Soil content in the orchard
Steam, steam-side, sod-humus systems and sodding
Recently, many gardeners are starting to adhere to organic farming system... It should be noted that its popularity and prospects are explained, first of all, by the environmental friendliness of the methods and fertilizers used, and, accordingly, the products.
In addition, if all recommendations are followed, the yield increases significantly over time. This allows you to get the same yields from a smaller area.
The freed up areas can be occupied by trees and flowers. In general, a large part of the vegetable garden can be turned into a garden.
Some gardeners will want to plant more flowers, others will want trees. It is also possible to plant flowers under the trees. However, I want to warn you that you should not plant large perennials with a highly developed root system under trees. Can be planted with sufficient light stonecrops, muscari, crocuses, daffodils, tulips and others, in the shade - aquilegia, periwinkle, irises and some other plants. It should be noted that gardeners have such a concept as a trunk circle. It implies the nutritional area of the tree and depends on its age. In addition, circular grooves with a depth of 25-30 cm are made along the periphery of the crown for fertilization. In the first two years, the diameter of the trunk circle is 2 m, in the 3rd and 4th years - 2.5 m, in the 5th and 6th - 3 m.
For the first 4-5 years, tree trunks should not be planted even in vigorous trees. In trees on low-growing rootstocks, these circles (in large gardens - stripes) should not be planted with anything at all.
And under soil content in the garden, it should be understood, first of all, the content of the aisles. By the way, the row spacing and the distance between trees in a row should depend on the type of variety and rootstock... So, vigorous varieties of apple trees on seed stocks are recommended to be placed according to a 4x6 m scheme, the same varieties on inserts - according to a 3x5 m scheme, the same varieties on clonal stocks - according to a 2.5x4 m scheme.Those gardeners and farmers who want a part of their plot make it an orchard, I suggest that you familiarize yourself with the possible options for soil content.
Currently in Russia there are four systems of soil maintenance in an orchard: steam, steam-sided, sod-humus and cultivated turf (tinning). I will dwell on the essence, advantages and disadvantages of each.
Steam Soil Maintenance System
Its essence lies in regular mechanical tillage. In industrial conditions, this is autumn plowing followed by spring harrowing and cultivation. For areas measured in hundreds, this is digging with a shovel, harrowing with a rake, loosening with a flat cutter.
- Preservation of moisture in the soil.
- Weed control.
- Regulation of thermal conditions.
- Destruction of the structure and physical properties of the soil.
- Decrease in humus reserves due to its enhanced oxidation by autochthonous microflora.
- A plow sole is created, which does not allow the spread of the root system.
- Soil erosion is increasing.
The peculiarity of this system is that from the beginning of the season until about mid-summer, the soil "steams", and in the second half of summer, every second row spacing sown with green manure.
- Large masses of organic matter accumulate, which is better used by fruit trees than manure.
- The number of water-resistant aggregates increases, the soil is loosened by roots to a considerable depth, that is, the soil is structured.
- Green manures left for the winter insulate the soil.
- Siderates, sucking off excess water, contribute to the end of the growing season of the main crop and better ripening of wood, and therefore its better overwintering. It is of particular importance in regions with excessive precipitation.
Under this system, most of the garden area is occupied by natural grass or seeded perennial grasses.
- The structure is quickly restored. - Deep penetration of roots occurs, after the death of which a capillary structure is created, due to which friability, porosity, water permeability, moisture capacity and aeration increase.
- The number of earthworms.
- Decreases overheating.
- The level of groundwater is decreasing.
- The bark on the boles is not damaged.
- Erosion control is in progress.
- The soil is drying up.
- There is a nitrogen deficiency.
It is a type of turfing (tinning). This implies sowing grasses in the aisles of the garden. As the grass stand grows by 10-12 cm, it is mowed in place and left in the form of mulch... Frequent mowing inhibits the growth of grass root systems, making them less competitive with trees for moisture and nutrition. The mulch layer helps to retain moisture, but it is still recommended to carry out sprinkling irrigation, which, firstly, provides moisture to the fruit crop, and secondly, it promotes mulch overheating.
