Features of fishing on circles - Pursuit of a predator

Features of fishing on circles - Pursuit of a predator

Fishing Academy

For successful fishing with circles, deep reservoirs are suitable, preferably without vegetation. You also need a stable, light, fast-moving boat. Before going to the pond, the angler asks himself the question: how many circles should you take with you? Opinions vary here. According to the circles with whom I had a chance to communicate, the optimal number is ten. 7-8 of them are workers, the rest are spare.

In addition to the required number of circles, one more important question should be resolved: "Where can I get live bait?" Of course, the best option is to catch them on the spot. However, this option does not always work. Hence the conclusion: it is better to stock up on a nozzle in advance. For example, I use crucians and rotans as live bait, which I catch in pits in a quarry. This does not require much skill, just a square frame with a fine mesh stretched over it is enough.

Arm yourself with such a "tool of labor" and go to the sandbank in the evening or look for "windows" among the vegetation. Experienced fishermen assure that at this time there are more chances to catch live bait than during the day. Just keep in mind that in no case should you keep other fish together with ruffs and perches. Because the abundant mucus secreted by the prickly "brethren" will quickly poison the rest of the live bait.

There are several ways to attach live bait to the hook of a mug. The most commonly used technique is when the hook is attached to the back without damaging the ridge. Sometimes the live bait hooks onto the lip with a hook, or at first the hook is passed through the gill into the mouth, then pulled out. I have seen how the tee on the body of the live bait was fixed with an elastic band.

Arriving at the pond, the circle maker, with the help of visually detected landmarks or using control measurements of depths, finds a promising place, determines the strength and direction of the wind and immediately puts the equipped tackle on the water. The distance between the circles is up to 6 meters. In this case, it is advisable to arrange them in a checkerboard pattern. Zhivtsov is allowed in 30-50 centimeters from the bottom.

When all the circles are on the water, the angler should move 30-50 meters to the side or back, so as not to frighten the fish. But at the same time it is necessary to constantly monitor the circles. After the circles have floated across the entire water area of ​​the reservoir, they are usually returned to the starting point. Even if, when biting, the circle turns over and stands still, in no case do not rush to it at breakneck speed. Remember that catching in circles is a rather specific activity, and therefore peculiarities are inherent in it when biting.

For example, if an inverted circle does not rotate, then you need to wait a little with a sweep and be patient. The inverted circle does not rotate because the predator, seizing the bait, stands still and does not swallow the prey. Even when the inverted circle rotates, you still need to wait a few seconds. Because the pike sometimes starts swimming, but then suddenly stops. In this case, you need to be at the circle a little later than the moment when it stops rotating: the predator will have time to turn the prey head first and begin to swallow it.

My relative, namesake Alexander Rykov, has mastered "circle" fishing to such an extent that by the behavior of the circle after turning over, he accurately determines the type and size of a potential trophy. He knows, for example, that the pike, having turned the circle over, will make several turns and freeze for a few seconds. Then it will revolve a few times and stop. But when she slowly drags the circle - it's time to hook.

It should not be forgotten that the pike is desperately fighting for its life, therefore, large fish should not be immediately pulled into the boat or caught in the water with a landing net. The best option is to try to tire her out and only after that get her back or put on a noose.The pike perch instantly turns the disk over and swiftly drags it to an open place, swallowing live bait on the go. The burbot, having swallowed the nozzle, makes several gentle stretches, after which it tries to drag the circle vertically down.

A very original bite from a perch. First, he leads a circle, tugs and tilts it, as if he cannot turn it over in any way. Sometimes he immediately drowns and somersaults the circle. Looking with bated breath at this peculiar whistle dance, you think that you have caught a huge fish, ten kilograms. In fact, on the hook is an ordinary perch of two hundred grams. Otherwise, only a crumpled, peeled live bait will remain. Fishing in circles is an entertaining and, I must say, a very prey business. Therefore, I am sure that every amateur angler is able to achieve no less success. The main thing here is desire and patience, and then luck will surely come ...

Alexander Nosov

Features of fishing on circles - Pursuit of a predator - garden and vegetable garden

Encyclopedia of modern fishing. Fishing with a float rod

1. Rods for float fishing

Modern controversy and debate about what counts as sport fishing almost always ends with a discussion of the question of what the rules of sport fishing should be, if it is a sport at all. But you can look at it in another way. And why, for example, not equate to sport fishing all those methods of fishing, when the angler observes directly the grip or bite of a fish, tempted by the bait that he offered her? It doesn't matter if the bait is of natural or artificial origin. Until now, the criterion for dividing fishing into sports and commercial fishing is what kind of tackle is used during fishing. But any amateur tackle can become a fishing tackle under certain conditions. And yet, direct observation of the moment of the bite, probably, makes fishing sport. And not in the sense of a competition between anglers, but in the sense of a competition between an angler and a fish. The number of options for bite alarms, by which the angler determines the moment of the fish's grip, is small. This is the tip of a rod, a finger with a fishing line thrown over it, a gate and a nod, a bell or sinker, and, of course, a float.

Personally, I'm not sure that the float as a bite signaling device appeared earlier than others, but I have little doubt that it has become the most common.

The answer to the question of what a float rod is, lies in its very name - it is a rod, the design of which includes a float. A float rod for fishing from under the ice through a hole is called a winter rod, and I will tell you about it, maybe another time.

