Formation of actinidia and biochemical composition

Formation of actinidia and biochemical composition

Read the previous part. ← Planting actinidia

Formation of actinidia

The yield of hybrid plants depends on the method of forming the plant itself and its size, and can range from 10-12 kg to 50-60 kg or more. The bush method, as a rule, provides a good overwintering of the plant, but forms a low yield.

Hybrid varieties of actinidia are characterized by strong shoot growth, which thickens the crown of the plant, so constant annual pruning is required. The main pruning is carried out in the fall after the leaves fall or at the first frost. During pruning, vegetative and vegetative-generative branches are reduced to 30-40 cm.

When pruning, all dry and broken branches, as well as thin and overgrown branches, are also removed. Fruit branches remain on the plant for three years.

In addition, the development of the plant must be monitored throughout the vegetative period, timely pinching of the shoots, laying or tying them horizontally in order to accelerate the formation of generative shoots, the laying of flower buds. As a result of these operations, the plant may enter the fruiting mode earlier or the future yield on already fruiting actinidia will increase.

Generative vegetative shoots of actinidia

At the same time, during the autumn pruning, it is best to harvest cuttings for further reproduction. At this time, the plant is in a state of organic dormancy and has the maximum amount of accumulated nutrients. Therefore, cuttings harvested at this time have the maximum percentage of rooting.

The period of organic dormancy in actinidia is very short, therefore, in the presence of a warm room or winter garden, cuttings can be rooted from the beginning of January. After a harsh winter, it is better to carry out additional pruning after the dissolution of the plants - in May, early June, when it is already clear how the plant has overwintered, and there is no longer the expiration of the spring season.

Supports for growing actinidia

Long-term supports for actinidia

The productive potential of plants of hybrid varieties of actinidia can be realized only when they are grown on strong and long-term supports, which are built depending on the planned method of crown formation. The simplest support is a wire stretched in 3-4 rows, fixed on iron or asbestos-cement pillars with a height of 2-2.2 m.

The skeleton of the plant is formed by a garter, pinching, cutting of individual branches within three to four years, which by the age of ten turns into a tree up to 2.5-3 m in height with a trunk thickness of up to 4-7 cm and with a flat crown along the wire.

The best support for plants of hybrid varieties of actinidia is the "T" -shaped trellis, when two rows of wire are pulled on a horizontal beam on each side. A plant growing on this support forms a kind of tent during its development and itself covers its roots, which creates optimal conditions for development.

Actinidia does not yet have obvious pests and enemies on European territory, therefore, there is no need to use chemical remedies, which means that the fruits of actinidia are an environmentally friendly product, although many gardeners complain about the increased interest of cats in them, which are attracted by the smell of plants. To get rid of this, it is necessary to plant spicy plants near them - oregano, valerian, lemon balm, etc.

Reproduction of actinidia

Actinidia tree at the age of 12-15 years

Actinidia is propagated by seed and vegetative methods. The seed method is used in the acclimatization of plants to new conditions and in breeding work when developing new varieties.It should be borne in mind that the seeds retain the ability to germinate for up to one year. At the same time, they should not be allowed to dry out; they also require stratification.

The easiest way to do this is to sow freshly harvested seeds into a box with garden soil to a depth of 0.5 cm, cover this box with plastic wrap and store with the onset of frost in the basement at a temperature of + 2 ... + 5 ° С. When it gets warmer, the box is taken out and placed in the shade. Already at a temperature of + 12 ... + 15 ° C, the seeds begin to germinate together. If necessary, in the phase of 4-5 leaves, they can be planted. Young plants are planted in a permanent place in two years.

The sex of new plants is determined at the first flowering by the structure of their flowers; it remains for the entire life of the plant. It should be noted that the number of male plants grown from seeds can be from 50 to 90% of the total.

Actinidia can be propagated vegetatively by green, growing and lignified cuttings. The easiest way, and with the least cost and effort, is to propagate them with lignified cuttings, which are best harvested during the autumn pruning period. In this case, the best cuttings are cut from fruit branches located on the southern side of the plants, that is, they have received more sun, and, therefore, have a larger supply of food and better ripened eyes.

The very order and process of rooting is no different from rooting cuttings of grapes or other plants. But at the same time it is necessary to clearly navigate where the bottom is, and where is the top of the cutting: the root of the leaf blade is always located below the point where the green cone emerges from under the bark.

Biochemical composition of fruits of species, varieties and hybrids of actinidia

VarietyHarvest per bush, kgDry matter,%The amount of sugars,%Acidity,%Ascorbic acid, mg / gBerry weight, gCarotene, mg
Kolomiktauntil 34,9-9,81,3-2,3530-14302-4
ArgutaUp to 5-10150-2005-7
SeptemberUp to 7.520,5180,5182,57-10
Purpurova sadova20-2816,49,31,11108,7-11
Kiev hybrid1620100,814013-18
Kiev large-fruited20,910,80,814612-19
Perlina Sadu6-720,38,40,7705-76,5
Kraevskaya yielding20-2417,28,60,45130,26-82,9
Rose hip0,2-3,522-378,1-11,60,7-2,6500-30001,5-5

Is it worth the candle?

Harvest actinidia from the author's garden

Due to the favorable ratio of ascorbic acid, polyphenols, sugars, glycosides and tannins, actinidia fruits have therapeutic and dietary value. The biologically active substances of actinidia are well preserved in frozen or dried fruits and, when grinded with sugar, in raw jam.

Compare the biochemical composition of the fruits of actinidia, rose hips and grapes.

And in conclusion, I would like to quote once again the words of the great Russian breeder IV Michurin: “... there is always a place for actinidia in every most closely planted garden, under the trees, letting them go over apple and pear trees, which with the slightest observation and direction of the vines will never will not constrain or damage trees. "

I wish success to all gardeners who are starting to grow this interesting and useful plant in their garden!

If you have a desire to receive information about actinidia, about its breeding, please call (Lida): (8-10-375) 01561-574-56, mob. tel .: 00375-444814998, email: [email protected] - Victor Ivanovich Guzenko.

Victor Guzenko,
experienced gardener, Lida

Blueberry pruning

Blueberry is a long-lived shrub with an erect or spreading bush. The harvest is formed on the growth of the last year. Pruning regulates the number of fruiting shoots, as well as the yield and size of berries.

Blueberry pruning is carried out in early spring; in warm regions with mild winters, this can be done in autumn after leaf fall. The formed bush begins to be cut in the fourth year after planting.

When pruning, remove weak and old branches from the middle of the bush if they thicken the plant. Cut off drooping branches or lying on the surface of the soil. Small, thin branches are removed, leaving the strongest, successful growing.

Pruning effectively affects the growth and development of berry bushes, significantly affects the yield. This powerful technique must be carried out, taking into account the characteristics of each plant.

Formation of actinidia and biochemical composition - garden and vegetable garden

Most often, rowan ordinary grows in our gardens - a completely unpretentious and rather decorative tall tree with large feathery leaves. And in spring, rowan is no less beautiful - the tree is all in delicate lace of white flowers

The trouble is that this pest has an enviable appetite in any summer - rain or heat - it doesn't matter. Therefore, you always have to fight it, regardless of the weather.

During June, vegetables took root after sowing, planting and transplanting, and now they are actively growing. Therefore, in order to be with a rich harvest of cucumbers and tomatoes, in July it is necessary to follow the rules of agricultural technology.

Many gardeners and gardeners cease to perceive okra as an exotic culture, it becomes more popular and finds its place among the already familiar crops in our beds.

Cabbage, although it bears the title of "garden lady", but, like most other vegetable crops, it often suffers from all kinds of pests.

Onions are the most common crop found in our gardens. And how many species and varieties! Some are grown for turnips, others for greens, and still others for beauty.

Spring beriberi is familiar to every inhabitant. From a lack of light and vitamins in the winter, the body weakens. Spring comes, but there is still little vitamin green: growing perennial onions and sorrel.

Cultivation of cauliflower is not much different from the cultivation of other types of cabbage, but cauliflower is more demanding on moisture and soil fertility. Cold-resistant, tolerates short-term frosts

In the spring, when the snow melts, the gardener should inspect the trees and determine if they are damaged by rodents. Minor superficial injuries do not require treatment.

