Features of Japanese cherry blossom sakura
The forms of the East Asian species of finely sawed cherry with double flowers are collectively known as sakura or Japanese cherry. The area of distribution and the birthplace of exotic plants is Japan.
The difference between Japanese cherry and other varieties
Trees belong to the pink family, are fast-growing and reach a height of 20 meters in their natural environment. Modern breeding has about 400 varietal variants.
The cultivation of garden varieties is based on grafting and crossing of cultivated species with sharp-topped wild cherries.
Sakura is characterized by sprawling rounded crown... Its bark is brownish-red in color and covered with a network of small cracks.
Oval, jagged leaf plates around the circumference in autumn change color in the range from dark purple to brown. The fruits are not edible, therefore, sakura cherries are ranked among ornamental plants.
East Asian cherries have won planetary fame with their colorful flowering. The petals of the plant have shades of white-pink tonality. There are species with yellow, red and crimson tassels.
During the period of their dissolution, working days are canceled in Japan and the national holiday of Hanami is declared.
The value of the plant for the Hanami holiday
According to one version, in a reddish shade, the sakura petals were stained with the blood of family members of one of the village elders.
After he showed the ruler the scars on the backs of his children due to the cruel treatment of the prince's servants, the latter flogged them to death on the top of the mountain where the cherry blossoms grew.
The falling petals turned pink from bloody stains. Now they symbolize the fragility of children's destinies in the modern world.
Celebrating Hanami is symbolically carried out in a family atmosphere. The duration of the process depends on the flowering period of the legendary cherry.
Each of the trees blooms for several days: sooner or later - depending on the species. As a result, a chain is formed - the fading plants pass the baton to the blossoming ones.
Japanese mass media notify residents in advance about the estimated time of cherry blossom and its duration: many prefer to travel around the country in order to repeatedly catch a grand spectacle.
Traditionally Hanami falls in late March or early April.
The most suitable variety of garden fine-sawed cherry for steppe and forest-steppe zones with moderate continental climatic conditions. Healthy trees grow up to 4 m, with an annual growth of about 30 cm.
The crown of kiku shidare plants is spreading and prone to thickening. The leaf plates have an elliptical shape with small frequent notches along the cut and a relatively large size (7-9 cm).
Kiku Shidare's decorative feature is enclosed in the early prolonged flowering period (the end of March - the first decade of April). The clusters of large-diameter (5-7 cm) densely double pink flowers are numerous and abundantly cover the branches.
Self-fertile variety... A singly planted tree, with qualified care, blooms and bears fruit intensively.
For growth, it prefers sunny areas on sandy-clayey, alkaline or neutral soils. The abundance of flowering depends on the regularity and timeliness of feeding with superphosphates.
This small-sawed tree-like variety of garden sakura is lower than its decorative counterparts (up to 10 m in height for an adult tree). The shape of the crown is inversely conical. Because of this, kanzan is recognized as an exotic and creative decoration of suburban areas.
The growth rate of the variety trees is average. The foliage of an elongated oval shape with the arrival of autumn becomes fiery yellow.
Sakura kanzan blooms with massive fragrant pink flowers, which are grouped in hanging elongated inflorescences of 3-6 pieces. Flowering duration is average.
The plant is light-requiring and gives priority to neutral or highly alkaline soils.
Planting and growing
For planting decorative sakura, you need choose a lighted and ventilated area without stagnation of moisture during periods of floods and rains. Hills and elevations are the best choice.
When choosing a landing site, it is necessary to maintain a balance between light transmission (Sakura does not like shadows) and the absence of strong blowing winds. The wall option may be ideal.
It is recommended to opt for grafted seedlings, which are traditionally purchased in the fall and aged until the spring thaws in humid spaces with room temperature. Before planting, the plants should have a height of about 1.5 meters, a matured trunk and a formed root network.
Planting is preferably done in late autumn or early spring., before swelling of the kidneys, with an established warm temperature regime. Planting several seedlings at the same time ensures a greater degree of abundance of flowering and fruit formation in the future.
Plants should be planted at a distance of 1.5-2 m from each other and an inter-row space of 2.5-3 m.
