Information

Sounds emitted by the bee

Sounds emitted by the bee


SOUNDS EMITTED BY ANIMALS

The sound of the bee

The bee (the scientific name of the European bee is Apis mellifera, family Apidae) is an insect that emits a characteristic buzz due to the very fast beating of its wings.


All the names of the animal sounds

The animals they emit noises and this is just one of the many ways they use to communicate with each other (gestures, behaviors, colors, movements, locations are the others). We know that the dog barks, the cat meows and the bird chirps. and then? Probably the last time we were able to remember more than 10 animal noises was when we were still in elementary school, but after many years it can happen that we have forgotten them or continue to know them without having the absolute certainty of the past.
Are you sure you know them all? What is the animal that ziga? And how does the crocodile do it?

In this table you will find in the left column the list of all the most known and sought after animals, arranged in alphabetical order and, in the right column, the corresponding name of their verse.


How to reduce computer sounds

How to reduce fan noise

The noisiest component in desktop and notebook computers is undoubtedly the cooling fan, which varies its speed according to the power required by the CPU and theaccumulation of dust on the heatsink and / or on the wings of the fan itself.

A good trick to reduce the noise of the PC fans is therefore to clean every fan in the computer at regular intervals, so as to improve the air flow and drastically reduce the speed and the noise emitted by the fan itself. In this regard we can also read our guides How to dust the laptop to clean it inside and out is Clean the monitor, keyboard and inside of the computer from dirt.

If the noise of the fixed PC is still very high we will have to take into account the replacement of the heatsink with a new larger and more performing one, so as to minimize the rpm required by the fan for cooling the CPU.
As a reference model we can use the Cooler Master Hyper 212 EVO heatsink, on sale for less than 40 €.

With such a large heatsink the fan will always run at a minimum of rotation speed, so you will have a much quieter PC. In this regard we can also read our guide CPU cooler: when to buy it new.

If we also have a dedicated video card we will have to minimize the noise of the fans present on it, since they can be a very high source of noise. In this regard, it is advisable to immediately focus on video cards that offer the "Fanless" or "0dB" mode, that is, which turn off the fans when the load on the GPU is minimal an example of a video card of this type is the Asus ROG Strix GeForce RTX 2060 Advanced Edition 6 GB, on sale for less than € 500.

On these video cards, the fans don't spin until the GPU load increases, effectively becoming super quiet when we're not running a game and staying very quiet even when viewing a movie.

If we cannot make hardware changes on your computer, we can adjust the fan speed using the motherboard BIOS / UEFI or one of the programs seen in the guide How to change the fan speed in Windows 10.

Mute PC sounds in our absence

Does our PC keep making sounds even when we are away and the PC screen is locked? To solve this small problem, all we have to do is install the small WinMute tool, available for free for any recent Windows version (from Windows Vista onwards).

Once the compressed file has been downloaded, open it and run the executable WinMute.exe the program will be placed at the bottom right of the clock and system functions bar and, to operate it, all we have to do is press the right button on it and activate the items Workstation is locked is Screensaver starts. From now on the PC will silence all sounds by itself (including system sounds and sounds emitted by programs) every time we lock the screen or activate the screensaver (to quickly lock the PC we can also use the shortcut WIN + L).

If we need to restore the volume once the screen is unlocked, just activate the voice too Restore volume in the drop-down menu that can be activated using the right mouse button on WinMute if instead we want to quickly silence all the sounds we can click on the item Mute now from the same drop-down menu seen a little while ago.

Still talking about volume control on the PC we can also read our guides Adjust and lower the volume automatically is Change Windows 10 audio and equalizer settings, so you can have everything under control and also automate the volume change as needed.

Conclusions

With these simple tricks we can silence the sounds emitted by the noisiest components of the PC (CPU and video card fans) and at the same time silence the sounds emitted by Windows when we are not in the workstation, so as to obtain a quiet and livable environment (what very important especially in the office).

If our computer is always very noisy, we advise you to assemble one designed to produce as little noise as possible, as seen in our guide How to have a silent PC.
If the laptop PC produces a lot of noise, the only way to make it really quiet is to adjust the PC power to minimum using the power limiter seen in the guide. Power throttling in Windows 10 in battery saver mode.
Do we have the opposite problem, which is a PC emitting sounds too low? In this case it is advisable to read our guide immediately How to turn up the volume above the maximum on PC, really very useful if we carry out meetings or streaming video calls.


Communication between man and bee

Bees are able to live and manage themselves even without human help, however, they can also prove to be very fragile and for this reason, the man who chooses to interact with hives, brings with him a deep respect for these small insects and every action is done with absolute conscience so as not to alter their well-being in any way.

Man is a figure of fundamental importance when there are insurmountable threats to bees, such as parasite infestations and pesticide pollution.

