What mushrooms are easiest to grow in the country without a greenhouse and substrate
Those who love to eat mushrooms, but do not like to pick them, will like the way they grow in their own garden. In addition, such plantings allow you to get a good harvest in a small area, saving you from the need to comb the forest for hours in search of your favorite treat.
Natural mycelium is required for planting champignons. Get it from myceliums. To do this, you need to remove the fertile soil layer (20 cm thick) around the growing mushrooms. Select areas of soil with mycelium and put them in a plastic container in one layer. In this form, the planting material is stored for 2 days at a temperature of + 7 ° C. It is not recommended to collect mycelium near highways and in industrial areas of the city, since mycelium in this case will contain poisons and dangerous compounds of harmful substances. Champignons grow well in areas with dry soil in the shade. Preparing the beds for planting mushrooms consists in removing the sod layer of soil and disinfecting the soil with a carbation solution. Then, with the handle of a shovel, make depressions in a checkerboard pattern at a distance of 15 cm from each other and no more than 5 cm deep. be below the soil level by 2 cm. The hole is covered with a fertile layer of soil and tamped a little. It is necessary to provide drainage from excess moisture. 5 days after planting, it is necessary to carefully raise the soil above the holes and make sure that the mushroom spores are similar. After another 2 weeks, white sprouts should be clearly visible on the surface of the garden. Champignons do not tolerate sudden changes in air temperature. When planting, the soil should be warmed up to 25 ° C. Also, it should not be allowed to dry out. After the sprouts appear on the surface of the soil, the ridge should be covered with newspapers or straw. The soil covered in this way can be sprayed with a small amount of water in order to form a stable microclimate near the mushroom sprouts. The crop can be harvested 30 days after planting the mycelium. Mushrooms ripen in waves.
An ideal place for growing porcini mushrooms will be a shaded area with diffused sunlight. To increase the yield, mycelium should be planted no further than 50 cm from a coniferous or deciduous tree. Mushrooms will not grow in the vicinity of the fruit tree. Care must be taken to ensure that the soil of the future garden always remains moist. Before planting, it is recommended to add a growth activator to the soil. Mycelium is planted from May to September on a cloudy and cool day. White mushroom is grown from mycelium. On the selected plot of land at the rate of 1 package of the purchased mycelium for 3 sq. m of the planting area, the top layer of soil is removed (no more than 20 cm deep). The bottom of the planting hole is covered with a layer of needles of coniferous trees, bark and leaves 10 cm thick. Then 5 cm of fertile soil is poured. The mycelium is mixed with sand and poured onto the formed nutrient medium. It is also necessary to sprinkle the mycelium with soil so that rainwater does not wash it off. After sowing, the garden bed is gently watered with a small drip watering can. You can harvest from one mushroom planting for 5 years.
It is better to plant mushrooms near pines or firs, in their shade. These mushrooms prefer sour soil. Neutral soil can be acidified with sawdust or spruce needles. The planting material is prepared from crushed and dried mushroom caps. To accelerate the germination of the mycelium, it is soaked for 24 hours in warm water with the addition of sugar or alcohol. The resulting mass after filtering the liquid can be planted in open ground. It is possible to plant from May to October. A hole with a volume of 3 liters is dug no further than 2 m from coniferous trees. The bottom of the recess is cleaned of stones and weed roots, 1 liter of clean water is poured. Up to 1/3 of the depth is covered with soil from a coniferous forest. The mycelium is placed on it, which is covered with a fertile layer of soil. The bed and the ground near it are moistened with a spray bottle. Ryzhiks grow actively in warm and humid climates. In the absence of precipitation, the planting of mushrooms is watered weekly (3 liters of rainwater per garden bed). The first harvest can be expected next year after planting the mycelium. Mushroom picking is possible from June to September. Fruiting of one bed lasts 6 years.
Morels grow well in lighted areas and organic-rich soils. Before planting mushrooms, it is useful to add ash to the soil. It is recommended to breed morels in a dense orchard or on the edge of a deciduous forest. Morel beds should be equipped with a drainage system to prevent water from stagnating at the planting site. To create a bed, the topsoil must be removed. Fill the resulting depression with sawdust, ash and garden soil. Evenly distribute the mycelium of morels and sprinkle the mycelium with a layer of soil that was removed during the preparation of the beds. The planting site is additionally covered with small branches, foliage. You can put a few rotten apples to enrich the soil with organic compounds and moisten a little water with a watering can. Before the onset of stable winter frosts, planting morels is insulated with foliage, straw or grass. With the onset of the spring thaw, the protective layer is removed. Fruiting of morels begins a year after planting from April to June. Morels grow on one bed for 5 years.