Landing holes must be prepared in advance... It is advisable to place in them a mixture of the upper fertile layers of earth and humus.
Immediately before planting, it is necessary to fertilize the soil with 15-18 liters of sulfate-potassium solution with the addition of superphosphates. It is impossible to sprinkle the root collar with earth.
At the end of planting, the near-trunk zone is watered and carefully mulched with humus or a thin peat layer of 4-5 cm.
At the initial stage of tree growth, caring for the near-stem circle should be careful and thorough. Root system damage and promptly remove weeds... In this case, the sakura will harden faster and overwinter without damage.
Successful cherry blossom growth is possible with proper care and creating optimal conditions for development. Systematic drainage and regular feeding promotes healthy tree growth.
The condition of cherries is largely influenced by the content of nitrogen and potassium in the soil. Their lack is fraught with manifestations of sakura's acute reactions: poor flowering and premature foliage discharge.
Soil depletion is eliminated by introducing humus and compost (6-8 kg) under each root. Chemical feeding is carried out with a solution of the necessary elements at the rate of 15-18 g for one square meter of the near-stem zone.
Several plentiful waterings of cherry blossoms are permissible at the stage of active growth. The rest of the time, it is sufficient to maintain the natural balance of soil moisture. Excessive hydration leads to low kidney formation, poor flowering and crushing of petals.
Before the start of sap flow in early spring cut out dry and damaged branches, thinning the crown.
Adult plants are frost-resistant, and young trees successfully winter in a sheltered form. Before the start of the cold season, the scion sites, stems and bases of large branches are wrapped in agrofibre or improvised materials that do not create a greenhouse effect.
During the growing season sakura is sprayed with chemicals: primary - before the beginning of flowering, secondary - after a month after the ovary of berries.
Removal of diseased and dried branches, sprouts that interfere with comfortable light absorption and sufficient air exchange are carried out in early spring, before the start of sap flow.
Fragments with traces of the activity of harmful organisms are subject to cutting and burning.
Places of cuts should be treated with garden varnish.... It is important to ensure that gum does not form at the cross-sections. The appearance of sticky growths is excluded in the case of proper drainage and watering.
Diseases and pests
If sakura is influenced by harmful organisms, the flowering rate decreases, the petals wrinkle, and the tree develops behind the norm. Facts of crustal delamination and the formation of outgrowths can be observed.
A common ailment of sakura, like other cherry trees, is defeat by a fungus, which leads to drying of foliage, blackening and mummification of berries.
Spraying sulfur-coal powder can help the plant in this unpleasant situation. It should cover the affected segments and prevent further spread of fungal aggression.
Foliage that falls from unhealthy cherry blossoms, cannot be left under a tree for the winter. Healthy and infected leaves and branches must be removed from the site and burned.
This precaution helps prevent the spread of fungal diseases to neighboring crops.
The effect of combating disease-causing organics is enhanced by the use of insecticides. Restrictions on the use of chemicals are imposed for the period of flowering and fruit setting. In case of urgent need, this rule can be disregarded.
Growing one of the most spectacularly flowering plants on the planet on a personal plot is a feasible task and does not require excessive physical, material and emotional expenses.
The reward for the labors is the contemplation of a natural miracle, unsurpassed in its power of aesthetic impact. Worth trying: gurus of sakuro studies, the Japanese, consider a person soulless if he is deaf to the manifestations of the surrounding beauties.
This cherry is a tree exclusively decorative... Unlike regular cherries, they have very small and sour fruits that are not edible. However, in Japan, wine and jam are made from them, and sakura leaves are salted and pickled. Wagashi, a traditional Japanese sweets, are also wrapped in these leaves.
The birthplace of cherries is such countries like China, Japan and Korea... Here this tree can be found in Primorye and Sakhalin. Wild species usually grow in mixed forests and mountain slopes.
For the first time, small-sawed cherries were used as an ornamental plant in Japan. There she belongs to a group of plants, which is called by one common word - "sakura". It is planted in parks and gardens, streets and squares are decorated with it.
It is important to remember that sakura is not the name of a particular plant. So in Japan they call not only small-sawn cherries, but also a whole group of flowering trees and shrubs belonging to the Rosaceae family.