When buying seeds, many gardeners are faced with low germination, this may be due to the physiological dormancy of the seeds. Some plants have a short dormancy period and germinate well without additional stimulation.

Garden crops are very demanding on the nutritional value of the soil, so the question is to fertilize or not to fertilize? - has long been resolved positively. The main task facing everyone

Spring in our north-west, as a rule, is not hasty, so sowing begins only in early May. And so I want to quickly get healthy and tasty greens to the table!

Many gardeners, when solving the issue of rejuvenating old trees in the garden, usually resort to grafting by grafting a stalk on a tree branch. But there is another method when grafting is done at the root.

Traditional tomatoes are familiar to everyone from childhood and, it seems, can no longer surprise you with anything. However, the kumato that appeared on supermarket shelves attracted attention.

Asparagus is an ornamental plant for many millennia grown all over the world, not only as a decoration for a garden or home, but also as a valuable vegetable crop. Translated from the ancient Greek "asparasso" means "violently vomiting"

In one of the magazines I read about an interesting way of growing seedlings - "in Moscow". Last year I decided to apply. Very entertaining, not difficult, not time-consuming, and most importantly - effective.

Barberry is one of the most attractive shrubs for landscaping. A variety of varieties with different leaf colors, good shearing tolerance, after which the barberry retains its shape for a long time

We have an unpretentious plant in Russia - chicory. It lives along roads, in forest glades, in meadows, along village streets, and even appears as an uninvited guest right on the crops.

The hawthorn is very beautiful in autumn. Its leaves glow with yellow and burgundy colors, drawing our attention to this useful plant. Will involuntarily be remembered

Although lagenaria has been known since ancient times and mentions of it exist in ancient Chinese manuscripts, its popularity has not diminished for many centuries. Until now, it is considered the most famous and least known culture among gardeners.

“Celery should be both your food and your medicine,” Hippocrates said. For several thousand years, this plant has served people with faith and truth. Quite a lot has been written about its benefits.

Reproduction by layering is the most affordable and simple way of reproduction, does not require special skills and a lot of care. All types of currants (black, red), gooseberries, honeysuckle and viburnum, many vines (actinidia, grapes) reproduce by layering.

Reproduction by lignified cuttings is a simple, affordable and therefore quite common method for propagating many plants among gardeners. With this method of reproduction, there is practically one prerequisite for successful rooting.

Wasp control is not easy and time-consuming. I start it in early spring, when I see queens that have overwintered and are beginning to fly. They give rise to the wasp's nest and it is them that I try to destroy.

Those who have been to the Crimea have seen, perhaps, in the markets flat red-purple onions, juicy, sweet and very tasty. The variety is called Yalta, and it was introduced a long time ago from Asia Minor.

Hilling helps the formation of additional roots, which not only deliver more nutrients and water, but also help the plant better anchor in the soil and not fall, for example

Both mineral and organic fertilizers can be used to fertilize grapes. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur are the main nutrients of any plant.

Let's talk about green operations that take place in the vineyard throughout the season. What are green operations? These are all actions performed by the grower with the green parts of the grape plant, which are aimed at increasing yields, normalizing the number of shoots and bunches.

The growing season of a grape plant is the period from bud break to leaf fall. The growth of the aboveground part of the bush begins at an average daily temperature of 8 ... 10 ° C, sap flow begins

In order to seriously engage in viticulture and get a good harvest of sunny berries, you need to know well the structure of the bush, as well as its needs for lighting and heat.

Recently I read a question in which a correspondent complained that raspberries do not bear fruit: on each berry there are only a few bristles, or, as they say in Odessa, “bubochk”.

As a medicinal plant, lemongrass is described in Chinese medical treatises for 250 years BC under the name "wu-wei-tzu" which means "berry of five tastes"

Fennel is a perennial spicy aromatic plant from the umbrella family, growing up to two meters in height. The homeland of fennel is the Mediterranean. The main stem is quite strong, erect, branched.

I want to share my experience in growing tomatoes. On the 20th of March, I sow seeds. First, I soak them for 12 hours in diluted aloe juice (I keep aloe leaves for 5 days in the refrigerator

There are not dozens, not even hundreds, of garden strawberry varieties in the world, and more and more new ones appear every year. Which variety to choose in such a variety of varieties in order to get an early guaranteed harvest of transportable berries with high palatability?

When I saw that the yarrow grew as a weed in the garden, I did not weed it out. As a weed, it is not very scary: although it has a powerful rhizome, it is enough to pick it up once with a pitchfork and pull it out along with the roots.

In household plots, trapping belts are mainly used not for ants, but play an important role in protecting fruit trees from pests. Belts can be dry, poisonous and sticky.

I want to share my experience of growing seedlings in cups from plastic bottles.I have seen a description of these glasses many times in the SV newspaper, and each time I wondered how it was possible, using this method once.

Every amateur gardener wants to grow a good harvest in his personal plot, dacha or vegetable garden. What to do if you have a very small allotment for gardening?

Blueberries are a very promising berry crop, the interest in which is growing rapidly. It is a short perennial shrub from the Ericaceae family with bluish leaves and delicious blue fruits.

It is well known that in winter and early spring we cannot avoid the cold and flu season. But nobody wants to get sick. There are very simple, inexpensive and time-tested remedies that can boost immunity and protect us from this scourge.

At the mention of these plants, many gardeners flinch and declare that they will never plant them in their garden. They say, they killed so many apple trees, and other trees got it.

In late autumn (November), pests and pathogens are prepared for wintering. Many insects hide in cracks in the bark, under fallen leaves, in the upper layer of the soil.

On the garden plots, lush bushes of hazel and hazelnuts are still rarely found, giving their delicious fruits - nuts in autumn. Although this culture dates back thousands of years and is still very popular today

If you take nutrients from the soil for a long time and at the same time introduce an insufficient amount, then it becomes scarce. There are many other causes: acidity (pH) shift

Sowing under winter is carried out in late autumn at such a time that the seeds do not have time to hatch before the onset of winter. You can sow on frozen or even frozen ground (in November-December), provided that the bed has been prepared in advance.

Winter for growing cucumbers is an extreme time. Even in the warmth on the windowsill, they do not have enough light. But there are hybrids that don't care about cloudy weather.

They say that the first month of winter ends the old grief, paving the road with new happiness. In December, although it gets dark early, the day is still increasing, albeit by less than half an hour, which also inspires optimism.

Many summer residents are interested in growing and treating such a useful medicinal plant as Rhodiola rosea. I also decided to join this topic, because for many years I have been growing this amazing and healing plant.

Sea buckthorn is propagated by woody and green cuttings, root shoots and seeds. To prevent sea buckthorn seeds from losing their germination, they must be stored in a dry place.

In summer cottages, mole rats, shrews and moles live in large numbers. However, not all of them are harmful and we must fight them, we will also get acquainted with useful "underground inhabitants".

The grapevine at all times aroused an increased interest of gardeners. Even IV Michurin tried to accustom this southern culture to the temperate climate of the northern black earth.

Several types of hibiscus are grown as perennial herbaceous plants. Most often in culture there are hybrid varieties of F.N. Rusanov and their seedlings. In autumn, stems that can be more than two meters high

Anemones - tender and Apennine - are covered with dry leaves for the winter in a layer 10-12 cm thick. It is safer not to leave the crown anemone in the open field, but to plant it in spring.

It does not hibernate in this area without shelter. Since the akebia's shoots, although long, are thin and flexible, after the leaf fall, the lashes are removed from the supports, straightened in length and tied into one bundle

Unlike western thuja, the biota is less winter-hardy. In winter, on frosty sunny days, it can burn significantly from the sunny side. It is recommended (especially young plants) to shade from the winter sun with some kind of fabric

Many amateurs often have questions about whether it is necessary to cover certain plants for the winter? In this article, we will briefly talk about which plants and how to cover for the winter.

The most capricious root crop in storage is carrots.What they do not do to protect it from rotting during winter storage. Pour carrots with sand, chalk or lime, put in plastic bags

In recent years, residents of the southern regions of the country are increasingly complaining about the death of the potato crop during storage from voracious small caterpillars. Under the skin and inside, the tubers are completely riddled with winding passages.