A summer float rod consists of a few simple but must-have elements. First of all, this is a rod. The purpose of the rod is to help the angler to throw the bait under the nose of the fish, to do the hook-up and to assist in extracting the fish from the water.

The fisherman seeks to cast the bait as far as possible from the shore, especially if the fish is not caught for one reason or another, this desire is not always justified, but just in case it is useful to have long rods in your arsenal. In fact, you need to have on fishing a rod of exactly the length that is required by the fishing conditions.

I started my "career" as an angler with a float rod, when at the age of six I was presented with a duckling on a bus going to my grandmother's village. There was a pond in the village, and in the evening I regularly cleaned up the upper melt and small crucians from the boats of the fishermen who had taken off their nets. The duckling grew and demanded more and more food. Then a radical decision was made - to fish yourself. That's why I made my first fishing rod. And for good reason. Now I enjoy fishing with almost all tackle, except for trolling, but the classic float rod remains the "first love".

Short rods were traditionally made from wood and bamboo.With the advent of composite materials, it would seem that wooden rods should have disappeared, but this did not happen. Firstly, a good rod made of composite material is quite expensive, and you can buy it far from everywhere, since the shortage of high-quality tackle remains and will remain, and a poor-quality rod lasts about three years. Therefore, it is more convenient for a fisherman living far from the "centers of civilization" to use a traditional rod made of dry birch, walnut or mountain ash. This rod has one very important advantage - it is not separable and therefore does not have joints.

Any joint is a weak point of the rod: at the joint the action of the rod changes, this place needs to be strengthened, which means that it is necessary to increase the mass and change the balance of the whip. (The rod itself without guides and other additional elements is often called a whip.) Very good rods made of 5 - 6 meter full bamboo whip, but personally I have not seen such for about 30 years. When choosing a bamboo whip, if the opportunity presents itself, the most important thing to pay attention to is that the bamboo is mature, that is, an even yellow color without a shade of green.

Bamboo and wooden rods were replaced by composite rods, and fiberglass structures were the first to appear.

The advantages and disadvantages of fiberglass rods are well known. But if the design flaws - a relatively large mass due to the fact that the fiberglass itself is a rather heavy material, and excessive flexibility due to the low modulus of elasticity of the fiberglass - lie on the surface, then the advantages are often forgotten, but in vain. After all, a fiberglass rod can withstand heavy loads on the structure precisely due to the low modulus of elasticity of the material. Modern powerful rods for fishing large and very large fish are made of high-quality fiberglass (glass fibers also vary in quality and characteristics). Personally, when I go to catch a large chub on the Volga or go after a large ide on the lakes of the Novgorod region, I definitely take with me an 8-meter fiberglass rod. It has served me for more than 20 years and has never let me down in the fight against 2-kg chubs and ides, and more than one carp weighing up to 6 kg was caught with it.

Fiberglass rods are less susceptible to micro damage during transportation, in case of accidental but inevitable impacts of rods against each other, on a rack or stand. (Microdamage is usually not visually detectable, but you need to know that any impact, any careless handling of the rod weakens the material. Unlike our own body, on which a bruise appears as an indicator of impact, there is no such indicator on the rod.) Because fiberglass is distinguished by its high - compared to other composites used in rod production, impact strength. That is, a fiberglass rod does not require a very delicate attitude, for example, in field conditions.

In order to preserve the advantages of fiberglass as much as possible, but to design longer rods, manufacturers use the addition of other stiffer fibers to the fiberglass, most often carbon. Such materials are called hybrid materials. They have an increased modulus of elasticity, and the design of a long rod is correspondingly more rigid. Increasing the rigidity of the material allows you to reduce its consumption in the manufacture of the product, and therefore, to reduce the total weight of the rod. (To a reasonable extent, otherwise an excessive pursuit of weight reduction will inevitably lead to a decrease in structural strength.)

It is worth noting that rods made of hybrid materials are the most uninteresting in terms of price-quality ratio. The rod's own weight is reduced, the strength does not increase, and the price rises sharply due to the use of expensive carbon fibers in the production.

While a reasonable length of fiberglass rods is limited to 7 m, then for inexpensive hybrid composites it is 9 m.

In order to make a longer good rod, you have to change technology and completely switch to carbon fibers.

Why carbon fibers rather than ceramic, steel or titanium? The fact is that carbon fibers have the best overall structural characteristics, the main of which is the ratio of tensile strength and modulus of elasticity to the specific gravity of the fiber. Carbon fiber is unmatched in terms of tensile strength to fiber density. No wonder skis, tennis rackets, golf clubs, boat hulls and Formula 1 race cars are made from materials based on carbon fibers. As well as many other things, by the way.

Carbon fiber is tough, strong yet lightweight. In terms of its design parameters, it is significantly superior to other common fibers.

Here I would like to say a few words about terminology right away. The carbon fibers used in composites are not just carbon, but graphite. That is, they have a graphite structure rather than an amorphous furnace soot carbon. I consider it necessary to focus attention on this, because too many advertising slang words have appeared in recent years on the pages of our publications.

Relatively inexpensive carbon fiber rods are still made from inexpensive industrial graphite fibers according to the unpretentious traditional, one might say, old-fashioned technology, in accordance with which the author of these lines was almost the first in the USSR to manufacture twenty rods. Two of them are still "alive" and are kept as a kind of rarities.