The search for a method of communication between beekeeper and bee arises from the need to find suitable solutions for any adverse situation. The beekeeper has the task of getting in touch with the hive, understanding its behavior in order to be part of it too and giving rise to a real mutual collaboration.

Thanks to apidology, we now know that humans are actually able to communicate with bees through different systems.

Olfactory communication

Inside the hive, olfactory communication takes place through several pheromone molecules several scientific studies have shown that this type of communication occurs between different species through "allelochemical" signals.

Pheromone exchanges could be the explanation for which bees behave aggressively when the beekeeper is in a state of anxiety or stress, since they perceive this change as an attack situation, vice versa they assume a peaceful behavior when the beekeeper is calm and at the same time confident in the way he relates to the nucleus.

Visual communication

The adoption of sudden movements and nervous on the part of the beekeeper, near the hive, generates an increase in the state of alert because the bees associate the sudden action with a dangerous situation vice versa, the adoption of slow and at the same time safe movements allows the maintenance of tranquility within the nucleus. In this type of communication, the beekeeper can experience the well-being generated by observing the order and tranquility reigning within the hive.

Auditory communication

Through frequency andintensity of the buzz generated by bees on the move, the beekeeper can perceive if the family is in a state of tranquility or on alert for an attack. Some psychologists, scholars in the field of apidology, have set themselves the goal of identifying a correlation between listening to the sounds and vibrations emitted by the buzzing of bees and the modulations of the brain waves of some beekeepers under investigation the hypothesis was born from the observation of state of well-being of the beekeeper when the nucleus was relaxed, taking the modulation of its hum as a reference point.

Tactile communication

This method of communication is the most difficult to undertake, since it undoubtedly involves risks, which require the use of PPE that hinder contact with bees. Over the years, the beginner beekeeper acquires more confidence, discovering the need to experiment with this unique feeling the experience will have made the beekeeper immune to bee venom, so he will be able to implement tactile communication avoiding tragic allergic reactions.

Knowing the world of bees is, nowadays, essential for safeguarding the species and their fundamental function at the environmental level. Being informed about everything concerning bees is not only enchanting, but it is useful for increasing the sense of respect for a species that, for us, has always been an example, especially in organizational systems.

Thanks to beekeeping it is possible to live in a healthy, pollinated environment, where bees take care of the vegetation meticulously and humans benefit from the benefits that bee products bring to the entire body.


How bees communicate

In 1973 the Austrian zoologist Karl Von Frisch received the Nobel Prize for important discoveries on methods of communication, organization and individual and social behavior, specifically studying those used by bees and their perceptual and sensorial abilities.

Bees have sensory organs that are different from ours in terms of structure and function. Their eyes are composed of ommatidia and their antennae are the seat of some organs of perception of odors. Because of these distinctions it is possible to identify several Communication "languages" among them, including dance and buzz.

The dance of the bees

Together with other important scholars, Von Frisch observed how the sense of smell and sight are essential for the orientation of bees in flight, in order to reach theexact position of flowering when the explorer bees return to the hive, they communicate to their companions the place of supply through an everted gland on their abdomen which emanates an attractive smell for the foraging bees who will follow the explorer in a beautiful dance.

In fact, the true communication regarding the position of nourishment, within the family, takes place through the circular dance and the dance of the abdomen.

There circular dance it is useful to indicate the exact route to be taken to reach destinations within a hundred meters and is carried out with circular movements to the right and to the left.

There dance of the abdomen, on the other hand, it is useful to indicate the exact distance to travel to reach destinations over a hundred meters and up to about 3 km (sometimes more) this type of dance is performed along straight lines, which compared to the frame (above which the dance takes place) can be vertical, horizontal or oblique, which are always followed by circular movements. The bees will understand where the source of supply is by observing the orientation of the straight line with respect to the vertical of the frame, therefore the angle that is formed with respect to the vertical corresponds precisely to the angle created by the hive with the sun towards the source of supply.

There speed of execution and the vibration exercised during the dance, they are directly proportional to the distance and richness of the source of nourishment. With this type of language, explorer bees are able to communicate also what difficulties and obstacles they will encounter on the way to the source of nourishment.

The hum of bees

Another means of communication is the buzz created by the movement of their wings, which can vary from intensity is frequency based on the situation in which they find themselves and the message they want to communicate in case there is a situation of severe stress or alarm, they will flap their wings quickly and move quickly inside the hive, to warn all components of the imminent danger.

Pheromonic communication

Nurse bees use their sense of smell when the larvae that need food give off "smell" (through pheromones). This pheromone allows them to identify the day of incubation and, consequently, to administer the food they need.

The queen bee is able, through its pheromones called "primary", to exercise control over the entire colony, they act as inhibitors or stimulators based on the command it wants to give.