Chanterelles grow only under oak, fir, beech or spruce. For cultivation of these mushrooms, substrates and feeding are not needed. Symbiosis with tree roots is important for chanterelles. Mushrooms are not demanding on the availability of nutrients in the soil and its moisture. Mycelium taken under a certain tree will take root only under a tree of the same species. Seedling material is harvested in the fall and aged until spring. It is necessary to store mycelium in fabric bags that cannot be tightly tied. The room should be cool and well ventilated. The optimum storage temperature for chanterelle mycelium is from -2 to + 8 ° C. A few days before sowing, the soil under the tree is moistened. Next, a hole is prepared with a depth of 20 cm and a diameter of 50 cm. The soil with mycelium is evenly laid at the bottom, which is sprinkled with fertile soil. The formed bed is moistened with a small amount of water. The first harvest can be expected one year after planting.
It is very tempting to have boletus and aspen mushrooms, chanterelles and porcini mushrooms and even mushrooms in your garden. And this is quite real. Only one condition is needed - that there are birches or spruces, pines or oaks on the site. After all, these mushrooms are closely related to the roots of trees and do not grow without their participation.
White mushroom (Boletus edulis)
When choosing forest mushrooms for growing in the garden, you must first of all focus on what trees are on your site. If it is a birch, then you can grow a boletus, an aspen, a birch form of a porcini mushroom. If it is a spruce, then you need to give preference to spruce mushroom or spruce form of white mushroom. The chanterelle grows with both coniferous and deciduous trees, and the golden-yellow larch oiler, according to the name, grows only with larch trees.
Why do forest mushrooms have such a close connection with the tree? The fact is that, braiding its root and even penetrating into the cells, the mycelium forms a kind of complex - the fungus root, or mycorrhiza. Hence their name - mycorrhizal fungi.
Mycorrhiza is a complex symbiosis of trees and shrubs with mushrooms, which has not been fully understood. That is why we have not yet learned how to obtain forest mushrooms in artificial conditions. However, it is still possible to move them to your garden, and amateur mushroom growers have already accumulated sufficient experience in this. The most tested methods of growing porcini mushrooms, so let's talk about them in more detail. In addition, you can grow other forest mushrooms that you want to see in your garden in the same way.
Symbiosis with tree fungus - mycorrhiza
Few people know that our beloved porcini mushroom, depending on the tree with which it forms mycorrhiza, has 18 forms. They can be distinguished by the color of the cap. For example, in the birch form, it is whitish or light brown. The best conditions for its fruiting are birch forests with a herb ground cover. And for the pine or upland form with a brownish-cherry-red cap and a very thick leg, pine forests are suitable, where lingonberries, heather or lichen grow. This must also be taken into account when choosing porcini mushrooms for a garden plot.
As we already mentioned, there are several ways to breed porcini mushrooms, let's start with the oldest.
The first way.
Overripe mushrooms are placed in a wooden dish and poured with rainwater. Withstand for about a day, then stir, filter through a rare tissue. The resulting infusion with numerous fungal spores is poured over the soil around the tree from the trunk to the border of the crown. This method was successfully tested by the author in his own garden, where several 25-year-old birches grow.
By the way, experts say that the most favorable age of trees for growing mycorrhizal forest mushrooms under them is from 10 to 30 years.
White mushroom (Boletus edulis)
Where the necessary mushrooms grew, they carefully dig out small (from a matchbox) pieces of mycelium. In the garden, they are carefully laid in shallow pits, covered with a bedding of rotted leaves or needles and slightly moistened (but not watered!). If the weather is dry, the shelter is periodically lightly sprayed so that the soil below is moist all the time.
Pieces of mycelium are planted along the perimeter of the crown at a distance of 1.5-3 m from the trunk.
It consists in using pieces of ripe mushroom caps. There may be different options here.
Common boletus (Birch bolete)
Under the trees, pieces of caps of fresh ripe mushrooms are laid out on a loosened litter of rotted leaves or needles. After 4-5 days, they are removed, and the bedding is moistened. You can also use dried pieces of hats. In this case, they are already placed under the litter.