In short, the essence of this technology is as follows. Carbon fibers in the form of a tape or a special fabric are impregnated with a binder resin, laid on a conical mandrel, pressed (wrapped) on top with a heat-resistant film (special cellophane, polypropylene or aramid). The resin is then allowed to harden at room temperature if the rod is made at home, or in an oven if the rods are manufactured industrially. By the way, fiberglass rods are also made. With this technology, cold curing binders (for example, conventional epoxy resin) are still used, although rarely. This is how rods are made at home and in some cooperative enterprises.

The material of a rod made using this technology ages quickly under the influence of water and ultraviolet radiation, deforms and loses strength. The rods made by the technology of hot curing of the binder material in special furnaces are devoid of the above-mentioned disadvantages, but during the manual laying of the fiber or ribbon it is difficult to perform all operations with high quality in mass production. However, something else is worse - with this technology, after pressing with a film, the excess resin is squeezed out, but not completely, and the content of the binder in the final material reaches 33–35% by weight. It is not bad if standard and inexpensive carbon fiber is used.

In the case of creating an elite product, elite fibers and resins are always taken. Such materials are traditionally produced for special equipment.

The purpose of creating elite materials is to produce the lightest and stiffest rods over ten meters in length and rods of any length for professional sports. This goal can only be achieved by using elite binders and fibers in parallel with minimizing the content of the binder in the final material.

Leading manufacturers make such designs by a combination of hot pressing and vibration molding, while reducing the content of the binder in the material to 7-8% and even up to 2%.Not entirely conscientious manufacturers often write on their products, the material of which contains 30% of the binder component, that they are made of 98 or even 100% graphite. This should be understood to mean that there are practically no glass fibers in the composite. When I first came across a mention in the literature that structures were created from a carbon composite with a 2% binder content, I didn’t believe it at first, but the source was too serious (Daiwa's official report), and there was no talk of an error or typo. could be. On reflection, I realized how it was implemented. If carbon, graphite fibers are laid strictly parallel, as tightly as possible and calculate how much space will remain between them for the binder component, then approximately 12-14% will be obtained. (Cm. fig. one.)

However, there are two things to keep in mind. First. In order to glue the fibers together, it is not at all necessary to fill the entire space between them with a binder, it is enough to glue together the resin films surrounding the fibers. (Cm. fig. 2.)

To remove excess binder, manufacturers use vacuum (and the entire multi-meter industrial plant is under vacuum). But you can go further.

The carbon fiber itself is a graphitized carbon tube filled with amorphous carbon, or soot, which is unnecessary ballast in terms of strength and weight. (Cm. fig. 3.) If you get rid of amorphous carbon and use hollow fibers - and this is already from the field of technologies that are still difficult to implement and insanely expensive - then you can create rods that are unique in strength and weight. It is these technologies that are used to create elite rods from the so-called “ceramics”, according to the “Daiwa” classification. In addition to cost, the disadvantages of such rods include relatively high fragility in lateral impacts on sharp surfaces and microvibration when manipulating the tackle. The strained material made of high-modulus fibers has a wide range of internal resonant vibrations, which are hardly felt, but they affect the hands and invisibly cause them to fatigue. After four hours of intensive fishing with such a tackle, the hand literally falls off. Although the hand can be changed.

To conclude with a quick excursion into the field of rod materials, I would like to warn anglers about one still common scam of manufacturers. It is not uncommon for them to pass off an ordinary, black-painted fiberglass rod as a carbon fiber one. It is very easy to check this, you need to remove the bottom plug and look at the knees "entry": they are usually not covered with paint, and the naked eye can see what material the rod is made of.

But there are times when the manufacturer does not paint the finished product, but introduces black soot (which is also carbon, but not graphite) into the binder. The imitation is recognized by the coarser texture of the weaving of the glass fibers and, of course, by the weight of the rod.

The coverage of the knees of the rods is of great importance. The simplest inexpensive models are painted, the more expensive carbon fiber rods are covered with impact-resistant varnishes, and the elite ones are also covered with thin protective layers of fluorine organics, which protect not only from water, but also from ultraviolet radiation.

1.2. Float rod designs

Float rods are usually subdivided according to their design.

Structurally, the simplest rods are solid, or non-separable, which have already been mentioned.

Plug rods. They are used for fishing, in which the length of the line is approximately equal to the length of the rod, are also called plug-in flywheels because of the technique of casting the rig. The simplest and most well-known plug-in rods are two- and three-piece bamboo rods.

Telescopic, or fur, rods. The knees of such rods are joined in the same way as the extendable parts of the antenna of a radio receiver or TV.

Plug rods. Designed for fishing with a shortened line.

Rods with guides for fishing in the line. Received in recent years the name "bolognese", but I think that it is more correct to call them according to the method of fishing for which they are intended - "wiring". "Winding" rods are successfully used during float fishing and as a basis for "live bait" tackle.

Rods with rings for fishing more than 25–30 m offshore. They are called “long range casting rods”. The name “match” used today for them, in my opinion, is understandable, but not entirely accurate. The "match" rod can be any other design, its main feature is that it is designed for fishing in competition conditions.

I will dwell on the rods of each design named and their areas of application.

The designs of solid, telescopic and fly-rod plug-in rods are extremely simple and do not require special consideration. It is worth dwelling only on how best to attach the fishing line to the tip of the rod. There are several ways to attach the rig. The easiest, most common and bad way is to trivially tie the line to the rod tip. The long-outdated method is also widespread, the essence of which is visible on fig. four.