In September, they continue to look after late-ripening varieties of white cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, as well as radishes and green crops - parsley, dill, lettuce and spinach. Warm September days are more conducive to the ripening of many vegetable crops.

Water the flowers in time, do not let the soil dry out. Spray your green pets regularly, give them a shower. Do not forget to loosen the soil after these procedures.

At the beginning of the month, continue to divide and transplant rhizome perennials (this can be done before the active growth of shoots begins).

It manifests itself on all aboveground plant organs when growing eggplant in open and closed ground. The disease manifests itself on the stems, leaves, fruits in the form of decay and mucousness of certain areas of the tissue.

Continue propagating and replanting plants. Many indoor flowers suffer from the bright spring sun and can get burns. Watch your green pets carefully, shade them with tulle or gauze if necessary.

In the spring, flower growers have a lot of things to do, and each of them is of paramount importance. All attention is now focused on the seedlings. It's no joke, fragile delicate plants grow rapidly and stretch towards the sun.

May beetle, or eastern May beetle (Melolontha melolontha) is a polyphagous pest. Distributed from Western Europe to Siberia. Inhabits mainly virgin, turfed areas of sandy loam and light loamy soils.

For several years now I have been making medicinal tea. Relatives and friends, invited to a tea party, always ask to brew my own, branded ... Perhaps, my recipe will also please the readers.

The prevalence and harmfulness of the garden plots monster is growing every year - meet the common bear (Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa), a polyphagous pest from the Orthoptera order. Her portrait is well known to everyone who had the misfortune to find a bear on their site.

Late blight is a disease of eggplant, which is the most common and harmful. It manifests itself on leaves, stems and fruits. On the stems and petioles, the spots are elongated, often merge, they are large dark brown in color on the leaves and fruits

In some hot and humid years, the disease spreads in the open field. It also manifests itself in greenhouses, especially at high temperature conditions in the phases of fruiting and ripening of eggplant fruits.

The disease is widespread in open and closed ground. It appears on leaves, petioles, stems, flowers, fruits. The external signs of the disease depend on the pathogen.

The less widespread vegetable plant, which will be discussed, is better known under the name "field salad" or "valerianella spikelet", or "veggie", the Latin name is Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterrade, synonym for Valerianella olitoria (L.) Poll.

Gray rot (Botrytis) is one of the most dangerous and harmful fungal diseases of flower crops, affecting more than 200 plant species from various families. It does not spare the most refined and refined representative of the flower kingdom - the lily.

Pumpkin is grown by many summer residents, because this vegetable is useful, and it is stored wonderfully. All winter you can cook fresh salads and juice from tender yellow-orange pulp, fried, stewed, added to rice

During the growing season, pumpkin is rarely watered, but abundantly (the soil layer should be moistened up to 40 cm). On loose light fertile soils, plants may well do without watering.

It's a pity, because its fruits are very useful, superior, especially in hot and dry summers, so our Moscow quince is healthier than the southern one.

Quince loves light and warmth, so it must be grown in the best places in the garden and well looked after, especially in spring and summer (cut and shape, water, feed, mulch, loosen the soil, etc.)

The fact is that the substances contained in raspberries are easily absorbed by the body, promote the absorption of other products, and neutralize organic acids of animal origin.

The next year, a crop is formed on last year's stems, and new replacement shoots and offspring grow from the buds on the rhizome and roots. Old stems dry up after fruiting.

The best place for planting raspberries is a flat slope, without groundwater outlets and saucers of stagnant water. The site should be well protected from winds, but without the accumulation of cold air masses.

Raspberry bush for planting in the garden can be compact (1) or spreading (2). Many shoots can form (more than 30 per 1 m of a row or 10 per bush), the average number

A modern variety of raspberries for a summer cottage, an amateur garden, must have the following qualities: winter hardiness (in particular, the ability not to lose hardening during thaws or

During this time, the soil is depleted, weeds, pests, pathogens accumulate on the plantations, plants age, lose their resistance, and reduce productivity.

Raspberries grow successfully, bear fruit abundantly and more easily endure all hardships with the systematic application of organic fertilizers to the soil. They are various composts and rotted manure.

Raspberry seedlings are placed in one or more rows. Distances between seedlings for single-row placement and belt cultivation 0.3-0.7 m, depending on the quality of seedlings

In the first year, for intensive use of the area between raspberry bushes, you can plant early vegetables: dill, garlic, onions, turnips, radishes, carrots, beets for summer borscht

To decorate the site, raspberries can be grown in the form of a hedge, the so-called vertical flat trellis, tunnels (4), flower beds (2), borders, rabatok, standard plants

At the end of September, while the raspberry shoots are flexible, even if the leaf fall has not ended, they are tilted to the ground, intertwined or tied to neighboring ones, pinned with pegs and hooks.

The outer cover tissues are cracked and peeling as a result of a sharp change in weather in the fall: early snow, which then melts, rain and snow, a decrease in temperature

I prefer summer, June green cuttings: seedlings can be obtained quickly, they are not infected with kidney mites and take root well. In addition, green cuttings make it possible

No other disease of fruit trees has such a destructive effect as fire blight of fruit trees. It happened that because of its strong spread, it was necessary to cut down trees

Autumn is the time to tidy up the lawn and prepare it for winter. Those wishing to get a beautiful, even fluffy grass cover next summer need to carry out a number of activities.

Vegetable crops have different requirements for organic fertilizers. The most demanding ones (cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, pumpkin, zucchini, squash). These vegetables can even be fertilized with fresh manure.

Among the most useful crops I consider beets. It has been known since ancient times in Greece, Rome and the Mediterranean countries. Beets came to Europe in the XIV century.

The tomato culture has found wide application due to the high nutritional value and versatility of the use of the fruit. They contain carbohydrates, organic acids (malic, citric, etc.)

When growing seedlings from sowing to emergence, the temperature is maintained at 18-21 °. After emergence within 4-5 days, the temperature should be 14-16 ° during the day.

The area for tomatoes should be dug up from autumn to a depth of at least 20 cm.In the spring it is fertilized (per 10 m2: 1 kg of ash, 200 g of ammonium nitrate, 400 g of potassium salts

Preventive measures to protect tomatoes from pests and diseases include: compliance with crop rotation, timely implementation of agricultural practices, removal of post-harvest residues

Gooseberry is the most fruitful crop among berry plants. The best varieties yield up to 32 kg per bush. The gooseberry is currently experiencing a rebirth.

Plum fruits are high in calories, surpassing apples, pears, apricots, peaches, currants, raspberries and strawberries. 100 g of plum fruit contains 6 - 14 g of sugars

Nikolay Pavlovich, Moscow: "My mother-in-law recently bought a raspberry tree in the nursery. And I haven't even heard of this plant. How to grow it and can you get a harvest from it?"

Cold dew in late summer is a scourge for many vegetables, but tomatoes are especially affected. If brown spots appear on the lower leaves, and brown elongated strokes appear on the stems

The Moscow state has been eating cucumbers only since the 16th century. Cucumbers are native to northeastern India and were cultivated several millennia BC. Then the plants

Otherwise, Vitluf is called - a white leaf - because bleached young heads of cabbage from leaves are mainly used for food. In general, this plant belongs to the cicory salads.

From its homeland - the middle part of North America - the artichoke as a cultivated plant was introduced to southern Europe and North America and is widely cultivated there.

This herb will certainly be served to your table in Georgia, and delicate narrow-leaved shoots will surprise you with a spicy aroma and pungent taste. Transcaucasian cuisine is unthinkable without tarragon - as tarragon is called here.

Small nondescript fruits of this plant remain green even at full maturity. They look clearly unappetizing. But whoever tastes them once will remember this peculiar taste and strong

An interesting story happened with pineapple - a story as a result of which it began to bloom, one might say, by the will of man. But first, a few words about the features of this plant.

In the Non-Black Earth Region, watercress is promising among green vegetables. This culture was already well known in antiquity in the countries adjacent to the Mediterranean. Abundance of vitamin C

This root crop is appreciated for its cold resistance and early maturity, for the fact that for the inhabitants of the northern regions of agriculture it is a source of valuable vitamins, protein substances, and mineral salts.

