The currant bud mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis) is a microscopic four-legged insect that belongs to the genus Cecidophyopsis of the family Eriophyidae (Trombidiformes). This harmful insect is widespread in Asia, Europe and Australia. It can be found in those areas where gooseberries or currants grow.
The insect injures the kidneys, due to which the leaf mass of the shrub is significantly reduced, and the development of its stems is noticeably impaired. In addition, this pest is a carrier of a viral disease called "terry". And he is also the cause of the degeneration of the generative organs, because of which the shrub stops forming berries.
Features of the kidney mite
The kidney mite has a white worm-shaped body. Males reach 0.15 mm in length, females are larger - about 0.3 mm. The head ends with a mouth apparatus that is outwardly similar to a wedge-shaped proboscis. The pest has 2 pairs of legs, they have feathery bristles. Elongated oval larvae are light in color. A kidney mite can harm gooseberries and black currants, but it can also settle on white and red currants. For the winter, ticks are taken into the kidneys. At the same time, one kidney can contain 3-8 thousand individuals, and in large kidneys - 8-30 thousand individuals. Those buds, inside which there are pests, look more prominent and larger. In early spring, they grow to the size of a pea and outwardly become similar to small cabbage heads, while their deformed leaves stick out. The same kidneys, where there are not too many pests, cannot be distinguished from healthy ones, this is the main difficulty in the fight against kidney mites.
The spread of pests occurs with the wind, along with seedlings, thanks to birds and various insects. The lifespan of a female is 20–45 days, while one can lay 5–100 eggs. The duration of development of eggs is 7–15 days, and the development of larvae is 7–30 days. The appearance of the first generation of ticks is observed at the very end of flowering of currant bushes. During one season, the tick is able to give 5-6 generations of offspring: 2 in the spring and 3 in the summer-autumn period.
Kidney mite on currant
In order to protect your garden from kidney mites, you must not forget about preventive measures. When purchasing seedlings, conduct a thorough examination of their buds to be sure that you do not bring a colony of harmful insects with them. Phytoncides, which are contained in garlic and onions, are able to scare off the pest, so these crops are recommended to be planted between the rows of currants. However, in this case, the onion or garlic is not dug up in the fall, but left in the ground for the winter.
If you decide to propagate a currant bush by cutting, then cut it off from a plant that is completely healthy. Experienced gardeners recommend disinfecting the cuttings; for this, they are placed in warm water (about 45 degrees) for a quarter of an hour, to which indolylbutyric acid is preliminarily added (0.5 grams of the product per bucket of water).
If there are very few buds on the bush in which the tick lives, then they can be cut off with your hands and destroyed by fire. In the event that the pest is found in almost every bud, then the above-ground part of such a shrub is cut down and destroyed, and the stump that remains in the ground is spud. After a while, new stems will grow. In order to avoid such pruning, it is recommended to carry out a thorough examination of each bush every year in spring, during which all suspicious-looking buds are cut off and burned.
How to deal with CURRANT kidney mites. Video instruction from the Nursery "Sady Urala"
In order to get rid of the kidney mite, the fight against it must be started already in the spring. To do this, before sap flow begins, currant bushes and the surface of the soil near them are sprayed with a solution of Nitrafen (for 1 liter of water 30 grams) in order to prevent it. As soon as inflorescences and foliage begin to form, they carry out 3 treatments of currants with a break of 7 days, for this they use biological pesticides from harmful insects, for example: Bitoxibacillin, Aktofit or Fitoverm. These spraying will be effective only if the air outside is warmed up to 5 degrees and above. If the weather is colder or cloudy, then it is recommended to postpone the treatment.
While the pests will move from the affected kidneys to the healthy ones, they can be destroyed by spraying the bush with ISO (lime-sulfur broth), Karbofos or another agent that contains sulfur. During the exposure of the buds, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of ISO (2%) for the first time. Re-processing is carried out after 10-12 days or immediately, as the currants fade, but in this case the solution should be one percent. In the same way and at the same time, the bushes can be sprayed with a solution of colloidal sulfur (10 grams of the product per 1 liter of water). The following acaricidal preparations can also be used to kill the tick: Endidor, Vertimek, Oberon, Nissoran, Apollo or Neoron. When spraying, try to keep each bud and branch of the currant bush well wet with the solution.
Gooseberry kidney mite
Since the gooseberry is a close relative of the currant, the kidney mite also settles on it. Both the preventive measures and the chemical preparations used in the fight against insects are the same as in the cultivation of currants, namely: inspect the seedlings before buying, at the beginning of spring, check all the buds on the bush, cut off and destroy those of them that aroused suspicion, plant garlic and onions between rows, and in case of total defeat by a pest, cut and burn all the stems. As for pesticides, the same means and at the same time can be used to process gooseberries as for spraying currant bushes.
We save the harvest of currants and gooseberries! Treatment for kidney ticks / Ivan Russkikh. Garden
If there are few pests on the shrub, then you can try to get rid of them using folk remedies, for example:
- Hot water... In early spring, before the buds swell, spill the bushes with quick circular motions with hot water (about 80 degrees), they must first be tied up. The result of this procedure will be the death of pests, as well as strengthening the immune system of the bush to powdery mildew and other diseases. It is also noticed that bushes doused with hot water give a richer harvest. In the spring, it is sometimes impossible to understand whether the sap flow has begun or not, which is why many gardeners carry out such processing in the fall at the end of the leaf fall, since the buds affected by the pest can be recognized already in the last summer days.
- Garlic water... Grind 0.2 kg of garlic and combine the resulting mass with a bucket of water. The infusion will be ready after a couple of hours, it will only be necessary to strain it and you can start processing. Instead, you can combine 150 grams of garlic husks with a bucket of hot water. Within 24 hours the infusion will be ready for use.