The loop of the fishing line is drawn into the eye of the soldered pin (wire) and is wound behind its sharp end. The mount is reliable, but has two drawbacks. First, the line ages relatively quickly where it touches the eye of the pin. Secondly, often when casting, there is a secondary overlap of the line behind the sharp end of the pin. If this happens, then with each subsequent cast, the line is wound around the tip of the rod. To eliminate these shortcomings, the rig is built up with a thick, rigid fishing line 0.2–0.3 mm in diameter and up to 10–15 mm in length, the loop of which clings to the pin. The disadvantage of such an attachment is the weakened place of joining the thick fishing line with the rig.

A good and high-quality way of attaching the rig is to attach a self-tightening loop of the fishing line to a piece of hat elastic (round, braided). A piece of elastic with a length of 2 to 5 cm (depending on its thickness) is tied with a silk thread on glue to the tip of the rod (cm. fig. five).

A very good, simple and reliable way of attaching a rig with a loop at the tip of the rod. A piece of braided line is taken, folded in a loop and attached to the tip of the rod so that the end of the loop does not reach the edge of the tip by about 5-10 mm. A loop of fishing line is threaded through the loop at the tip of the rod and snapped onto it. The fastening is simple, reliable and allows you to instantly remove or put on the rig on the rod (cm. fig. 6).

The most modern method of attaching a rig to a rod is a method of attachment through a special end piece, or connector. Such connectors are produced by many European firms, they are selected according to the diameter of the rod tip. Reliably enough, you can fix the tip on the rod with a drop of any quick-drying glue.

The named rods, equipped with rigging, are approximately equal in length to the length of the rod, intended for fishing in the coastal zone in those places that the angler is well aware of. For example, if I go to a dacha pond to fish for roach, then I take with me a five-meter fishing rod, which, if necessary, can be easily shortened to one and a half meters, removing one or three knees. If there is a desire to fish for a bastard on the canal, then I definitely need to take a rod about nine meters long with me on a fishing trip.

Fly rods are good because, having adapted to any one specific body of water, you can easily choose the rod you need in terms of length and power and successfully fish. But this is also the disadvantage of such rods.

If you are going to a completely unfamiliar body of water, then you will have to take several rods of different lengths with you, because it is not known in advance which one will be needed.

So, in my opinion, a fly rod, regardless of design, should be purchased by an angler if he knows exactly the required length and power of the rod, making a choice according to his means and preferences.

Some firms have taken the path of adjusting the length of a telescopic rod by means of special shock-absorbing attachment rings. The idea is good, but the rubber of the attachment rings is also not eternal, and after a while it becomes fragile, and the retainer ceases to fulfill its functions. It is possible to change the length of the rod with the help of clamps within one to one and a half meters.

The designers and technologists of the Daiwa company have “played out” so much that they have created several series of telescopic rods with the ability to adjust their length within a meter, due to the variable taper of the knees. Everything would be fine, but the cost of such a rod with a length of 10 meters is comparable to the cost of, for example, a pretty decent car.

The biggest disadvantage of any fly rod is that after casting it is almost impossible to effectively influence the movement of the lure in the stream or in the water column. The technique of fishing with a fly rod is reduced either to the technique of fishing with a fixed or moving bait under the influence of the current and wind, or to the technique of fishing with a spinning rod. That is, the fisherman sends into the water a seductive bait in his opinion and patiently waits for the moment when the fish agrees with his opinion, or methodically processes the selected edge by holding or pulling the rig using well-known techniques. It is frankly difficult, and sometimes simply impossible, to fish with a fly rod in a strong current.

In order to really control the movement of the nozzle and control this movement, a scheme was created, which is implemented using plug rods for fishing with a short line.

1.2.2. Short line fishing rods

I'll start with a story. The first plug for me personally appeared in 1981. Then we, Soviet fishermen-sportsmen, during friendly meetings with Finns, Swedes and Norwegians for fishing with a jig, exchanged our tungsten jigs for imported fishing line, hooks and rods. After about twenty years, I realized that this plug was "wrong." It is a flywheel and absolutely unsuitable for fishing with a shortened rig. Its length is 12.5 m, and it can be fished like a regular swing rod. It has been in my closet for several years now. Since then, the culture of fishing has changed so much that it belongs there.

The principle of fishing with plug rods using shortened rigs is based on the fact that the length of the rigging line is reduced to a minimum, so that it is 20-30 cm higher than the depth at the selected fishing point. And in order to place the bait in the chosen place of fishing, a rod of a certain length is required. Since it is difficult to predict what the exact rod length should be in advance, choose the maximum rod length that the modern industry has to offer. And already in the process of fishing, the angler adjusts the length of the rod to the one that he needs.

Plug rods, designed for fishing with shortened rigs, are designed in such a way that you can easily undock (and, conversely, dock) the rod on any knee at any time in a split second. The invaluable advantage of plug-in rods is that they can effectively fish in the most unfavorable conditions - neither waves, nor currents, nor bushes and trees are afraid. But, of course, everything has a downside. Just a few years ago, for the versatility and efficiency provided by the most unpretentious plug, it was necessary not only to shell out a decent amount of money.To handle a plug rod weighing up to 2 kg, a certain physical preparation was required. Now a good plug weighs no more than a kilogram and costs no more than a good swing rod of the same length.

Plug rods are designed taking into account the fact that the shock absorber will take the main load during the fight with the hooked fish.