There is an ancient tradition in Japan itself admiring the cherry blossom, which is called "khanami". These days, employees of Japanese enterprises are given an extra day off so that they do not miss such a delightful sight. A faded tree is no longer called sakura.
Sakura - Japanese cherry / decorative
Content Photo: Sargent cherry (Prunus sargentii), cultivar 'Accolade'
What is Sakura
Japanese cherry blossom sakura - decorative cherries
• in. finely sawed (rural)
• in. Sargent (Sakhalin)
• in. winter (shaggy)
• in. bell-shaped (Taiwanese)
• in. Edos (Somei Yoshino)
• in the Nippon (Kuril)
• in. carved (Fuji)
• in. glandular (Chinese bush)
About growing ornamental cherries
What is Sakura
Sakura evokes awe among the people of Japan and is one of the symbols of the Land of the Rising Sun. Admiring cherry blossoms and holding picnics under its crown has long become a national tradition called hanami holiday... Wonderful trees, shrouded in a pink or white cloud of flowers, fascinate us too. But not everyone knows exactly what sakura is? It seems to be similar to cherry, plum, apricot, but at the same time it is not them.
Indeed, sakura is part of the same genus Plum as the tree species listed above, which is why they are all so similar. And from a botanical point of view, all plants of the genus Plum (Prunus) can be called sakuras (in addition to the first, almonds, and peaches, and cherry laurels can be added here). However, in the Japanese tradition, sakura is considered to be exclusively cherry of the following characteristics.
They all have large and numerous flowers on long peduncles. They bloom until leaves appear on the majestic cherry trees, the beauty of which leaves no one indifferent. In autumn, sakura leaves take on an orange-crimson hue. In some varieties, the leaves are bronze at the beginning of blooming. The fruits of Japanese cherry-sakura are small, often few in number, of a bitter taste, and are generally suitable only for feeding birds. These are the main characteristics of sakura. That is, in fact, sakuras can be called decorative Japanese cherries.
Unfortunately, indigenous Japanese beauties rarely survive where, the difference in the climate of the countries affects. But cherry blossoms of the northernmost latitudes of Japan and shrub species and cherry hybrids are more adapted to our area and may well become a highlight of gardens and parks here. Such plants are often referred to as "northern sakuras". Shrubs are cultivated not only in bush, but also in the standard form in the form of a tree. Here are some examples of the most striking Japanese sakura and sakura "northern" - ornamental cherries.
Japanese cherry blossoms and other decorative cherries
In Japan, there are about 200 species, hybrids, varieties and varieties of sakura. The most common of these is finely sawed cherry (Prunus serrulata)... It is also called rural cherry. These are fast-growing trees, they can reach a height of 10 meters or more. They bloom in white or pink flowers. On the territory of Russia, they are not widespread, since they can freeze slightly and not bloom. Some hybrid varieties of finely sawed cherries are distinguished by better frost resistance than the species. You can read about sakura fine-sawed cherry here.
Very decorative, hardy both in frost resistance and drought, smoke and gas resistance, the type of sakura feels much better Cherry Sargent (Prunus sargentii)... Here she is better known as Sakhalin cherry (Prunus sachalinensis), where it grows wild. She is often referred to as the "northern sakuras". Since the tree reproduces poorly by seeds, and due to the small number of the population, in the Sakhalin region the species is included in the Red Book.
The Sargent cherry is also widespread in the north of Japan, Korea, China, the Primorsky Territory, and the Kuriles. It is found mainly in mountainous areas, where it can grow above 15 meters, usually not more than 8 m. Sakhalin cherry blossoms in late April-early May. In Moscow, in the Botanical Garden. Tsitsin and in the "Pharmaceutical garden" of the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University, the flowering period usually falls in mid-May. Flowers appear at the same time as the leaves are opening, which distinguishes this species from many Japanese cherries. Leaves during blooming and in autumn have crimson hues. In summer they are green. Flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter, simple, attractive to bees. Fruits are dark purple, small, inedible. There are varieties, including domestic selection. The following are recommended for landscaping the southern regions of Russia:
Cypress... It grows as a tall tree (up to 4 m) with a pyramidal crown (hence the name). Leaves are brown, wrinkled, dull. The tree is very decorative. The flowers of the Cypress Sakura are large (up to 30 mm in diameter). The petals are pink. The variety is fruiting. Berries with a diameter of 1.5 cm are very tasty and sweet.