Each hive has its own distinctive smell, so each component of the same core will be identified as part of it. This allows the guardian bees to identify strangers to attack them and, thanks to the poison released, raise the alarm to the family, who will intervene to help them.


Index

Echolocation works like a sonar, using sounds made by the animals themselves. The estimate of the distance is obtained by measuring the time elapsed between the emission of sound by the animal and the return of the echoes from the environment. Unlike some sonars which have an extremely limited range, the biosonar acts on multiple receivers. The echolocating animals have two ears positioned a little apart. The return echoes reach the ears at different times and intensities, based on the position of the object that generated them. These differences are used by animals to sense direction. By means of echolocation, bats and other animals are able to determine not only the direction in which they are going, but also how big other animals are, what kind of animal they are and other characteristics.

Microchiroptera use echolocation for orientation and for searching for food, often in total darkness. They generally emerge from their shelters in caves or attics at sunset and look for insects at night. The use of echolocation allows it to occupy an ecological niche where there are often many insects (which come out at night when there are few predators), there is little competition for food and few animals that feed on bats.

Microchiroptera produce ultrasound through the larynx and emit the sound from the nose or, more commonly, from the open mouth. The frequency range of the sounds produced by bats is from 14,000 to well over 100,000 Hz, far beyond the capacity of the human ear, which perceives sounds with a frequency ranging from 20 to 20,000 Hz.

Some bat species echolocate using a specific frequency range that suits their environment and prey. This is sometimes used by researchers to identify bats flying in a given area simply by recording their screams with ultrasound recorders called bat detectors. However the cries are not species-specific and some different bat cries overlap, so the recordings cannot be used to identify all bats.

When looking for food, bats make about 10-20 sounds per second. During the search for food, the emission of sound is coupled with breathing, which is in turn coupled with the flapping of the wings. It has been hypothesized that this mating allows the animal to conserve energy. After locating a potential prey - to identify its position - bats increase the number of pulses emitted, until they reach the terminal buzz (even 200 signals per second). As you approach the goal, the duration of the sounds gradually decreases, as does their energy.

Odontocetes use biosonars because they live in an underwater habitat that has favorable acoustic characteristics and where visibility is limited due to the absorption of light and the turbidity of the water.

Odontocetes emit a focused ray of click high frequency in the direction their head is pointing. Sounds are generated by the passage of air from the bones of the nostrils through the phonic lips [1]. These sounds are reflected by a dense concave bone of the skull and an air sac at its base. The focused beam is modulated by a large fat organ called a "melon". This acts as an acoustic lens and is made up of lipids of different densities.

Many Odontocetes use series clicks, or "click train" for echolocation, while sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) can produce single clicks. The whistles of Odontoceti are not used for echolocation. The different speed of the click train generates the barks, yelps and growls of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

The echoes are first received by the mandible, from which they are transmitted to the inner ear by means of a fat body. Lateral sounds are received by lobes that surround the ears and have an acoustic density similar to that of bones. Some researchers think that when cetaceans approach the object of their interest, they protect themselves from stronger echoes by lowering the intensity of the sounds emitted. This is known to occur in bats, where hearing sensitivity near the target is also reduced.

As part of the research for the orientation of blind people, an echolocation technique was developed based on the rebound in the surrounding environment of a series of clicks of the tongue or other high-frequency sounds. From the auditory analysis, the return speed of sound and the distortion received, it is possible to perceive the presence of an object, its distance and its consistency. It is a technique studied since the 1950s [2] which is also referred to as the term facial vision [3].


Thread: Consonante

With this change I brought the item to this condition: everything that is not stamped with <> comes with sources and is reliable. --Pequod 76 (talk) 19:15, 15 Dec 2010 (CET)

Carry over other clips that I have modified:

there are languages ​​that have sonants that stand at the end of a syllable even though they are consonants.

All languages ​​have consonants at the end of a syllable, of any type. In Italian the syllables with consonant in coda are very recurrent, in Latin the syllabic tails are frequent even if they are composed of several phones. In my opinion, the author of the entry meant that in some languages ​​there are consonant phons that can also be at the center of the syllable, as a nucleus, and the word Trst is one of the most frequent examples in numerous manuals.

a sonante is indicated with a dot under the symbol of the corresponding consonant

The word dot instead of dash it must be a transcription oversight (see table of diacritics of the International Phonetic Alphabet). However, it is wrong to say that the sonants are indicated with a dot / dash under the symbol of the corresponding sonant. Only when a sonorous phono acts as the syllable nucleus of a word is it indicated with the diacritic. I do not know if the text cited in the bibliography stated that sounding phones must always be indicated with the diacritic, but in this case it would be a very minority use and not followed by the IPA and by most phoneticians. This comment without user signature was posted by StefanoMab (discussions · contributions) 03:12, 4 May 2011 (CEST).