The shock absorber is a piece of special rubber, fixed on one side by a stopper inside the knee of the rod, and on the other side connected to the fishing line of the float rig.

Taken together, the entire plug-in rod damping system is presented on fig. 7, it includes a special rubber, an inner cone and a connector, or adapter, between the line and the rubber. We will talk about this in more detail later, but now we focus on the idea of ​​a plug rod, which consists in the fact that with its help you can place the bait exactly at the point chosen for fishing.

As I mentioned earlier, ten years ago, the distribution of plugs was limited by their mass and price and availability. Plugs were an elite tackle and were part of the arsenal exclusively of athletes who were part of the national team of the country. Now the picture has changed.

The modern policy of the world's largest manufacturers and sellers of fishing tackle contributes to the distribution of plugs among all those who want to fish with this tackle. There is no point in specifying them.

In fact, the problem of introducing plugs into fishing practice was not associated with the price of a rod, but with the development of a repair base. Until it became possible to change or repair plug rod knees, ordinary anglers hesitated to spend money on their purchase. After all, no one is insured against accidentally stepping on a rod or crushing it with a car door.

Here it is appropriate once again to clarify the terminology.

Most of the questions among anglers are associated with the word "whale". The plug rod is designed so that an interchangeable piece can be attached to either knee. (Of course, spare parts must be produced by the same manufacturer as the rod itself.) That replacement part that attaches from the top, regardless of its length, is called a whale, and the part that attaches from the bottom, as a rule, to lengthen the rod. called the top.

The good thing about a plug rod is that it is simple, quick and easy to "make" a rod of the required length from it. For example, if you are catching crucian carp from a depth of about 1.5 m, then the length of the spare whale will be 2–2.4 m. But if you are catching a creeper from a 4-meter depth, then it makes sense to stock up on an additional whale 5–5 long, 5 m.

There are many variations. Personally, I found a simple, in my opinion, way out. I have two pairs of plugs. One pair of rods is designed for fishing fish weighing up to 2 kg. These are lightweight, one might say, elegant rods. The second pair of plugs is designed to fight large fish, for example, carp weighing 5-8 kg. From two identical plug rods, I can always assemble the desired design, even if any knee is accidentally broken.

Also, for catching stronger fish, I have an 11m plug made of hybrid composite in my arsenal.

In most cases, it is sufficient to purchase an inexpensive 11 m plug and three whales in lengths corresponding to the lengths of two, three and four upper legs of the rod. From such a simple set of knees, it is very easy to complete a rod of the optimal length for almost any fishing conditions.

By the way, a plug rod up to 7 m long can be successfully used as a flywheel. For example, a 4 m long whale I often use as a fly rod during spring fishing for roach or bleak.

Some anglers do not use plug rods due to the fact that they need special guides, adapters, stands, platforms, holders. This is a bias.It is easy to catch with a plug without having a platform and a "recoil device", that is, a special roller for feeding the rod knees.

Float rods with guide guides are in the arsenal of almost every angler. But the question of choosing a rod for a specific purpose remains relevant. The reasons for this lie in the illusion of the abundance of various models offered by our trade, and in the eternal search for universal tackle by inexperienced anglers.

I divide rods with rings for fishing peaceful fish as follows: rods with rings "country" rods with rings "wiring" rods with rings for fishing with "long casting" float rigs with rings for fishing with floating rings rods with rings for bottom fishing of large fish (first of all, carp) rods with “free tip” rings. Rods with rings "country"

Rods with rings for summer residents are the most common. The standard length of such products is 4–5 m. Weight - from 250 to 450 g. The material of the elbows is fiberglass or hybrid glass-carbon composite with a small content of carbon fibers. Even 10-15% carbon fiber makes the rod noticeably stiffer, but also one and a half times more expensive. Products of this class are equipped with the simplest guides and a reel seat, although lately manufacturers are not stingy and equip even the simplest models with very decent fittings.

Buyers of "country" rods are inexperienced anglers who have illusions about the versatility of products of this class. The scope of the "country" rod is primitive fishing with rough tackle in ponds and lakes. For catching small fish, they are too heavy and bulky, and large fish, due to the poor quality of the material, they usually do not hold up.

It is better to equip inexpensive rods with ordinary cheap wire reels, which are needed only to store a stock of fishing line. Attempts to use such rods for long casting fishing are doomed to failure. It takes a lot of skill to cast a glide rig accurately with a heavy, whip rod. It is unrealistic to cast light rigs further than 15 m, and under the influence of heavy rigs a poor-quality rod often breaks, especially when the line "sticks" in rainy weather. But the "country" rods have certain advantages. Firstly, they are cheap, and secondly, they do not require special care, and thirdly, they are designed for casting primitive rigs, which is what novice anglers need, fourthly, they are quite convenient to transport when equipped (with a reel, fishing line and equipment). These rods are good for hiking, especially in difficult conditions, for example, during rafting. Floating rods