There are many varieties of basil, including those that have a pleasant aroma of allspice and are specially cultivated as a garden crop. Basil is widespread in Georgia

During storage, potatoes may develop dry rot. At the same time, dull brown spots with wrinkled skin appear on the tubers. The pulp under them becomes dry and rotten.

Flower buds appeared on the apple tree, and suddenly trouble: instead of swelling and blooming, they seem to stick together with some sweetish liquid.

After all, the survival of the tree in a new place depends on this. If you have to move it over a long distance, then you cannot do without a machine or tractor.

When growing seedlings, it is very important that plants of equal strength fall on the beds: this is an indispensable condition for obtaining a high, evenly ripening yield.

In June, the time for sampling of green onions comes from seeds sown before winter. With good care at the end of the month, you can start picking onions sown in April.

Gray rot is a very annoying disease for those who grow garden strawberries. Almost every year she "collects tribute" from strawberry beds, and in some years, especially if the summer is damp and cool

So CALCIUM. With this element, not everything is completely clear. Plants absorb it in fairly large quantities, but its physiological role is not fully understood.

IRON is also one of the most essential elements.Without it, chlorophyll does not form in the leaves, although this element is not included in chlorophyll. There is a lot of iron in the soil

The method of grafting with a graft for the bark is one of the simplest. It is good when the stalk is much thinner than the rootstock branch. The cut (and the cut for a thick branch) should be even, smooth.

For seeds of heat-loving crops, there is an agricultural hardening method. Seeds swollen after soaking, which have begun to function (some of them have spiked)

Many growers are aware of the benefits of cubed seedlings. Let's talk about how best to make them at home. Well-decomposed peat is the main material.

The reasons are most often the following: fresh (previous year) seeds were taken for sowing, in addition they were not pre-warmed up; the plants in the garden are placed too densely; the beds are shaded with something

However, it is better to do this without waiting for autumn: dig up the shoots while still young, reaching 15-20 centimeters, and plant them for growing separately, in loose soil. By autumn

Tomatoes do not need to be watered too often - just once a week is enough. It is important that watering is regular, otherwise, with an uneven flow of moisture, tomatoes can get sick with apical rot.

Those who have learned how to grow them under captivity begin to pick garden strawberries two weeks earlier. Of course, there are a lot of additional troubles with it, but they pay off with an early and bountiful harvest.

Summer is just beginning, and there is trouble in the raspberry plantations: recently young shoots have appeared from the soil, and already some of them have turned black and bent down the tops.

The peculiarities of the development of berry bushes are such that they begin to bloom in the spring earlier than other plants in the garden. That is why it is important to carry out the bulk of the work required for them in the fall.

Many people are familiar with this picture: in August and September, on the shelves of shops and markets in the central regions of Russia, there are heaps of apples, in the orchards there are a lot of fruits, and worn-out business executives are trying

Digging up the garden, clearing the garden of dead foliage and grass, rolling away the stone from the path, you see how disturbed beetles - large and small, black and colored, shimmering with metal and dull - rush to their heels.

In dry weather, it is necessary to clean up all wounds and cracks on the skeletal branches and boles of fruit trees, treat them with a 3% solution of copper or 5% solution of ferrous sulfate

But the June dropping of the ovaries is not at all a sign of some kind of trouble, but an inevitable physiological process when a tree naturally frees itself from unnecessary stress.

This variety, according to the famous Russian pomologist L.P.Simirenko, was bred in Saxony in the 19th century and bears the name of the originator Drogan. The variety is self-fertile (pollinators

Many of you may be surprised to learn that there are vines among the nightshade. But it is so. Bittersweet nightshade is a beautiful woody liana and belongs to the same family

The readers of the site learned about the medicinal and nutritional qualities of one of the types of scorzonera - black root, or black carrot, as this plant is often called by amateur vegetable growers, from an article by Professor A. Turova.

Many bacterial, fungal and viral diseases of vegetable crops are transmitted through seeds. Therefore, they are pickled before sowing. Etching contributes not only to the destruction of pathogens

To do this, the boles are tied with polyvinyl chloride captivity, you can use roofing roofing paper, spruce branches. Not only the bark of boles and the forks of skeletal branches are closed from hares and elk with a lapnik.

Many amateur gardeners, taking up a sprayer, think only about how to quickly destroy insects in the garden, forgetting that among them there are many useful ones - the gardener's allies.

For several years now I have not used pesticides in my garden. I make do with herbal pest control products. Nature has created many plants. Possessing insecticidal properties.

We have already talked about Chinese lemongrass on the Dacha Council website. Many people know about the merits of this culture from other sources as well. But from correspondence with many amateur gardeners, I know

In Eastern Siberia, in the Far East, this shrub grows wild. It is abundant in mountainous areas, on limestones, along river banks, in moist coniferous forests, along the edges of peat bogs.

In the middle lane at the end of March, pruning and formation of berry bushes begins. The past winter turned out to be favorable for overwintering black and red currants, so they are pruned as usual.

Premature shedding of leaves on a pear, a decrease in the annual growth of shoots, abnormal development and death of buds, a decrease in yield - this is not a complete list of the tricks of a malicious pest

The weather conditions this year in many regions have delayed the ripening of currant, gooseberry and raspberry berries. Naturally, the timing of post-harvest care has also shifted.

And during winter dormancy, the life of deciduous trees continues, albeit in a latent form. Respiration in dormant plants is comparatively intense even in severe frosts.

With what impatience the gardeners await the harvest! And now he is ripe. It is good when the berries are whole, fragrant, juicy: and so that they are always like this, the berry growers need good care.

The weather is known to have a strong effect on fruit plants. For successful horticulture, it is necessary to solve not only the issues of improving the general production culture

Polina Lebedeva, Bryansk: "An old pear tree grows in our garden with beautiful, tasty, well-stored fruits. Can it be pruned for rejuvenation by forming a new tree from the growth that has appeared on the trunk?"

Will cherries bloom and bear fruit today? Alas, successful seasons are less and less common. And she gives a good harvest only with skillful tree care from early spring!

Cherries are infected with coccomycosis. The main symptom of coccomycosis on cherries is spotted leaves (Fig. 2). Sick trees completely lose their green outfit by the beginning of August.

Petr Bolyshev, Solnechnogorsk, Moscow region: "I bought a plot, and with it a monster that lives in the soil - dark brown, about 5 cm long, hairy, with front legs like pincers.

If in the past you have had failures with eggplants, but at the risk of still growing seedlings of these healthy and tasty vegetables, try this time to take into account all your past mistakes and get a good harvest.

Everyone knows that the home clothing moth is the enemy of woolen and fur products. However, many of its relatives can be dangerous for various garden plants. One of them is apple moth.

Signs of the disease - a mosaic of alternating green and light yellow areas on the leaves - are found already a month after planting the seedlings in the ground. Such mosaic plates remain small.

The caterpillars of the ringed silkworm are very bright and catchy. They are fairly easy to spot when moving in the crown of a tree. The length of an adult caterpillar reaches 5 cm, the main background of the body is bluish-gray

From spring to late autumn, in gardens, especially in thickened ones, there are many different weevils. They eat up buds, petals, ovaries, but this is not so bad. But when will egg-laying begin?

Summer residents have long noticed: the earlier the snow melted and the warmth came, the more terrible the return cold and frost for the plants. However, from such natural disasters in late spring and the very beginning

Cabbage seedlings are already asking for a permanent place. The time of harvesting and the harvest depends on when you plant it. Whatever your nursery, but the techniques for arranging the future garden

Let us remind you that ooculent rootstocks are called oculants. In the spring, it is necessary to remove the harness from them (if they did not do this before winter) and check the survival rate of the grafted kidneys.

Temper seedlings. On warm, quiet days, take the seedlings out into the open air, shading them from the direct sun.Gradually, over 10-12 days, reduce shading time

In the middle lane, early varieties and hybrids of cabbage (Aigul Fv Golden hectare 1432) are planted in a permanent place from late April to May 5.

Potatoes, like a vacuum cleaner, absorb a disease-causing infection. It is deposited in storage tubers, and we plant them again next year. But even such unhealthy potatoes are eaten by pests.