Rosanna... It also grows in the form of a 4-meter tree, but with a wider rounded and compact crown than that of Cypress. The flowers are pink, up to 2.0 cm in diameter, 3-5 flowers per inflorescence. Bitter fruits. Leaves with a brownish tint.
Winter cherry, Higan cherry, shaggy / pubescent / short-bale cherry - all these are the names of one type of cherry Prunus subhirtella... This tree is of hybrid origin, it has its own "zest" - in Japan it blooms very early, sometimes even in mild winters. Her weeping form is called the Weeping Higan there.Every year, during the hanami festival, hundreds of thousands of fans come to admire the flowering of the 1000-year-old crying Higan. The tree has its own name - Miharu Takizakura.
A popular variety of this Japanese cherry 'Snow Fountains'grows as a tree with a weeping crown. The height of an adult plant does not exceed 5 meters. The flowers are snow-white (hence the name). The tree is extremely impressive, it really looks like a living fountain. In autumn, the leaves turn orange. Fruits in small berries of maroon, almost black color.
Shaggy cherry variety 'Autumnalis Rosea' Honored by the Royal Horticultural Society. On weeping shoots, semi-double flowers with pale pink petals bloom. Winters up to - 23 degrees. It is often grown in standard form.
A little inferior to him grade ‘Fukubana’... At first, the branches of the decorative tree are directed upwards, but as they grow, they begin to take a horizontal position. As a result, the crown takes the form of an umbrella. The flowers of this cherry are semi-double, pink-purple, extremely beautiful. The leaves are green in summer and turn golden orange and red in autumn.
Heat-loving (up to -18 degrees) and charming bell cherry (Taiwan) - Prunus campanulata grows in Japan, China, Taiwan, Vietnam. After being introduced to New Zealand, it adapted so much that it began to displace representatives of the local flora. Bell cherry has very large flowers, which are located one by one or 2-3 in the inflorescence. Their petals are cyclamen-red - the brightest in color among all cherries. At the beginning of blooming, they resemble a bell, later they take the shape of a bowl. In our climate, bell cherry can only be cultivated in containers. And only in some regions of Russia, with proper care, can it grow outdoors. The cold should not last too long. In addition, from recurrent frosts in cherries, flower buds can freeze.
The most popular sakura species in Japan has become Edos cherry (Prunus yedoensis) hybrid origin with many different varieties. One of them grade ‘Ivensii’ with a weeping crown and white inflorescences is shown below in the photo. Cherry of Edossa is called in Japan Yoshino Cherry, or Somei Yoshino. The words in the name mean the following: Yoshino - the area in Japan where this Somei cherry was originally grown - the village in which they began to grow, now it is one of the areas of Tokyo - Toshimo. The name "Edosskaya" comes from the city of Edo (as Tokyo used to be called). The flowering of the Edos cherry tree is reminiscent of the flowering of apricot trees. This is a tree (up to 12 meters high) with fragrant white or pink simple flowers, each up to 3.5 cm in diameter. In an inflorescence up to 6 flowers. They form small fruits, like any sakura - little edible.
Frost-resistant bush sakuras include cherry nippon (Japanese alpine) - Prunus nipponica... One of its varieties grows in the Kuril Islands and is known as kuril cherry (P. nipponica var.kurilensis)... This very ornamental shrub can be grown on the territory of the Russian Federation, as it can withstand frosts down to - 25-27 degrees. Its height can reach 2-5 m; in culture, Kuril cherry can be grafted onto a stem. Flowering occurs in May, in autumn the plant is decorated with small inedible fruits. On sale you can find the ‘Brillant’ variety with pink (at the beginning), later - white flower petals and the ‘Ruby’ variety with pink inflorescences.