If the herbage is purely cereal in terms of species composition, it is advisable to feed it with nitrogen fertilizer at the rate of 60-90 kg / ha (6-9 g / m2). This corresponds to 1.5-2 c / ha or 15-20 g / m2 of ammonium nitrate. When using microbiological fertilizers, the dose of mineral nitrogen can be reduced by 20-25%. In addition, the need for nitrogen can be at least partially satisfied by introducing clover into the grass stand. For example, sow a ryegrass mixture, clover and fescue. This system is most effective when there is an organized water supply to the main crop.
From the point of view of the rationality of the methods, the steam system best of all ensures the fight against pests, diseases and weeds, but then the increase in soil fertility is possible only through the introduction of manure or peat-manure compost and mineral fertilizers, which is quite costly. In this case, the soil loses its structure, as a result of which it floats (causing the roots to suffocate) and erodes.
The goals of a significant increase in soil fertility by increasing the content of humus and improving their structure are answered by the tinning, sod-humus and parosideral systems. The combination of these systems is quite promising. For example, a system has proven itself well, in which the main part of the area is tinned, while the near-trunk strips or circles are not sown, but mulched with cut grass.
When choosing a system, it is necessary, on the one hand, to take into account the weather and climatic conditions of the region, and on the other, to decide for yourself which is more important: the beauty of the garden or the yield.
SHELTER OF PLANTS WITH NEEDLES
In winter, pine needles will be an ideal shelter for many thermophilic plants. First, all the lashes and branches are bent to the ground and fixed, after which the plantings are covered with a good layer of pine litter, previously dried in the sun, and covered with a film. If it is necessary to protect the roots of young trees from frost, bags full of needles can be laid out in the trunk circle.
Book-magazine "Encyclopedia of the summer resident. Fruit garden" 2016 (10)
Delicious and aromatic fruits and berries grown by your own hands are one of the greatest pleasures in the life of every gardener. Some fruit crops are unpretentious, others are rare and capricious, but we are ready to overcome difficulties, gain new knowledge in order to grow a Garden of Eden on our land. What could be more pleasant than treating your family and friends with mouth-watering fruit desserts, healthy homemade preparations?
Use our summer resident's encyclopedia to grow a crop according to science, effortlessly, but with maximum results! We have collected all the necessary information for you: scientific advice, tricks and secrets, tested by generations of Russian summer residents, an interesting experience of gardeners all over the world.
Be successful, get great results and great pleasure from gardening, with our Fruit Garden encyclopedia you will succeed!
Yulia Popova, editor-in-chief of the Sadovnik magazine
TIPS FOR GARDENERS
4 Basic rules of care
behind the garden
5 Calendar of works for the year
Garden care calendar
6 How to attract birds to the garden
7 Protecting trees from winter
8 How to deal with sticky snow and freezing rain
9 Rooting grape cuttings
9 Winter grafting
10 Protecting the garden from frost
11 What to prune in the garden in spring
12 Pruning fruit trees
13 Spring grafting of fruit
14 How to Treat Winter Damage
15 Disease prevention
16 Watering rules
18 Mineral dressing
19 How to increase soil fertility
20 Harvesting table
22 Whitewashing trees
23 Preparing the garden for winter
24 What to cut in the fall
25 How to keep seedlings until spring
26 Basic rules
27 How many trees do you need
in the orchard?
28 How to plan work
29 How to rejuvenate
30 Determination of soil type
31 How to lower soil acidity
32 Selection of winter-hardy varieties
33 planting trees
Problems and solutions
35 With regard to the fight against groundwater
36 Why does the trunk of an apple tree turn black
36 Why do apple tree branches dry
37 How to avoid the appearance
38 Why are there not enough berries on currants?
38 What to do if leaves fall on the currant?
39 Ant Control Measures
40 Tips for dealing with wasps
40 Why Not Tied Up
fruits on the pear?
41 What to do if it dries up
42 Reasons for the decline in yield
42 Spots on strawberry leaves
43 Who spoils the strawberry buds?
44 Why do grapes have small berries?
45 Is the crying of grapes dangerous?
46 Why does the ovary crumble
by the plum?