Gray rot (Botrytis) is one of the most dangerous and harmful fungal diseases of flower crops, affecting more than 200 plant species from various families. It does not spare the most refined and refined representative of the flower kingdom - the lily.

A reliable way to deal with the Colorado potato beetle. The Colorado potato beetle used to adapt to crop protection chemicals that were used year after year.

The copper-yellow worm-like larva of the click beetle is probably no less harmful than the Colorado potato beetle. The most dangerous are the larvae of older instars, they are especially active if the ground is wet.

Some are sure that it needs to be dug up. Others argue that grass should grow in the trunk circle - as in nature. So where is the truth? And to understand who is right

Tatyana Ogareva, Smolensk: “In the literature on the subject of summer cottages, they often write that for one tree for irrigation, you need so much water in buckets. Of course, this is convenient when there are 2-3 trees in the garden.

Proper watering for fruit trees is most directly related, because without moisture they will die. And even if they survive (many crops are very tenacious), then they will definitely not give a good harvest.

Such feeding is done, as a rule, when it is necessary to urgently "heal" the plant. If you fertilize the garden every year according to all the rules, foliar feeding is not needed.

Most summer residents plant their apple and pear trees in the spring. But recently, in books and magazines, there are more and more expert tips who recommend planting trees in the summer.

Devices for fine atomization of solutions are so different that, choosing the right one, it is easy to get confused. Several types of sprayers may come in handy

Watering in the country is a large-scale business! Plants, especially vegetables, almost like people, are 75-80% water, so they are waiting for it, rejoicing in it, grateful for every drop.

However, for a very short time, the ground under the vegetables may not remain dry, but dry. The main thing here is not to cross the critical line. Clear symptoms indicate that the plants are already suffering.

Moisture-charging irrigation (with a hose) is needed to create a reserve of moisture in the soil. So water the beds before planting seedlings of vegetables in the summer. Or before filling the containers with soil.

To get a good harvest, vegetables need a large supply of moisture. The fact is that vegetables consume up to about 300 liters of water per 1 m2 per season.

Watering cans are now so different that their eyes run up. For the garden, we choose a comfortable one, and let the color, shape and other design delights become a pleasant, but not an obligatory addition.

The roots of cucumbers are weak and are located in the surface layer of the soil, which dries quickly. In addition, plants have large leaves, they evaporate a lot of water. Therefore, cucumbers are often watered by sprinkling.

Nitrogen fertilizers are applied before sowing, planting. In the second half of the summer, they are not needed, and sometimes even harm. Foliar top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers is undesirable - a lot of nitrogen is lost.

Top dressing is an addition to the diet of vegetables. If the soil is initially rich in nutrients, vegetables need not be fed. But, alas, this almost never happens in the middle lane.

It is prepared like this: the mullein is mixed with water in a 1: 1 ratio (for example, half a bucket of manure and half a bucket of water), tightly covered with a lid (this is important!) And kept warm and dark for 7-10 days

Any summer resident knows: the most unpleasant job on the site is weeding. Especially perennials such as thistle, bindweed and wheatgrass. No matter how you cut them with a hoe, they climb into the light of God.

Elizaveta Ukhova, Tver.Against powdery mildew, I spray the whips with a solution of urea (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water). And if I don't have this fertilizer, milk diluted in water helps

If you do not go into details, then the depth of loosening for herbaceous annuals is 10-12 cm, and for perennials and dwarf shrubs up to 20-30.

It has long been known to all gardeners that plants get everything they need from compost for their development. There is no exact recipe for what and how much to put in the compost heap

Even a novice summer resident knows that the land in the beds, under the bushes and in flower beds should be loose. The crust must be regularly destroyed, armed with the appropriate tool.

Tomato bushes are persistent and tenacious, they do not give up easily to infections or addictive insects. But even poisonous leaves and stems of plants do not frighten pests.

Loosening that dry watering. Summer residents are well aware of the paradox of dry irrigation, when instead of water consumption, the soil surface is broken into small lumps. In terms of efficiency, two loosening

Cucumbers attract and attract not only people, but in general all living things. In the heat, there are insects that, although they cannot crunch green leaves, suck the juices out of the vines.

Gooseberry is a light-loving and demanding crop for soil fertility. The best place to plant is well-lit, sheltered from the wind, where a lot of snow accumulates in winter.

The best time to plant gooseberries is late September - early October. Container-grown seedlings can be planted throughout the summer and fall. It is advisable to leave a distance between the plants.

In the second and third years, 350-500 g of saltpeter is introduced (half - in early spring on thawed ground, and then in mid-May). Fertilizers are scattered around the bush at a distance of 30-50 cm from the base.

Pruning is of great importance for gooseberries. Without it, the bushes become very thick in the first years, and it is difficult to work with them, to harvest, they are more susceptible to damage by pests and diseases.

Winter cold can cause great harm to ornamental, fruit and berry crops. But we must not forget that summer heat, autumn frosts and spring thaws are no less dangerous for plants.

Soon after the New Year holidays, I looked at the summer cottage and it seemed to me that the buds on the currant bushes swelled too early. Can this happen when it's still so cold outside?

For lovers of the earliest honeysuckle berry, breeders of the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry made a gift - seven new varieties. These are Barballeta, Vlada, Koketka, Laura, Lenarola, Masha, Renata.

Anna Vorobyova, Tver: "What is the Dasha apple tree (some gardeners call her Dasha)? This variety is praised at sales of seedlings, but nowhere is there a description of it

Valentin Prigogine, Tver: “Last season, some strange green bug attacked my beets and almost left me without a crop. Do bugs eat beets?

Garden strawberries are planted in spring and autumn, so if you cannot thoroughly prepare the site in the near future, do not worry, but simply postpone planting until the end of August - September.

The potatoes are out of luck this year. The cold soil in the spring broke the usual planting dates, the germination of tubers was difficult, and even the pests did their job - they gladly ate the young seedlings.

Yuri Popov, Ryazan: "Please tell us about the largest and sweetest varieties of cherries that can be grown in central Russia. I want to plant in my garden, but I'm very afraid to make a mistake

Ostroumova, Moscow: “I worked at the Klinsky state farm near Moscow for many years and have my own garden plot.

In July, the gardener seems to have nothing to do in the garden. The sowing tension is over, the harvesting harvest is just unfolding - it would seem that you can take a break

Today, in our field of vision, mainly the apple tree neighbors in the orchard who have fallen asleep for the winter, and some general techniques, rules, and patterns of pruning.

So that trimming does not cause much trouble, and the work goes quickly, so that the cuts are of high quality, first of all, take care of the inventory, learn how to use it, and also fix the problems that arise.

Hardly anyone will object to the statement that potatoes are the second bread. For some today, it has become the first and almost the only food product.

When choosing potato varieties for planting, it is better to give preference to domestic varieties and not only out of patriotism, but also because of common sense. They are more adapted to our climate

In summer cottages, vegetable peas are sown somewhere in the backyard, along the fence, almost near the compost heap. Yes, peas are modest and picky, but on the site they simply have no price!

In the spring, in April - May, all tree branches damaged by frost are already clearly visible: they either do not come to life at all, or their buds open with delay. If the shoots still started to grow

Improved copulation is usually done when the thickness of the scion and rootstock is approximately the same. First, determine the branch on which you will graft the cutting. Place the blade at the grafting site

Grafting with butt is used when the stock is thicker than the cutting. First, cut the branch at the grafting site at a right angle, make a small bevel on one side of the cut. On the other side of the end of the branch

You bought a substandard drug. To avoid buying "left-handed" chemicals, contact reputable specialized stores. The market and private traders are more likely to

Fishing belts are wide strips (15-20 cm) made of straw bundles, thick paper, matting, shavings applied in rings to the trunks and thick branches of trees to destroy pests.