- Mustard infusion... Dissolve 0.2 kg of dry mustard powder in a bucket of water. Stir everything well and leave for 12 hours. Treat the plants with a strained infusion.
- Dandelion infusion... Place 50 grams of fresh foliage and 200 grams of dandelion roots in a bucket of water. The product will be ready for use in a few hours.
- Tea brewing... This tool is used to get rid of mites that are on the cuttings. Add 50 grams of tea to 25 liters of freshly boiled water. After 24 hours, cuttings are immersed in the resulting infusion, which are taken out after 3-4 hours.
Kidney mite resistant currant varieties
A large number of gardeners know a way to forget forever about what a bud mite is. To do this, they plant in their garden those varieties of currants that are resistant to this pest. For instance:
- Curiosity... This self-fertile early ripening variety has high yields and frost resistance. In addition, it is very resistant to both kidney mites and powdery mildew. Medium-sized fruits have an oval shape, sweet-sour taste and dense skin. The downside of this variety is that it needs frequent watering.
- Selechenskaya... A versatile early maturing variety with high productivity and resistance to frost and drought. This variety combines all the benefits of currants and gooseberries. Its large glossy black fruits with thin skin have a sweet taste and weigh about 5 grams. It is very resistant to kidney mites.
- Kipiana... This medium late variety is resistant to both powdery mildew and kidney mites. Almost black, rounded dessert fruits have a sweetish-sour taste and medium size.
- Vigorous... This late-ripening highly productive variety is very popular among gardeners. The oval-shaped fruits, the size of a cherry, weigh about 8 grams, the dense flesh has a refreshing sour taste. The variety is very resistant to both harmful insects and diseases, but at the same time it needs systematic rejuvenating pruning.
These currant varieties are usually quite easy to care for. In addition, most often they are resistant to other harmful insects.
Processing of CURRANT in early spring. I plant.
How to treat currants in the fall from a kidney mite
A bud mite is a harmful insect that settles on currant bushes, affecting the newly blossoming buds of the plant. If you do not notice the pest, and do not take adequate measures to combat it in time, the entire crop may die, and sometimes the entire bush.
In the article, we will find out the features of the defeat of currants by this pest: we will find out the characteristics of the kidney mite, and how the problem can be eliminated. In addition, we will get acquainted with the preventive measures for this dangerous pest.
What is the danger of a pest for currants?
Spider mites are equally aggressive towards black and red currants. Its vital activity leads to drying out of foliage and weakens the bushes. In zones with a temperate climate, the spider mite does not cause serious damage to the currant: outbreaks of its activity are observed in some years, during dry and hot summers. But the kidney currant mite hurts every year. It is less dependent on weather conditions, invulnerable inside the kidneys.
Negative results of the activity of the kidney mite on currants:
- up to 50% of the buds die off on the bush (in 1-2 seasons, on susceptible varieties)
- plant productivity drops by 30-70%
- buds die irrevocably (there are no spare ones), and the branches become bare
- the growth and development of the bush slows down.
Currant plants damaged by ticks weaken and can freeze in winter. If you do not fight with parasites, then from year to year the bushes wither and practically do not produce a crop.
How the kidney currant mite develops
Fertilized females wait out the winter in their buds, which allows them to protect themselves from frost and other adverse weather conditions.
A spider mite on currants begins to actively lay eggs when temperatures reach 5 degrees Celsius. A female can lay 7-8 thousand eggs at a time, one kidney accommodates 4-7 thousand individuals, which entails its swelling to a round size. The development of the larva inside the egg continues for up to two weeks, after the tear of the bud during the flowering period, the parasites begin to feed.
A tick on black currant sucks out all the juice of young shoots, which leads to the death of a plant that has not yet blossomed. Larvae and females migrate within 30 days, this period usually falls on the flowering of the plant.
The problem will be visible to the naked eye. Relocation of pests to other shrubs occurs with the help of rain, clothing and wind, control methods are selected depending on the flowering period.
Currant bud mite is one of the harmful parasites for horticultural crops. A female can reproduce up to five generations in one year, which is equal to about 30,000 individuals. Over time, they adapt to bad weather conditions, which makes them more resilient. If you do not take preventive measures in advance, the shrub dies in one season.
Most often, a kidney mite affects the kidney of a currant bush. Outwardly, the affected kidneys differ from healthy ones by visible deformation, they enlarge and acquire the shape of a pea. In the fall, you can see two types of buds on a currant bush:
- Patients - in appearance, resemble a small head of cabbage, the kidneys are enlarged and round. From a large number of female ticks, the buds are swollen to enormous sizes, with the onset of warm weather, their reproduction occurs.
- Healthy kidneys have an oblong rounded shape with closed scales.
You can also notice such changes:
- The bud stops developing, the stems become disheveled, which indicates a viral infection of the shrub, which the parasite could have infected. In this case, the plant does not respond to treatment, it soon dies.
- The surface of the leaf blade becomes rough, deformation is observed, the color becomes pale.
- The upper young shoots change their color, brightness and size.
Such signs are noted in the spring-summer period.
Kidney mite resistant currant varieties
Orlovchanka, Uralskie Zori, Rosita are distinguished from varieties of red currants. Shrubs are distinguished by strong immunity, are rarely affected by diseases and pests, including kidney mites. They are grown in the middle zone of the country and in the northern regions.
Of the varieties of black currant, gardeners prefer Ksyusha, Aleander, Voroninskaya. They are distinguished by high productivity, resistance to external factors. However, it is important to remember that any currant needs preventive and protective measures.