Many beautiful varieties at a low Fuji cherry or carved cherry - Prunus incisamaking it attractive for hobby gardening in small gardens. Cherry is named after the famous Mount Fujiyama, and the definition "carved" is given for a shallow cut in the leaves. This is a slow-growing Japanese sakura that blooms with white flowers. One of the first to bloom, has frost resistance up to - 20 degrees. Popular varieties include:
Kojou-no-mai... The variety is well formed by pruning and is suitable for a small garden. It grows up to 2 m in height with a small annual increase. Blooms in March-April. The diameter of the flowers is average (up to 20 mm). The color of the petals is pale pink with a reddish tint. The leaves are green in summer and yellow and red in autumn.
Paean... This Fuji cherry grows as a compact bush or tree no more than 2 m high. It blooms in early spring. Leaves at the beginning of blooming are bronze, in summer they are green, in autumn they are orange-crimson. The flowers are simple, with beautiful pink petals.
Mikinori... The variety was named after a Japanese botanist. This sakura is a low tree (up to 2.5 m) with a rounded crown. Blooms early - already in March. If the weather is cool, then flowering can begin in April. The flowers are large, the petals are pale pink with a burgundy center.
Lotte... Very decorative cherry with snow-white fragrant flowers on long stalks. Outwardly, they slightly resemble cherry flowers. This variety is undersized, bushy. Shoot height reaches 1.2 m. Flowering begins in March.
Yamadey... A very interesting variety. The flowers of this sakura are white, drooping, reminiscent of snowdrops. Their diameter is 20 mm. This sakura grows as a compact tree, reaching a height of 3 m at the age of ten. Blooms in March (in some regions in May).
Oshidori... Slow-growing Fuji cherry with a spreading crown, no more than 4 meters in height. It grows as a tree or shrub. Blooms in April. At this time, there are no leaves on the branches yet. In summer they are green. In autumn they acquire a golden color. The flowers are medium in size, double. The petals are pale pink with a darker center.
Chinese bush ferruginous cherry (Prunus glandulosa) has long been established in Japan and can be recommended for our gardens. This "northern" sakura grows up to one and a half meters, sometimes a little more. In nature, it lives up to 100 years, that is, it is a long-lived plant. Flower petals last up to 14 days. They are pink in color, but gradually lighten, and at the end of flowering they turn white. Among the varieties of this decorative cherry are the following:
Rosea Plena... The variety is very interesting, it has burgundy twigs that can bend towards the ground itself. Rosea Plena flowers are densely double, with a diameter of about 20 mm. At the beginning of flowering, the petals are red, but gradually turn pink. Flowering lasts 7 to 10 days. This sakura blooms in April - May, when the leaves are already beginning to bloom. They have an oblong shape and are covered with villi on the underside.
This variety is fruitful. Edible berries up to 10 mm in diameter. The plant is able to withstand both short-term frosts and droughts. Grown in many regions of Russia. Cherries look great with Canadian maple, red oak and other ornamental shrubs. It can even be placed on slopes. The main thing is that the site is sunny and the land is fertile.
Alba Plena... This sakura blooms in May. It grows as a lush bush up to one and a half meters high. Double flowers with snow-white petals.
About growing sakura
Sakura beauties often turn out to be capricious in our climate, but they can also be “tamed” by choosing the right variety and planting site.
Cherry blossoms are grown like other cherries. They are given a sunny location, sheltered from cold winds. They grow well on light to medium soils with good drainage and a neutral acid reaction.
To protect against fungal diseases, ornamental cherries are sprayed with fungicidal preparations several times per season. Pruning is carried out in accordance with the requirements for a particular species / variety. Some of them benefit from low pruning (shrub cherries), others bloom only on biennial shoots (v. Sarzhenta, v. Niponskaya) and require gentle pruning.
As a substitute for Japanese ornamental cherries, you should pay attention to the following trees and shrubs that are beautifully blooming in spring: Rex, Maksimovich cherries, Maak cherry, felt cherry, steppe cherry, almond, laurel cherry, spreading plum Nigra, blackthorn.
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The main condition for the normal growth of a tree is the composition of the soil and the absence of through penetrating winds.
It is the piercing wind that becomes the most important negative factor for the normal growth and flowering of ornamental cherries.
All sakura varieties require an abundance of sunlight and loose soil.