Experts have described about 30 types of plums. They differ in a number of specific features. The most important species is the domestic plum (Primus domestica L.). This species is rich in varieties

Real Hungarian women, renklods and mirabelles in Russia are mainly cultivated in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, the Rostov Region and the plum-growing regions of the North Caucasus

However, this requires special techniques and technologies. For those who do not have this knowledge, the optimal planting period is spring and autumn. At this time it goes down

Plants are planted quickly, protecting the roots from damage and drying. This is done as follows: fathoms are lowered into a hole, on a mound or flat surface

First, it is thinned out, removing to the base low-lying, as well as broken, intertwining, weak, diseased and low-yielding branches of all ages. Usually in such plants

Gooseberry shoot aphid. Damages leaves on young gooseberry shoots. In the spring (during the period of bud swelling), the larvae hatched from eggs that overwintered on the shoots

American powdery mildew (spheroteka) on gooseberries. The most dangerous gooseberry disease. Young parts of plants are affected: leaves, petioles, shoots, green and ripening berries.

Strawberries attract gardeners all over the world with amazing, almost fabulous qualities, which, in a rare combination, are collected only in one: outwardly attractive, fragrant

At the end of last autumn, in November, after a long Indian summer, night frosts suddenly hit - right on the bare ground. And after an unfavorable winter, the spring return cold lasted for a long time.

I am constantly hunting for new varieties of strawberries. The year before last, the unexpected trophy was the "strawberry tree" - at least that's what a saleswoman in one of the Moscow firms called it.

Alas, our garden "princess" - strawberries are not long-lived. It is well known that the planting of strawberries has to be renewed every three to four years, giving it a new place of residence each time.

Galina Rogova, Mozhaisk: "I usually start working in the garden with sowing radishes. Are there any new varieties this year? Which ones are better to choose? What to look for when buying and sowing seeds?"

Tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers have already been removed from the dacha greenhouse. It stands empty and dull, as if asking: “Prepare me for the next season.” How best to do this?

Soil is a special complex natural formation. The system works according to the principles of self-regulation, and a person should not rudely interfere with the laws by which it develops and exists.

It turns out that in the winter cold, plants can quickly give a crop. In an apartment on the windowsill, you can get such unconventional healthy greens that you will not find in any vegetable market.

Not all plants are capable of producing fruits without pollination. In warm weather, there is usually no problem with this, insects do their job, and in cold weather, you will have to take care of pollination.

Valentina Laskina, Moscow: “I recently read in your newspaper that wild pollinating insects are much more resilient than domestic bees and better pollinate gardens, especially in bad weather.

Do you want miracle trees and unusual shrubs to grow in your garden? If so, then learn to graft plants. This will require not only skill, but also excellent, perfect tools.

To do this, after planting, one or two of the strongest, most well-located shoots are left in the bush. On these shoots, all buds are removed from below up to a height of 30-40 cm.

Anna Bykova, Ramenskoye, Moscow region: "Apples, which had to be removed after a week or two, suddenly began to become covered with tiny brown spots, at first small

Vera Pichugina, Mikhnevo, Moscow region: "This spring, due to rainy weather and heavy floods, I could not sprinkle my fruit trees with anything. Instead of the expected white-pink

Gennady Zotov, Tver: "There were a lot of fallen apples this year. The trees seem to be healthy, and the fruits fall prematurely. Why is this happening?"

The pear leaves rolled into a tube are the result of the activity of the polyphagous tube-worm. This beetle is fairly widespread, but usually causes minor harm.

Many people are very worried when a tiny butterfly appears in the apartment - a clothes moth, whose caterpillars in just a season can greatly ruin the clothes stored in closets.

Vera Skvortsova, Galich: "Apple trees of summer and autumn varieties grow in my garden. This year we have a good harvest. But I don’t know exactly when to harvest the fruits. How to determine these terms

Many summer residents have transformed their vegetable garden by creating stationary raised ridges, edged with wood or other material. Growing vegetables this way not only makes work easier

Squash is a type of bushy hard-barked (ordinary) pumpkin. They eat both young ovaries and fruits, and larger ones, similar to plates with a border. Their pulp, although dense, is very tender.

Summer is in full swing and gardeners are starting to harvest. Since early spring, they have been grooming and nurturing their green pets and waiting for the plants to be thanked for their care.

In recent years, many housewives have complained that the seeds of peas, beans and beans that they store at home are severely damaged by some pest, after which they are no longer suitable for food.

In the middle lane and to the north, some gooseberries and currants began to turn red in June. One would think that they began to ripen before the deadline.

To make the horseradish juicy, even and fleshy, you can plant its cuttings now, and dig up the finished roots in the fall of next season, letting them gain strength in a year and a half.

In order for actinidia and lemongrass to grow well and bear fruit, they need not only to be properly planted, but also to install supports and regularly cut the vines. Today we will tell

The American Indians called it tomato, from the Spaniards and the French came the name tomato (love apple, golden apple), but we call this culture this way and that.

Actinidia are southern subtropical plants; in their natural environment they live in Japan, Korea, China, India and other countries B, and Southeast. Asia. In Russia, actinidia are common in the Far East

Fruits and berries are essential in human nutrition. Of greatest interest are those that contain a large amount of vitamins, trace elements and other substances.

If irga does not grow on your site, then, probably, you at least have heard of korinka. So the real scientific name for cinnamon is round-leaved irga, or ordinary. But she's not quite ordinary.

We are used to the fact that apricots grow mainly in the south. Much has changed in recent years. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, they can now be grown near Moscow.

Alla Kashina, Ramenskoye: "My grown-up children planted the entire plot with flowers and beautiful shrubs, leaving only a few beds for the garden. I'm not complaining, the garden has become very beautiful

Vegetables in the room are more demanding on the soil than on the garden bed, because in a pot the plant is forced to develop a root system in very cramped conditions. Therefore, the soil must be close to ideal.

All gardeners plant dill, but not everyone grows it juicy and lush. Often, skinny bushes are cast red or yellow and bloom quickly.

The fact is that the correct preparation of the site and the introduction of pre-planting fertilizers is 50% of the guaranteed yield within 3-4 years. After all, as the people say: "The earth

Recently, more and more often in the gardens there are columnar apple trees. They almost do not form lateral branches and grow into one trunk vertically upward, therefore they are usually called columns.

Both adults and children love sweet and fragrant garden strawberries, but it's a pity that you can feast on them in the Moscow region for only a month - from the end of June to the end of July. And so you want

It is known that it is not enough to grow and collect a rich harvest, it is important to preserve it. In preserves, compotes and jams, there are not too many valuable substances for which you worked so hard all season

If you want to replenish your garden with new varieties of apple and pear, rely on varieties that are winter-hardy and resistant to diseases and pests. When choosing and buying seedlings, be very careful.

Any gardener wants to sow seedlings early in order to get, as they say, a longer run in time and, therefore, an early harvest. But if you plant it sooner, you won't end up with a hassle!

Now I'll tell you about where I sow the seeds and why. Sprouted seeds of tomatoes and peppers of the first stage, as well as all cucumbers (they don't like picking), I sow in high transparent containers

Oddly enough, but the reason for the suppression of seedlings and vegetables on the windowsill can be ordinary water with which we water the plants.

Irina Sazonova, Troitsk: “I have long dreamed of planting jasmine with strawberry aroma in the garden, I finally bought it. Last year the bush bloomed profusely, but the promised fragrance was not there.

In our article, we are talking about general cleaning of the greenhouse, so that before early planting there are no pests and microorganisms left in the soil and construction details that contribute to the development of plant diseases.

Scarce information is given in books for gardeners about sawdust. It is only said that they acidify the soil. So summer residents are afraid to use sawdust. And in vain!

There is always something missing in the room for the growth of vegetables: sometimes there is not enough space, sometimes the soil is poor, sometimes it is dark outside the window. Everyone solves such problems in their own way. You can approach this comprehensively.

It is known that on cloudy days the light intensity on the windowsill is 10 times less than that required by the plants. Due to the lack of light, the sprouts stretch out, develop much more slowly

The author of the article is candidate of agricultural sciences. Sci. Lydia Yurina explains the causes and mechanism of sunburn of fruit trees in gardens at summer cottages. The publication introduces the varieties of fruit trees included

Most often in the middle lane, varieties that are valuable in taste, but not winter-hardy enough suffer from sunburn (for example, apple varieties such as "Lobo", "Spartan", "Melba", "Biforest", "Clos")

Cherry is one of the most beloved horticultural crops; gardeners love it for its early maturity. Most of its varieties begin to bear fruit in the 3-4th year after planting, and some even from the second year.

