a new substrate. The soil must certainly be slightly acidic.
If the soil in the pot is too dry, water the plant more often. This should be done at least three times a week. It is also necessary to spray the leaves with water at least once a day.
Homemade lemons, like their wild counterparts, love diffused light and feel very bad in the shade. It is better to choose a place for the pot in such a place so that there is enough lighting, but the leaves are not touched by direct sunlight. So it is quite possible to avoid falling off the ovaries.
On a small tree, it is better to remove the future ovary even during the flowering period. All flowers are pinched off to a young plant. If the lemon tree is mature, but there are too many flowers on its branches, then only a part is removed. This will help the tree retain any remaining fruit.