When growing a tree, one should not forget that despite the fact that the plant does not have special requirements for the composition of the soil, it really needs regular fertilizing with nitrogen and calcium fertilizers. They will ensure regular flowering and constant growth of the plant.
If these substances are lacking in the soil, then the sakura will immediately react with premature leaf fall and poor flowering.
For this reason, when planting a new plant, a lot of compost and humus are immediately introduced into the soil.
And as needed, organic fertilizers are applied during the season.
Sakura also reacts very gratefully with abundant flowering to soil mulching... This helps to aerate the soil more and enrich the soil with useful elements.
Mulching is carried out around the trunk at a distance of several centimeters from the trunk to a depth of ten centimeters.
This will ensure that the cherry is properly nourished and saturated with useful minerals. And she, in return, will delight lovers of beautiful gardens and squares with a lush and long flowering.
Trimming and shaping the appearance of sakura
For drooping (so-called weeping) varieties, formative pruning is needed, which will give the plant a decent look.
Basically, sakura in the wild is beautiful and does not require separate pruning or molding, if this is not required by some specific forms invented by a landscape designer.
The main and correct time for pruning and forming sakura is the autumn period, when the plant is in the stage of falling asleep.
It is then that the plant painlessly perceives pruning, and crowning becomes a procedure that does not cause negative consequences for the plant.
Attention! But the trimming procedure itself must be carried out with a sterile instrument.
After all, all species and varieties are very easily infected with fungal infections. This disease is very dangerous for the plant.
To process any cuts with a garden pitch is a prerequisite.
Pruning should only be started with old branches that are no longer showing any signs of life, and those branches that are pruned to shape at a 45-degree angle should be treated with garden pitch.
Bacterial cancer damages the trunk and branches of the plant. The main indicator is dark spots on the trunk and branches of the plant. Untimely yellowness of the leaves makes one suspect the presence of this disease.
Milky juice is also a fairly common and dangerous disease for sakura. It appears with a silvery sheen on the foliage. This is a fungal disease, therefore it also affects the bark of a tree.
Moniliosis - a fungal disease that provokes a sharp wilting of leaves and shoots. This disease also affects the trunk of the cherry tree. Cracking of the bark and young branches appears.
Spotting full of holes It infects foliage with brown spots, which then turn into holes. The disease practically destroys the foliage and prevents the formation of new buds. With such a disease, it is urgent to treat the plant with Bordeaux mixture in order to destroy the rudimentary manifestations of this fungal disease.
Late blight manifested by a characteristic vertical line of damage to the main trunk. If such a crack is found along the sakura trunk, then you can safely diagnose late blight.
Until a certain time, it is not difficult to fight it. You just need to control the watering and mulching of the soil under the sakura plantings.
Sakura is a rather unpretentious tree that remains an excellent decoration for a garden, arboretum, park or any other forest park that needs landscaping.
Cherry (sakura) in verses by famous Japanese poets (part 1)
In the garden of the late poet Sengin
How many memories
You woke up in my soul,
About the cherries of the old garden!
Cherries (sakura) in verses by famous Japanese poets... For centuries, the Japanese have glorified the beauty of blooming cherry blossom — Japanese cherries... Delicate cherry (sakura) petals fell in love so much that they took a special place in the culture of this people. For the Japanese, the color and shape of cherry blossoms (sakura) have become a symbol of purity and sincerity. In some cases, the Japanese word for "flower" refers specifically to sakura. For thousands of years, the Japanese have admired these lovely flowers.
This folk custom of admiring cherry blossoms is sung in numerous creations of Japanese poetry, with the theme of sakura blossoming in it, motifs of intimate feelings and love lyrics are organically intertwined. With great power of expressiveness, the moods of the poets' deep love for the enchanting with its uniqueness picture of not only flowering, but also wilting of sakura flowers are conveyed.
The people love and willingly create short songs - concise poetic formulas, where there is not a single superfluous word. From folk poetry, these songs pass into literary, continue to develop in it and give rise to new poetic forms.
This is how the national poetic forms were born in Japan: the five-line - tanka and the three-line - hokku.
Hokku is a lyric poem. It depicts the life of nature and the life of man in their integral, indissoluble unity against the background of the cycle of the seasons.