In mature porcini mushrooms, the tubular part of the cap is separated, crushed into pieces up to 2 cm, dried for 1.5-2 hours, stirring occasionally. Then, with a wooden spatula, lift the upper part of the needles or rotted leaves lying under the tree, and put 2-3 pieces of the mushroom there. Then the coniferous or leaf litter is compacted and carefully watered.
With all these methods, it is possible to collect some mushrooms already next year. After another year, you can count on a richer harvest. Of course, due to unfavorable weather and the influence of other unregulated and often unknown factors, there may be failures. But they should not embarrass amateur mushroom growers, especially since growing forest mushrooms does not require any material costs, except for your, in this case, not very big, labor.
If the plot is small and only fruit trees grow there, mushrooms can be grown in the same ways in the nearest forest or grove, where there are pines, spruces, oaks or birches at the age of 10-20 years. In this case, you also need to choose a place similar to where the planting material was taken from (in terms of soil composition, tree species, the nature of the undergrowth, grass cover).
The mushroom plantation you have created, located in a nearby forest, will not only allow you to bring home a full basket of selected mushrooms throughout the season, but will also contribute to the expansion of their growing areas. It is no secret that they are constantly decreasing, especially around cities. According to the memoirs of the remarkable Russian writer A.S. Aksakov, in the middle of the 19th century, for example, they went to pick mushrooms on carts, and now they go with only one basket.
When growing forest mushrooms, do not forget the main rule - they need to be planted only under a tree of the species near which the mycelium or mushroom was taken for planting, since these forest dwellers are very attached to their woody neighbors.
Common chanterelle, or real (Cantharellus cibarius)
Hot salted mushrooms.
Porcini mushrooms, aspen mushrooms, boletus boletus, boletus, chanterelles, mushrooms are repeatedly washed with cold water. Water is poured into a saucepan at the rate of 1 cup per 1 kg of mushrooms, salt is added (1 tablespoon per liter of water) and after boiling water - mushrooms. During cooking, remove foam, add spices. After 15-20 minutes, they are thrown into a colander, cooled, placed in a keg or saucepan, sprinkled with spices, and covered with a circle with light oppression. Store in a cool place. The mushrooms will be ready no earlier than in a month.
- Products: 10 kg of mushrooms, 500 g of salt, 40 black peppercorns, bay leaves, cloves and dill inflorescences to taste.
Cold salted mushrooms.
Milk mushrooms, volushkas, russula are poured with cold water and placed in a cool place for a day. Then the water is drained, the prepared mushrooms are rinsed with water, laid out in a tub in layers, sprinkling each with salt and spices, covered with a circle with oppression and kept in a cool place. The mushrooms will be ready in 1.5 months.
- Products: 10 kg of mushrooms, 400 g of salt, allspice, bay leaves, dill, coarsely chopped garlic to taste.
- Garden - Vegetable Garden - Flower Garden No. 8 (77), August 2009 - L. V. Garibova, Doctor of Biological Sciences
Sowing seeds can be produced numbers from April 10th. But it is advisable to prepare them before planting.
1.From mid-March, it is better to shift the seeds closer to the heating devices for warming up.
2. In April, select for sowing full-bodied, strong seeds, without sores and damage.
3. Soak the seeds for 15 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g of the substance per half a glass of water). Then rinse with chilled water.
4. Put cheesecloth on a saucer, moisten it, then put the seeds and cover them on top with damp gauze. Leave for a couple of days by the battery, constantly moisturizing. The seeds should be slightly baked.
5. Remove seeds for 24 hours in the main compartment of the refrigerator.
While the seeds are being processed, you should prepare containers for sowing (or peat cups) and soil.
Plant like this:
• fill containers with soil
• make small holes at a distance of 10 cm from each other
• place 1 seed in the holes
• sprinkle with earth and water slightly.
It will take about a week for the first shoots to appear. When the plants acquire 2 real leaves, they can be fed with a nitrophoska solution. Water in moderation, once a week.
About 3-4 weeks after sowing, the plants are ready for open field transplantation. By this time, they should have about 3 leaves and a strong stem. It is necessary to replant around the middle of May, when the earth warms up to +15 degrees.
For cucumbers, it is necessary to form beds and spill them with hot water with the addition of copper sulphate (1 tsp per 10 liters of water). The next day, make small holes at a distance of about 60 cm from each other and plant seedlings in them. It is good to sprinkle the base of the stems with earth and pour water at room temperature.