Floating rods are structurally very close to the "summer" ones. They are intended for fishing from a boat on the current. The fishing line, under the action of the current on the rig, is gradually ejected from the reel, and a long lead of the bait takes place in the stream. Such fishing is well and many times described in the literature as a classic wiring. The length of float fishing rods ranges from 2.4 to 4 m (it is inconvenient to fish with a long rod from a boat). These rods usually weigh from 200 to 300 g. The recommended weight of the rig is from 5 to 60 g. Fishing rods for fishing with a float are made of material containing a sufficiently large amount of carbon fiber. These rods are equipped with guides made of alumina or silicon ceramics with holders on one leg. It is convenient to complete the tackle for fishing with a float either with a small lightweight multiplier, or with a high-quality wire reel (which is now a rarity), or with a spinning reel with a closed spool. Reels with an open spool are inappropriate for float fishing. The jogging is obtained with a great delay, and it is well known that during the course it should be instantaneous. Rods with guides "wiring"

I will clarify.In world practice, modern "wiring" rods are understood as rods for fishing from the bank on the current. Modern "wiring" rods appeared 15 years ago at major competitions. These were bulky, heavy (up to 1.4 kg) fiberglass rods 8 m long with guide rings. And they were intended so that it was possible to keep the equipment practically in place during the current.

Over time, such rods have almost supplanted plug rods, but only almost. When large fish are actively biting, the long "wiring" rod has no competitors. The reel makes it quicker and easier to handle big fish than a plug shock absorber. Very widely used "posting" rods when fishing on small rivers, where long casting from the shore is not needed, but a long lead (up to 30 m) along the shore is needed in order to attract cautious fish. This is how they catch large roach, chub, ide. The common length of "wiring" rods is from 5 to 8 m, but 6-meter ones are most in demand. Cool sports 7-meter "lead" rods weigh no more than 250 g. The recommended weight of the rig ranges from 2 to 40 g. In Europe, long "lead" rods are called "bolognese". "Wiring" rods are dynamically stiff for fast hooking, but it is inconvenient to use them for long casting fishing from the shore. The exceptions are cases when a deaf, non-slip rig is used at great depths, which in itself is relatively rarely justified.

Bolognese rods are recommended to be equipped with inexpensive spinning reels with smooth brakes, designed for lines with diameters from 0.08 to 0.20 mm, or high-quality wire reels. In the absence of good wire reels on sale, I would recommend using fly fishing reels instead. If you wind a line on the drum of a fly fishing reel, and on top of it - a line, then you get an excellent wiring reel.

Very similar to the classic wiring special "Italian" fishing rods for trout fishing. They are called "Italian" because it was in Italy that the most interesting fishing of brook trout with a bottom rig, when the float is above the water, originated and is widely practiced. The length of such rods is from 6 to 12.5 m. They are produced according to the most modern technologies, equipped with very small and very lightweight rings made of silicon carbide or zirconium oxide. I would like to draw your attention to the fact that 12-meter rods with rings are not intended for catching large bream on the Oka or Volga.

The recommended weight of trout rod rigging is from 2 to 20 g. It is characteristic that plastic tapered bushings (which are also found on wiring bushings) are fitted at the upper ends of all elbows. Due to the jammed bushings between the telescopic knees, the rod is easily adjustable in length. I emphasize once again that such rods are intended for fishing brook trout in small turbulent rivers and streams. Fishing with a very small float, "knock", or half-bottom. There are even special world championships for such fishing.

1.2.4. Long casting rods, rigging

So far we have talked about rods with rings, which have in common that they are all telescopic. The rods, which are designed for catching exceptionally large fish or for fishing in which the whip is subjected to extreme dynamic loads during long and ultra-long casts, are produced in the plug version. First of all, these are specialized rods for fishing by the "long casting" method, which received the name "match" in the company catalogs. But “match” is the general name for rod models for both “long casting”, blind rigging, and plug-in, which were born thanks to orders for the production of specific designs specifically for athletes. If the tests in competition were successful, the rods were put into series and included in the catalog.

Specialized long casting rods have been very rigidly standardized in terms of length and test for many years. The standard "English" length was 13 feet (3.96 m), and the recommended rig weight was from 2 to 16 g. With the advent of very high quality lines and spinning reels, rods of a different standard appeared: length 14 feet (4.27 m) with two tests (2 - 16 g and 10 - 20 g). More powerful universal rods with a length of 15 feet (4.57 m) with a test of 10-40 g are gradually taking root. The latter can already be equipped with light spinning lures or used for fishing large carp. A longer and more powerful rod allows casting at distances over 70 m (how to fish with a float at such a distance from the shore is a topic for a separate conversation).

Long-distance casting rods are made from state-of-the-art materials and are not cheap, but there are also inexpensive mass-produced models. Plug-in "long-distance casting" rods are almost always three-piece. They are equipped with silicon carbide, aluminum oxide or zirconium rings. A cork handle and a screw reel seat of one design or another are almost mandatory. The handle of inexpensive models is made of special neoprene.

For the complete set, the highest quality spinning speed reels are recommended, accommodating 100 m of line with a diameter of 0.20 - 0.22 mm. It is highly desirable that the reel has an irreplaceable spool with a reverse taper (ABS), a line anti-twist (Twist buster-2) and an instant backstop, which is indispensable for thin lines. The latter is necessary when using thin lines, otherwise the loop of the line will constantly fall off the spool. As for the reel brake, I use both tail and head brake reels. I don't see the difference, if only the brake is smooth - after all, the main line with a diameter of 0.12 - 0.18 mm is most often used, and leads with a diameter of 0.08 - 0.12 mm.