When reading the hokku, one should remember: "they are all short, but in each of them the poet was looking for a path from heart to heart":
Spring fog, why did you hide
Those cherries that have finished blooming
On the slopes of the mountains
We only love not shine, -
And the withering moment is worthy of admiration!
Ki no Tsurayuki
Together with Japanese poets, we will contemplate the beauty of this time of year.
Enjoy - cherry (sakura) in verses by famous Japanese poets:
The spring night has passed.
White dawn has turned around
A sea of cherry blossoms.
Under the canopy of the branches
A crowd of courtiers admires ...
Others only look from afar.
They feel sorry for her scent.
Cherries in full bloom!
And the dawn is as usual
There, over a distant mountain ...
In the shade of cherry blossoms
I'm like a hero of an old drama
I lay down to sleep at night.
That's right, cherry blossoms
They gave their color
To the voices of nightingales.
How gentle they sound
At the spring dawn!
How enviable is their fate!
North of the hectic world
Cherries bloomed in the mountains.
Cherries by the waterfall ...
To the one who loves good wine,
I'll take a branch as a gift.
Clouds of cherry blossoms!
The ringing of the bell swam ... From Ueno
Let's hit the road! I'll show you
Cherry blossoms in distant Yoshino
My old hat.
From where the seas are open
The spring sun is shining.
Cherry blossoms on the mountains!
The petals beckon -
The temple flickers and flickers
Through the sakura branches.
At the very top, in the distance, -
O haze of the surrounding hills,
Don't go high!
Spring is leaving
But in indecision they hesitate
With a gentle swirl of petals
Swept cherry straw cloak
At a log melter ...
There are no thieves in Yoshino!
Blooming cherry tree branch
Nobody will steal.
As if they fell from heaven -
"Cherries, cherry blossoms are blooming!" -
And about these old trees
They sang once ...
A sad world!
Even when the cherries are blooming ...
There are no strangers between us!
We are all brothers to each other
Under the cherry blossoms.
Amazing it is -
As if nothing had happened to live
Under the cherry blossoms.
Sakura tree is an ancient symbol of Japan. The time of the fabulous bloom of this flower means that spring has come, and this holiday is celebrated by the whole nation. Sakura is often called the Japanese cherry.How correct is this? In fact, sakura is a garden, collective name for forms that are distinguished on the basis of individual East Asian species, often with double flowers, as a rule, pink in color.
Most of the cherry blossoms are of the sharply serrated or serrated cherry species. The tree grows in nature to a height of 25 meters. In autumn, its large leaves acquire dark purple, sometimes almost brown tones. About 7-9 flowers in a loose brush of small size, which is up to 5 meters long. Different forms bloom at different times from March to June.
There is a species with a very similar Latin name Prunus serrula (as they write in catalogs abroad), or, to be more precise, Padus serrulata, a kind of Tibetan fine-sawed bird cherry, which has absolutely nothing to do with sakuras. This bird cherry is appreciated for its unusual spectacular glossy color of the bark.
Sakhalin cherry varieties
Another species native to the Far East is similar to sharp-topped cherry - this is the Sakhalin cherry (Cerasus sachalinesis). Representatives of this species are widespread on the islands of the coast of the Sea of Japan, islands in the Lesser Kuril ridge, on Sakhalin and in the Primorsky Territory. Trees in nature grow up to 8 meters high, with an orange-red trunk and large dark green leaves that resemble cherry leaves.
Pink flowers are large in size, reaching a diameter of 4 centimeters. It is notable for the fact that it blooms very early, at the same time as the apricot, and is also capable of withstanding frosts of 40-50 degrees in its homeland. Also, its advantages include resistance to clasterosporia and coccomycosis, restrained growth, as well as a rather spectacular, autumn yellow-pink color of the leaves. On the basis of this species in the Krasnodar Territory, at the Crimean selection experimental station of the VIR, varieties were distinguished that have a high decorative value: Cypress, Kunashir # 23, Roseanne, which are promising for testing in areas closer to the north.
Cherry Sargent - varieties
Cherry Sargent appears in foreign sources as an analogue of Sakhalin cherry. They are most likely the same species.