Bolotovskaya (Sverdlovsk Experimental Gardening Station) - the variety obtained from free pollination of steppe cherry. Late ripening variety (first decade of August).

Cherry has been known in Russia since the 12th century. It was widespread in Russian orchards and has always followed the apple tree in terms of its importance. It was appreciated for its yield, delicious and healing fruits.

Common cherry is common in the European part of Russia. Its northern border is conventionally considered the line St. Petersburg - Vologda - Kirov. Limits cherry promotion to

Steppe cherry, it is also called Bushy, Siberian, Ural, Samara. The natural area of ​​its distribution from the Center of Europe through Ukraine, the Volga region, the Southern Urals to Western Siberia.

Felt cherry, or it is also called fluffy. Chinese, Ando, ​​Tomentosa. From China it penetrated the Far East, and then into Siberia, the Urals and the European part of Russia.

Felt cherries propagate like currants by cuttings and seeds. The method of propagation by seeds is available to every gardener, while, as you know, plants are easier to adapt to new conditions.

The life span of the bushes is 12-13 years. Planting and care are the same as for currants and gooseberries. The authors had a chance to grow felt and common cherries in the Middle Lane

Sea buckthorn, say, in our suburbs began to spread back in the forties. The emergence of this culture was greatly facilitated by T.T. Trofimov.

Growing from seeds. It is better to sow seeds in spring, because during autumn planting during thaws, the seeds begin to germinate, and die in winter. But with seed reproduction about

Sea buckthorn prefers light sandy loam soils. If the soil is heavy, clayey, then before planting, it is necessary to add two to three buckets of river sand for each square meter.

Feed or not? How often do amateur gardeners ask themselves this question. And, of course, doubts are not in vain, since there is not always a need for summer feeding of fruit and berry plants.

Lettuce in Russia is cultivated everywhere: in the Far North and in the Arctic, in the south in the Middle zone. In the north, both head and leaf can be successfully grown. Its seedlings can withstand frosts down to -2 ° С

A shady resting area and a flat lawn, a small water mirror and several boulders nearby - not only will decorate the site by themselves, but will also increase the variety of plants

For an amateur who first received a plot for a garden and vegetables, its development can be a serious problem. Usually, this work should take 2-3 years.

Relief formation is the most important operation in preparing a site for planting. Those who got an area with a slope of the surface or, for example, with a ravine, should not be upset

Anatoly Kuzenko, Belgorod region: "I purchased a plot on the site of a former collective farm field. I am going to plant a garden in the spring. I have heard that all crops should be planted separately, and not alternately. Is that so?"

The beginning of the dacha harvest usually coincides with the purchase of seeds and occurs long before leaving the city. This is a very important stage in the life of a gardener, because yields largely depend on his success.

We will try to help you. It is precisely such plants, adapted to the short and cool summer, which is common in the middle lane, and not suffering from diseases, that breeders tried to create.

At the end of April, in order not to bother with sowing seeds and growing seedlings, you can immediately buy high-quality young plants of resistant varieties. The safest way to buy them is in large

Anatoly Bystrov. Taldom: We have high groundwater. In the fall, I made flower beds, holes for seedlings of fruit trees, filled them with fertilizers. Are there any features of planting and caring for plants in flower beds?

The main early spring event is spraying the plants at the very beginning of bud break. Please note that apple and pear trees may not be harvested due to weevils and other pests.

Our summer cottage village almost burned out this summer - there are peat bogs all around, and we have solid peat on our site. Is it possible to somehow change the structure of the soil?

Banding is the removal of bark all the way to the wood around tree branches. As a result of such an operation, nutrients are retained at the site of the ring, which contributes to

Pruning trees and shrubs correctly and on time will keep them healthy and look as beautiful as you want them to be. We are often completely in vain afraid to approach the plant and remove the excess.

The first one, sanitary, is simple, applies to most plants and is carried out to maintain their health. Even an inexperienced gardener can learn it. You need to start with it in any case.

Such trees take root well if they have not been outside the soil for too long. For better growth and development, root pruning is very helpful.

An experienced gardener understands: before planting something, you need to "know" the land. What is its composition, acidic or not, how many organic substances it contains, what is the density

The acidity (pH) or alkalinity of the soil is the reaction of the soil environment. The agrochemical properties of the soil and plant growth depend on this indicator. On soils with high acidity

The mechanical (granulometric) composition of the soil is the relative content of particles of different diameters in the soil. Soil contains four essential components

Soil moisture is the content of moisture in the soil in three states (solid, liquid and gaseous). Soil moisture is expressed as a percentage of dry soil mass or volume.

Horse chestnut medicinal properties and uses

Horse chestnut has anti-inflammatory effects. Thinning blood, reducing its clotting and strengthening the walls of blood vessels are the main medicinal properties of horse chestnut, which are relevant to this day.

He is capable of:

  1. Reduce capillary permeability
  2. Strengthen the walls of blood vessels and capillaries
  3. Lower bad cholesterol
  4. Improve blood circulation
  5. Have an astringent effect
  6. Remove salt and water from the body.

It is traditionally used for:

  1. Varicose veins
  2. Chronic venous insufficiency
  3. Thrombophlebitis
  4. Hypertension
  5. Bruising
  6. Hemorrhoidal bleeding
  7. Fluid retention with varicose veins, in the postoperative period, sports injuries, radiation therapy
  8. Diarrhea
  9. Edema
  10. Fever
  11. Prostatitis and prostate adenoma
  12. Vascular disorders
  13. Wrinkles.

The fruits of the plant have been used to treat:

  1. Thrombosis
  2. Anemias
  3. Atherosclerosis
  4. Increased blood clotting
  5. Diarrhea
  6. Fever
  7. Prostate adenomas.
  8. Leaves are used to treat:
  9. Eczema
  10. Menstrual pain
  11. Removal of edema in fractures and sprains
  12. Cough
  13. Arthritis
  14. Joint pain.
  15. The branches are brewed for malaria and dysentery.

The bark is used for:

  • Varicose veins
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Inflammation of the veins - phlebitis.
  • Decoctions from fruit valves are used for diseases of the liver, gallbladder and spleen. They improve digestion and relieve pain.
  • To improve digestion, relieve inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, preparations based on the fruits and chestnut bark are used.

A special place in the use for medicinal purposes is occupied by alcohol or vodka tinctures based on chestnut seeds. It can be used for:

  • Burns
  • Boils
  • Headache
  • Insomnia
  • Increased excitability
  • Venous insufficiency
  • Cough
  • Asthma
  • Bronchitis.

Its active chemicals can very quickly relieve inflammation in the bronchi, improve sputum discharge.

Horse chestnut extract improves blood circulation in the veins, increases their tone, relieves inflammation and swelling.

Kudrania (Strawberry tree). Growing and care

Grow Kudrania outdoors and indoors

What is Kudraniya and where did it come from?

Kudrania or as it is also called Strawberry tree another exotic in our garden. Like most of the exotic novelties, she came to us from warm eastern countries, to be more precise, from eastern Asia. In Iran and Afghanistan, it is revered not only for its tasty, juicy fruits, but also for its rather large root system.

It is not a novelty for anyone that these are countries with mountainous terrain and landslides in them are commonplace. Kudrania has become there yet and is not replaceable in strengthening the soil. It is very thermophilic and grows exclusively in warm regions such as southern Russia, Ukraine and Abkhazia.

Kudrania is a mulberry tree... Although it is called the Strawberry Tree, in fact, it has very little in common with strawberries, rather it can be compared with raspberries or even mulberries, but certainly not with strawberries. The fruits have a spherical shape and are complex-seed, the color of the fruit is red or red-claret, the weight of the fruit is from 3 to 5 grams. The berries have a sweetish taste, completely without the acidity inherent in strawberries, although the taste of this berry will rather remind you of Persimmon, but without its inherent astringency.

Like raspberries Kudrania should be consumed immediately after collection., because after a couple of hours it already loses its juiciness and brightness of taste. The height of an adult tree reaches 6 meters. Fruits ripen at the end of October or by mid-November, depending on the weather conditions, it is worth noting that the full ripening of the fruits occurs after the foliage has fallen off.