1.2.5. "Zhivtsovaya" float rod

The simplest and most reliable "live bait" fishing rod is obtained if you take an inexpensive fiberglass rod. It is made of fiberglass, since rods made of this material, although heavier, are more durable and flexible, which allows you to effectively restrain the jerks of large fish. First of all, attention needs to be paid to the power of the rod, since you have to deal with large fish in a limited space. When fishing for pike, the best will be a rod close in power to "sea" rods, that is, with a test of up to 200-300 g. Although you can completely do with a rod with a test of up to 100 g. If you fish weighing up to a kilogram, then a three-knee The rod is made of natural bamboo, but flexible and durable fiberglass is still better. You can fish with a rod with blind rigging, especially if the reservoir is small and not wide, but it is better to take a rod 4–5 m long, equipped with the simplest guides and a spinning reel. The spinning reel will allow, if necessary, to increase the casting distance of the bait and will help to restrain the sharp jerks of the fish. It makes no sense to purchase disposable plastic reels for live bait fishing, they are designed for only one decent fish. And you, most likely, will not pull out the prey - the line will withstand, but the cheap reel will not. In my opinion, reels with front drag should be preferred as they are usually more powerful.

1.3. Self-installation of rings

Until now, many anglers, when buying a rod without rings, expect to install guide rings on it at home. As a rule, such anglers consider themselves smarter than designers and manufacturers. Each rod design is designed for a certain load under certain conditions, taking into account the expected resistance of fish, wind, and other factors. Installing rings on a rod is, first of all, extra weight on the rod.And the longer the rod, the more stress due to the excess mass it experiences during casting. The most common fly rods are designed to use rigs weighing up to 15 g. And if an angler installs 10 g guide rings and then puts a rig weighing 10–12 g, then one can only guess if the rod will hold up for one or two seasons. The installation of the rings leads to the fact that the heavier - the rod breaks itself. Conclusion - if you need a rod with guides, then purchase a ready-made complete product.

1.4. Repair of rods at home

Questions related to the repair of rods remain very relevant in Russia. This is due to the fact that, firstly, we do not have any corporate guarantees for fishing tackle. Secondly, there is no eternal gear. Sooner or later, from the fatigue of the design of the rod, there is a stratification of the material, a violation of the tightness of the varnish coating, a violation of the tightness of the joints of the knees and much more.

Thirdly, sooner or later, the rod is stepped on, pressed by a door or broken during casting in a strong headwind or hooked with a rig to the bushes behind the back.

The question often arises whether a broken knee can be replaced. In theory, this is possible, but only if you are very lucky. Let me explain why. There are about four dozen factories producing quality float rods in the world, and each of them uses its own materials, which are somewhat different from those used by competitors. In practice, it is very difficult to match the knee from one rod to the next. Elbows can be almost the same, but differ in taper, wall thickness, stiffness and power. Even if you replace the knees of one rod with knees of another rod made in the same enterprise, you still have to be lucky to have them docked. The only exceptions are firms that provide spare parts for all their products in full.

Therefore, it must be admitted that repairs "in the field" will remain relevant.

If we take the statistics of float rod breakdowns, then the causes of breakdowns and their nature can be arranged in the following sequence.

In the first place, of course, are the breakdowns that occurred due to careless handling of the rod. Most often, the rod is stepped on. They usually step in the middle of the knees. If one knee is broken, this is fixable one way or another, but if several knees are pushed through by the foot, then it will be cheaper to throw out the damaged rod and buy a new one. Very often the rod is pressed down by the car door. Such cases are typical when fishing smoothly flows into a relaxed rest, and getting home is carried out in the dark.

In third place are the breakages that occurred during the rod overload. Rod overload occurs when very heavy rigs are used, when a long and insufficiently powerful rod is trying to throw a rig against a strong wind, when trying to cast a rig with a hook hooked on bushes, and when trying to break the rig after a dead hook with a rod.

During overload, knee fracture usually occurs in the lower third of the knee. Such breakdowns are quite easy to fix. To do this, cut A (cm. fig. eight)... A shortened lower knee is obtained that fits well with an even thicker lower knee. The upper part of the broken knee is inserted into the lower part and the approach is adjusted. The approach is adjusted by shortening the lower part of the upper trim until the mating length is three diameters at the joint or 2-3 cm more. After adjusting the debris, it is better to glue them together with a drop of waterproof glue. In this way, you can repair a knee that is broken not very close to its bottom or top edge.

The described repair option is used when restoring telescopic rods.The repaired rod has a completely different action and reduced length, but it can be fished with it indefinitely, that is, until the second unforeseen event.

The situation is worse if the knee has been split in its upper part, from the butt of the knee (cm. fig. nine), or if the butt knee is broken, or if the angler absolutely wants to maintain the original length of the rod. In this case, a bandage is used. Broken knee braces are also used to repair the knees of plug rods and match rods.