The third species, which is one of the ancestors of the sakura, is the short-bristled cherry (Cerasus subhirtella). Sometimes this tree reaches 10 meters in height, but on average it grows 3-7 meters in height, with umbrella-shaped lush racemes, which consist of light purple flowers. The following varieties were identified on its basis: Pendula, Fukubana, Autamnaliis, Autamnalis Rosea, Plena with pink flowers.
Cherry Lanneisiana - varieties
Sakura varieties are nowadays created based on interspecific crosses, attracting cherries lanneisiana (Cerasus lannesiana), initise (Cerasus incise), yedoensis (Cerasus yedoensis)... The following varieties are examples: "Shidare Yoshino" with milky white flowers, "Spire" - a hybrid of Sargent cherry and incise cherry, all of them are able to withstand frost of 29 degrees. "Hally Tolivett" is a complex interspecific hybrid of honeydew cherries and short-bristled cherries. This hybrid is, in the end, even more frost-hardy than all the others. By himself, he is a medium-sized tree with a rounded crown. Pinkish non-double flowers up to 4 centimeters in diameter, collected in inflorescences, having a length of 8-10 centimeters. It reproduces well by means of green cuttings.
Sharp-serrated cherry - varieties
Breeders abroad have identified a number of beautiful and mesmerizing sakura, created on the basis of sharp-topped cherry. Admittedly, the palm belongs to the variety "Kwanzan"which is also known as Naden, Kirin, NewRed, Hisakura, Sekiyama... Its flowers are intensely purple in color and consist of about 30 petals. The only pity is that this variety is distinguished by longevity.
"Amonogawa" - this is another variety, which is a very narrow tree, having a width of 1.25 millimeters and a height of up to 8 meters. It blooms with semi-double, fragrant flowers of pale pink color.
"Shiro-fugen" Is a variety that attracts with its white, semi-double flowers, which gradually become white-pink.
Tree varieties "Shiritae" small in size up to 4.5 meters high - this is a typical representative of "village cherries" or, in other words, sato-sakura.
Variety "Tai Haku" discovered in the early 20th century in one of the gardens of England, and was subsequently reintroduced to Japan. This variety has non-double flowers up to 6 centimeters in diameter, which are pale white in color.
It is worth remembering the variety "Kikushidare", which has a height of 3-5 meters, with double, large flowers, growing in diameter up to 6 centimeters.
Unfortunately, all varieties of sharp-serrated cherries are able to withstand temperatures of 29 degrees below zero, and even then not for very long.
Interesting facts about finely sawed cherries
The oldest serrated cherry is over 2000 years old. The Japanese claim that it was planted by the ruler of Yamato Takeru during the invasion campaigns. The tree is still growing in the garden of the Buddha Temple in Hokuto. The girth of its trunk is about 13.5 m. This cherry became the first culture - a state natural monument.
Two other cherries, from among the oldest - Clear Water and Waterfall three springs. The Japanese claim that one of them is 1,500 years old, its height is 16.3 m, and its girth is 9.9 m. You can look at the amazing tree in the city of Takayama. Cherry Waterfall lives 1000 years for three springs, girth is 9.5 m, but the height is 19 m. This wonderful tree is located in the city of Miharu.
According to botanists, the most beautiful cherry grows in Kyoto, the oldest capital of Japan.
According to an old superstition, a petal of a tree falling into a bowl of sake gives good luck and heals diseases.
When the cherry blossoms, products appear in all outlets that can be found only during this period. The most famous are sakura cha, a tea with salted cherry petals, and sakura mochi, a rice cake stuffed with sugar beans wrapped in a salted cherry leaf. In almost every shop you can find "hanami bento" - this is an assembled box of picnic products. It includes all kinds of food, desserts and wines.
During the Second World War, the image of a flower adorned kamikaze aircraft, this inspired aviators.
During the period when cherry blossoms, in Japan, all kinds of festivals and celebrations are held directly related to cherry. In Kyoto, they hold sakura matsuri, or sakura kai, which means themed evenings. They perform the "cherry dance" and hold Heian epoch costume celebrations. In the town of Nara, an enchanting parade is held, where women and children, with cherry twigs, pass through the streets in the city center.