How to arrange a pharmaceutical garden
The design of a fragrant garden depends on the area allocated to it and your imagination. If there is not enough space, break decorative flower bedby dividing it into sectors. Plant tall grasses in the center - for example, lovage, wormwood, elecampane. Place the rest of the selected plants in sectors, choosing harmonious combinations. Perhaps ideas and schemes from the publication of 5 medicinal beds for summer cottages will help you with this.
The classic style of the pharmaceutical garden - small segments of geometric shapes, separated by narrow intersecting paths.You can alternate planting grass with areas planted with lawn grass. As an example, pay attention to ornamental garden schemes from the following publications (you can easily choose an assortment of plants at your discretion, taking as a basis the original ideas for planting planning):
- Square garden with gravel paths
- Vegetable kaleidoscope
- Round vegetable garden
- Square vegetable garden with lawn insert
If you have decided on a place for a kitchen garden, and your beds (or flower beds) are planned as stationary, do not forget to choose a decent frame for them: successful border will not only give a neat look to the landings, but also decorate them. You will find practical ideas and tips for their implementation in the article Make a garden: ideas for decorating flower beds and beds.
Be sure to use in plantings flowering plants - monarda, calendula, valerian, yarrow and others. The basis of the pharmaceutical garden is usually perennials... You can plant sage, thyme, lemon balm, oregano, chives, St. John's wort.
On the terrace you can create kitchen garden in containers... A selection of ideas for container gardens and vegetable gardens in a small area will tell you the options for its design. It is convenient to grow thermophilic types of medicinal and spicy herbs in pots, which freeze out in the open ground in winter - with the onset of cold weather they are brought from the street into a cool room.
It is a plant of long day and high temperature. Care and cultivation include weeding and loosening the row spacings. Due to the short growing season, herbicides are not used. Weed growth can be reduced by mulching the soil.
During a drought and for several sunny days in a row, chard needs to be watered regularly - a plant suffering from a lack of water quickly withers, the leaves become less tasty. The plant is especially demanding for watering in the period from sowing to germination.
Chard reacts positively to organic fertilization. Mineral fertilizers should be applied before sowing in an amount:
- 60-90 kg / ha N,
- 60-90 kg / ha P2O5,
- 120-130 kg / ha K2O.
In amateur cultivation, it is better not to apply fertilizers - the leaves can accumulate nitrates.
The first harvest of chard is obtained in 2 months, maximum 10 weeks after germination, when the plant produces about 8 leaves. Then you can begin to systematically collect the leaves, picking off the most beautiful, oldest specimens. It is better to collect in this way: slightly pull and twist each leaf separately. If you cut a leaf from the root with a knife, the beetroot juice will leak out unnecessarily. The best tasting young leaves.
The autumn harvest period lasts from late September to late autumn. Depending on the variety and growing conditions, the yield is 35-80 t / ha (3.5-8 kg / m²). Leaves and petioles are not suitable for long-term storage. At 0 ° C and a relative humidity of no more than 90%, they are stored for several days.
Pests and diseases
- Chard usually does not cause problems, but can be attacked by mites, caterpillars, eating holes in the leaves.
- The black beet aphid feeds on chard leaves, sucks out juices, causes deformation of the leaf plate, it is difficult to wash it off, insects nest in the wrinkles of the leaves.
- The most dangerous pest is a slug that feeds on a sheet of chard. It is worth planting basil next to it, which holds back the attack of slugs.
- Cercosporosis of chard or leaf spot. Swiss chard is susceptible to leaf spot caused by the fungus Cercospora hydrangeae - the disease affects the leaf blade, causing grayish-gray spots with a purple edge. Occurs on outer leaves. The disease spreads very quickly, affecting young leaves. Warm, humid weather favors the development of the disease. Especially often appears in the Krasnodar, Primorsky Territory, in the west of Ukraine, in arid regions, the disease is rare. Control measures: 1% Bordeaux liquid or topsin 70% at the first sign.
- Powdery mildew. The disease occurs on the underside of the leaves in the form of a white bloom. Protect chard from fungal diseases with fungicides.
Getting a crop in winter at home from a root crop
Harvesting of chard ends in late autumn. After the growing season, you can dig up the roots and plant them in small pots in the ground about 1/3 of the root height. Thickened roots growing in the ground usually grow a few centimeters above the surface, so that a small part remains underground. Beet pots are placed on a sunny windowsill and watered, after a few weeks you can harvest again. The leaves will no longer be as beautiful as in summer, but no less delicious.