Planting Kudrania (Strawberry tree)

Grow Kudrania outdoors and indoors... Reproduction is carried out cuttings... For the first planting, it is better to purchase a seedling, since when planting with a handle, it must be prepared for planting as soon as possible until it has lost the necessary juices, otherwise there is a great risk that it will not take root. It is not difficult to acquire a seedling these days, there are a sufficient number of nurseries selling strawberry tree seedlings. It is only important to choose a growing method where your tree will grow indoors or outdoors.

For planting in a pot and growing indoors, select in advance the container in which the tree will grow so that it does not have to be replanted. The capacity should be large enough, because Kudrania has a fairly large root system. Coarse sand and vermiculite must be poured into the pot or tub prepared by you. After planting, it is necessary to water the seedling with a root solution and spray with a growth stimulator.

For planting in the open ground of Kudrania it is necessary to carefully prepare the soil. It is necessary to prepare a hole at least a meter deep and wide. It is necessary to fill the pit with a mixture of humus, sod land, coarse sand and peat in equal parts. At the bottom of the pit, you need to fill a drainage of at least 20 cm. The strawberry tree loves loose soil and sufficient air access to the roots.

If you decide to grow a stalk on your own, then before planting it must be soaked in Kornevin's solution for several hours. Then deepen it into the ground, it is worth noting that the rooting of the cuttings takes a long time, about 3-4 months and the first year they grow very slowly, while the seedling in the first year can reach a height of one meter.

Care Curdrania (Strawberry tree)

In special care Kudrania does not need the fact that for the most part it is a wild plant. In the first year of life, it is enough for a tree to provide moderate watering and your tree will grow and delight you.The second condition for the healthy growth of a tree is loosening the soil, its roots need to independently provide air access in our soils, because in its homeland it grows on stony and loose soil. It is also worth noting that Kudrania came to us from the warm east and loves the sun very much, keep this in mind both when planting in open ground and when growing indoors.

The kudrania plant is thermophilic and does not survive severe frosts, but even if you live in the southern region, then in the first years of life it is worth taking care of a young tree and wrapping it in non-woven cloth for the winter. When your Strawberry tree grows, you need to insulate the trunk and root part for the winter. The root part can simply be covered with leaves or straw, and the trunk and large branches are not densely woven. When the tree begins to bear fruit, it is worth applying fertilizers in the form of humus or cow dung during the growing season.

Crown formation Curdrania (Strawberry tree)

When grown indoors, the strawberry tree is shaped like a bonsai or standard tree.

To form a Bonsai, it is necessary to cut off a thin strip of bark without damaging the trunk itself, and deepen the trunk into the ground, new roots will begin to grow in the place of the cut. When new roots grow (the trunk is below the new roots), transplant the Kurdania into a bonsai pot.

Next, remove the lower branches and determine 3-4 main branches from which the formation will go. Then a wire frame is created, first the trunk is wrapped with wire, ending under the branches, the tree bends slightly down and to the side, and the ends are buried in the soil so that they can hold the tree, gradually bend the tree down at your discretion.

Branches are formed in the same way, the wire is fixed to the trunk and wrapped around the branches in the way you want your tree to form. The hedgehog ends for all branches are added to the main wire. The branches must be twisted neatly so as not to damage the fragile young branches and bend the twine just as neatly and gradually day after day.

If you want some of the roots to be on the surface, and want to form them too, then you need to do the same with them. The wire must be wrapped! It will be possible to remove it from the branches in 8-9 months, this will be enough for their formation, but the trunk will be formed only in a year.

It is much easier to form a stem than a Bonsai. The rules are very simple, from the very beginning the seedling must be tied to a peg so that the trunk does not bend and is even, all side branches are removed immediately. When the tree reaches the desired height, you just need to pinch the top. That's all your standard tree is ready!

The formation of a tree in the open field is not difficult, it is enough to remove unnecessary branches, branches that bend inward and dry branches. If you prefer not tall trees, then leave 3-4 main branches, and remove the rest, then prune in accordance with the shape you need.

Pests Curdrania (Strawberry tree)

Despite its such a gentle and sweet name Strawberry tree able to independently fight and defend against pests and is very resistant to disease. The only pestthat can hurt Kudranii this is Thrips... If you notice them on your tree, then immediately treat the tree by spraying it with "Fitoverm", if necessary, repeat the spraying.

Composition and useful properties Curdrania (Strawberry tree)

The fruits of Kudrania, as already described earlier, are sweet and contain a lot of glucose, but it practically does not have acids, therefore, it cannot be called rich in acids. But nature has not deprived the Strawberry tree with the content of vitamins, its fruits contain a group of vitamins B, C, P, as well as such useful carotene and rutin. Not deprived of Kudrania and iron, pectin, glycosides and resinous substances.

In folk medicine, the fruits and bark of a tree are used, decoctions and infusions are made from them. Berries in folk medicine are also used fresh, for example, for heartburn, due to their properties, they are able to reduce and normalize the acidity of the stomach, and fresh berries are also used for indigestion and dysentery.

Decoctions of dried berries are successfully used for ulcers and duodenal ulcers. Fresh fruits and decoctions of dried fruits will help normalize metabolism, as well as help get rid of anemia and purify the blood. Regular intake of fruits and decoctions will help normalize and reduce high blood pressure.

Kudrania will help you restore function and improve the condition of your important organs such as the liver and thyroid gland. Regular intake of berries in food helps to strengthen the immune system and the general resistance of the body, strengthens the cardiovascular system.

The bark of curls in folk medicine is used in the form of a decoction, it has a pronounced antibacterial property and it is used when washing wounds and skin ulcers, as well as a decoction to wipe the face with acne. An oil infusion is also made from the bark, for this the bark is ground into powder and infused with vegetable oil, wounds, skin ulcers and burns are treated with it, you can add a few drops to face masks for acne in adolescents.

Contraindications for use Curdrania (Strawberry tree)

Kudrania has practically no contraindications... These include only individual intolerance and diabetes mellitus due to the high glucose content.

Kudarania (Strawberry tree) in cooking

For many centuries, curls have been used by housewives as a preparation for the winter and fresh. Compotes, jams, fruit drinks are cooked from it and dried and frozen berries are harvested.

Berry compote Curdrania (Strawberry tree)

To cook a delicious compote from Kudrania, put 3 liters of water on the fire, when it boils, add 1 kg of berries, add sugar to taste, a little citric acid, because the berries do not have acid, add a sprig of mint or lemon balm. Place it in a cold place and a delicious cold drink is ready!

Jam from Curdrania (Strawberry tree)

To make jam, carry 1 kg of berries and 700g of sugar. Cover the berries with sugar and let stand for about an hour to let the berries start juicing. Put on medium heat and bring to a boil, boil for no more than 10 minutes, pour into sterile jars and roll up the lid.

What does acidity affect?

Acidity (pH) is a biochemical term. It denotes the ability of the soil to exhibit the properties of acids. Hydrogen ions present in the soil solution, as well as exchangeable hydrogen and aluminum ions, with incomplete neutralization, lead to an acidic reaction. The acidity of the soil is determined by:

  • soil-forming material: on sandstone and granite soils are acidic, and on limestone - alkaline
  • an abundance of precipitation - in regions where they are frequent and significant, moisture accumulates in the soil, washes out the mineral-salt composition from the root layer
  • irrigation intensity with water with low acidity
  • an oversupply of mineral fertilizers and organic matter introduced into the land
  • the quality of the air permeability of the soil - when organic matter decomposes without the participation of oxygen, organic acids and carbon dioxide released during the chemical reaction remain in the ground.

On the territory of the Russian Federation, about a third of the soils suitable for agricultural work are acidic, they need regular liming. For example, in Siberia and the middle zone of the Russian Federation, these are sod, sod-podzolic, and gray forest soils. Reduce acidity by adding so-called fluff, dolomite flour, chalk, wood ash. Liming of the soil is very often carried out, but such a measure is not always necessary.

It is not uncommon for neighbors to lime the soil, inexperienced summer residents repeat the same procedure without studying the indicators of the land on their site.The fact is that even within the same area, the acidity of the soil can vary. And, most importantly, you need to know which crops the soil is suitable for.

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