Consonants can be classified according to various criteria.

Depending on the organ that pushes the air:

  • Pulmonary consonants: when the sound comes from the lungs pushed by the diaphragm. Most of the sounds in Italian are of this type.
  • Non-pulmonary consonants: when the sound does not come from the lungs.

  • Pulmonary consonants: when after the obstruction of the oral cavity, air is emitted from the lungs. They are divided into:
    • Occlusive consonants: when the sound is put out by the complete closure of the oral cavity and subsequently by its reopening.
    • Fricative consonants: when the sound is produced by a narrowing between some organs in the oral cavity that approach without closing completely as in the occlusives, causing a friction noise.
    • Nasal consonants: when the oral cavity is totally closed and the air is forced out of the nose.
    • Approximant consonants: these are consonants produced by a narrowing of the oral cavity and their position is intermediate between vowel and consonant.
    • Vibrating consonants: when the sound is produced by a weak intermittent occlusion of the oral canal (the mouth), which is quickly interrupted and restored several times (from once-twice up to five or six), creating an occlusion + explosion cycle in the which the air coming from the lungs is first forced and then abruptly released producing a periodic sound.
    • Monovibrating consonants: when the vibrating cycle is unique, that is, if the weak occlusion occurs only once.
  • Non-pulmonary consonants:
    • Affricate consonants: this is the union of two sounds emitted one after the other, for example the g Italian sweet is the union of sounds [d] is [ʒ]
    • Coarticulate consonant: it is the union of two sounds emitted at the same time, for example the semiconsonant u [w] it is pronounced by curling both the tongue and the lips
    • Ejective consonants and implosive consonants: these are corresponding pulmonary modifications emitted with particular movements of the mouth and glottis
    • Click consonants: These are consonants produced by clicking the tongue against the roof of the mouth, as when trying to imitate a horse's gallop.

  • Bilabial consonants: when the total or partial closure of the mouth occurs by bringing both lips together.
  • Labiodental consonants: when the closure occurs between the upper incisors and the lower lips.
  • Dental consonants: when closure is produced with the tip of the tongue approaching the tip of the lower teeth.
  • Alveolar consonants: when the closure occurs with the tip of the tongue touching the palate closest to the incisors.
  • Postalveolar consonants: when the closure occurs with the tip of the tongue touching the palate, but more posteriorly than in alveolar consonants.
  • Retroflex consonants: when the closure occurs between the palate and the tip of the tongue, with the latter bent backwards.
  • Palatine consonants: when the closure occurs through the central part of the tongue and the palate.
  • Velar consonants: when the closure occurs through the back of the tongue and the palatine veil.
  • Uvular consonants: when the closure occurs by approaching the most posterior part of the tongue and the uvula.
  • Pharyngal consonants: when the closure occurs by bringing the more posterior part of the tongue closer to the pharynx.
  • Epiglottal consonants: when the closure occurs with the partial or total closure of the epiglottis.
  • Glottal consonants: when the closure occurs with the partial or total closure of the vocal cords.

In the case of coarticulate consonants there are two places of articulation at the same time (eg labiovelar, alveolo-palatal).

According to the air flow:

  • Central consonants: when air flows to the center of the tongue and not to the sides.
  • Lateral consonants: when the sound is produced by a partial occlusion of the oral canal (the mouth), caused by the tongue obstructing the central part leaving space only on the sides: the air coming from the lungs is therefore forced to flow out on both sides, or on just one.

Consonants articulated according to places of articulation where this distinction is not possible (bilabial, labiodental, epiglottal and glottal) are also considered central.

According to the sound emission:

  • Deaf consonants: when the sound is produced only by the place of articulation and not by the vocal cords.
  • Voiced consonants: when the sound is produced by the place of articulation and the vocal cords.

According to the duration of the sound emission:

  • Non-geminate or short consonants: when the sound has a normal duration.
  • Geminate or doubled or loud or long consonants: when the sound is longer or louder than normal.


Adopt a 3Bee hive

The world of bees is certainly very fascinating, but we are all far from having understood it in its entirety. The studies that are still being conducted on these insects are many and try to understand more in depth both the bee itself and the hive understood as a superorganism.

Getting closer to their reality is certainly interesting and even those who do not have to deal with bees every day can do it. How? By adopting a monitored hive with 3Bee systems, it will be possible to remotely follow the development of a family, just like the beekeeper who follows it. Furthermore, at the end of the season you can receive honey directly at your home produced from your hive. You will thus have the opportunity not only to get closer to these incredible insects, but also to taste different types of honey, each of which is nothing more than the expression of the peculiarities of the places where it was produced. Find out which hives are still available!


Video: Wyoming Bee College # 1 Albert Chubak on Honey Bee Roles in the Hive and More