46 Ways to combat aphids
47 Why does the plum become
The best recipes from fruits and berries
49 Methods for drying fruits and berries
50 How best to sterilize jars
51 Spicy plums
51 Gooseberry jam
52 Rosehip compote
52 Cranberries in powdered sugar
53 Pickled apples and apple
54 Cooking tips
55 Kiev dry jam
55 Pear jam with lingonberries
56 Strawberry-currant wine
56 Apple wine with prunes
57 Plum liqueur
57 Apple cider vinegar
DIRECTORY OF PLANTS
64 Cherry plum
100 Strawberries (garden strawberries)
130 Sea buckthorn
146 Bird cherry
148 Sweet cherry
154 Apple tree
Autumn work in the garden and garden necessarily includes the application of fertilizers and various nutritious dressings. At different times, plants in the garden and vegetable garden need different ratios of nutrients. In autumn, a high content of phosphorus and potassium is required. These macronutrients contribute to good maturation of wood, the accumulation of substances necessary for wintering and a good spring start, positively affect the growth of roots and the formation of the future harvest, and increase the resistance of plants to certain diseases. They are also useful for improving the taste of fruits and their intense coloration.
But nitrogen fertilizing in the fall must be excluded. This element provokes untimely growth of shoots and makes it difficult for the wood to ripen. As a result, not having time to prepare for the cold, trees and shrubs are easily damaged even by slight frosts.
Fertilizers can be applied both in liquid and dry form. The fertilizer solution is prepared according to the instructions (the recommended concentration should not be exceeded) and the plants are watered at the root. Foliar dressing is not carried out in the fall: the leaves at this time are rough, protected by a dense integumentary tissue, which is practically unable to pass various substances.
Dry fertilizers are evenly distributed over the entire trunk circle, after which the soil is shallowly dug up or loosened. Fertilization in the pits gives a good result. To do this, 3 - 4 pits with a depth of 20 - 25 cm are made around a tree or shrub, the required dose of fertilizer is evenly distributed over the pits, the pits are buried. Do not pits too close to the trunk: the fertilizer is absorbed only by the suction roots. they are located approximately along the perimeter of the crown. After applying dry fertilizers, the plants must be watered.
Fertilizers should not be left on the soil surface: potassium and phosphorus slowly move deep into the soil, moreover, phosphorus is easily absorbed by soil particles, becoming inaccessible to plants.
If the soil in the garden is acidic, add deoxidizers (dolomite flour, lime, chalk). Ash is useful. It is not only a good deoxidizer, but also a source of ash elements. But first, to determine the rate, determine the acidity of the soil in your garden.
The corresponding doses of the drug are indicated on the package. It is advisable to check the acidity of the soil annually, because most mineral fertilizers contribute to the acidification of the soil.
The element takes part in biochemical reactions in plants. At the same time, iodine is a disinfectant. As such, it can be used to destroy pests and bacteria and fungi that are pathogenic for the garden flora.
The element kills spores of gray mold, powdery mildew and late blight. Iodine spraying is useful for:
- plants with delicate leaves - eggplants and cucumbers
- perennials suffering from fungal diseases - garden strawberries and black currants.
Enrichment of agricultural products
There are almost no regions in Russia where the population does not suffer from iodine deficiency. Terrestrial plants are able to concentrate iodine in the same way that seaweed does. Plants grown on soil rich in iodine contain more of it than those grown on poor soil. Due to the fact that there is little iodine in the soil of most regions, the products from the personal plot do not contain enough microelements.
Fortification of agricultural products with iodine is tempting, as overdose is excluded. Plants from the backyard cannot contain a dose of iodine that is dangerous to humans - they absorb it from the soil in a limited amount. The use of enriched agricultural products is safer than taking vitamins from a pharmacy, and even more uncontrolled intake of iodine and lugol alcohol inside a pharmacy.
Plants can be enriched in two ways:
- introduce a trace element into the soil
- spray the leaves.
It turned out that:
- greens more easily accumulate iodine than fruit crops
- at certain concentrations iodine increases the biomass of green and fruit plants
- the element is better absorbed by plants through the roots than through the leaves
- after enrichment, the content of antioxidants useful for humans increased in lettuce.
In agriculture, potassium iodide is used as a fertilizer - colorless crystals that turn yellow in the light or when heated in air. The optimal fertilizer dose is 21 kg per hectare or 210 g. per hundred square meters. For foliar subcortexes, plants are sprayed once during the growing season with 0.02% potassium iodide solution.
Scientists managed to enrich:
- Chinese cabbage