You can carry out self-repair at home using the following technology. The broken knee must be placed on some kind of mandrel. In reality, it can be a conical stick made of wood or a thinner rod knee. (Industrial mandrels are made of hardened metal.) In order to later remove the repaired elbow from the mandrel, it must first be covered with a release layer. You can use plastic wrap as such a layer, but it is better to use a lubricant. Best results are obtained when wax is used. You can replace the wax with a wax polish for floors and furniture. The grease is applied to the mandrel along its entire length. There should be a lot of grease in the place where the bandage will be created on the knee to be repaired. The damaged knee is put on the mandrel with lubricant, and you can start repairing. A thin, not thicker than 0.12 mm, fiberglass is taken. The easiest way is to take a piece of fiberglass, which is used as electrical insulation or as thermal insulation. Fiberglass must be annealed on an electric stove. During annealing, paraffin lubricants are removed from the surface of the glass fabric. You can also anneal fiberglass on an open fire, you just need not to overheat it so that the fiberglass does not start to melt. If you nevertheless accidentally burned the fiberglass and it became fragile, then it must be replaced, otherwise the strength of the band will be low. After preparing the fiberglass, you can start making the binder. As such, an epoxy resin is used, which is designed for polymerization for at least 10-12 hours. The slower the polymerization proceeds, the stronger the bond will be. Common resins for household use are most suitable. The resin is mixed with the hardener in the proportion recommended in the accompanying instructions for it. It is very convenient to mix resin with hardener in plastic lids, which are used to close glass jars. It is better to mix the resin with the hardener by placing the lid on a warm central heating radiator. The heated resin will have a lower viscosity and will impregnate the fiberglass better.

Cutting is cut from fiberglass. The dimensions of the cut are made in such a way that the bandage covers the length of the knee crack, extending 3-4 cm beyond its edges on each side (cm. fig. 10)... The width of the fiberglass should be such that it is possible to wrap the knee at the fracture point four times, but not less. Cutting the fiberglass cloth is impregnated with prepared resin and carefully wrapped around the break. In the next step, the fiberglass needs to be fixed and sealed. For this, a lavsan film is used. It is best to use an old tape, and a narrow one. It is imperative to put the tape on the glass cloth with the side on which there is no magnetic layer, otherwise it will be very difficult to remove it later. The tape is applied coil to coil, with an overlap and at constant tension. This will force excess resin onto the surface. Part of the resin will also go into the knee, therefore, so that the knee does not stick to the mandrel, a separating layer is used. After winding, which is called crimping, the squeezed out excess resin is removed with a rag and waited for the resin to harden. The next day, before removing the tape, it makes sense to warm up the repaired place. To do this, it is quite possible to use a hair dryer or other source of warm, or better hot air.After heating, the strength of the joint will increase. You can act differently. Remove the tape by simply winding it up and warm up the repaired place. In this case, the knee can be warmed up to a temperature of 100–120 ° C for half an hour. At a higher temperature, the strength characteristics of the resin for household use may change, and it is better not to risk it.

It should be noted that repairing the knee at home will not fully restore the strength of the material. Cold curing resins are afraid of moisture, so you will have to dry the glued knee after each fishing trip. But in general, this method of repair provides the required strength and reliability, and a "cured" knee usually lasts 2-3 years.

Separate problems arise when a fracture of the uppermost knee occurs. If the tip is not hollow, then it should be replaced or shortened to the point of fracture. Attempts to repair damaged hollow upper rod elbows using a bandage give satisfactory results only if it is possible to dock the debris from the inside using a piece of a very thin and light tube. But, as a rule, nothing good comes out of such repairs. It's all about the extra mass that is contained in the tube itself. Every gram of extra weight at the tip of the rod changes the action dramatically. If the tip of the spinning rod breaks, and usually the breakage point is close to the tulip, it is best to shorten the spinning rod to the breakpoint and rearrange the tulip. Very rarely, it is also necessary to rearrange the next passage ring closest to the tulip. The same can be said for ring rods.

There are times when fishing for large fish, when, during the game, the angler grabs his hand at the blank of the plug rod above the handle. This action relatively often causes the lower knee above the handle to break. It is not always possible to repair such a fracture using a bandage. It is better to remove the lower plug and insert a pivot made of a fiberglass rod from the lower end into the damaged knee. The rod is inserted and glued in with epoxy. If possible, choose the length of the king pin so that its lower end goes under the handle plug before the start of the reel seat. It is ideal to extend the upper end of the king pin to the casting of the guide ring closest to the handle. In this way, it will be possible to reduce the stress concentration at the ends of the pivot and shift the critical sections to the most safe places for the blank.

Other cases where repairs are required include breaking the liner of the guide ring, which will require replacing the ring.

Cases of handle failure due to delamination of the plug gluing or thread stripping on the reel seat are extremely rare, but correcting such defects is relatively troublesome.

In conclusion, I would like to say that the repair of float rods, as a rule, leads to the restoration of strength, but before proceeding with the repair, it is still worth considering whether to buy a new rod. Ultimately, such a step is more correct.

The main part of the float rig is the float. While fishing, the angler spends the lion's share of his time watching the float. Since this activity requires sufficient attention, the angler wakes up creative, engineering, aesthetic and artistic inclinations. This is how I explain the endless literary references to the float as the personification of fishing, as well as the great variety of floats by design. The variety of designs is also influenced by the fact that the handicraft production of floats is an entertaining creativity. Literally every angler wants to make or get hold of a versatile float. The search for a universal float usually goes in two directions: finding a float for catching any fish in any conditions and finding a float for catching only a specific type of fish. When I hear a request to pick up a float for a crucian carp, I never cease to be surprised.After all, neither crucian carp, nor bream, nor any other fish bite on the float.

The float, as a part of the equipment, performs strictly defined functions, which means that it must have very specific characteristics. The float must have a certain carrying capacity, since the rig has a certain mass (which allows it to be cast). The mass of the rig means the mass of the float, sinker, hook, line and all auxiliary elements taken together.

The float should make it easy to maneuver the rig and at the same time signal bites at any time the rig is in the water. These requirements are mutually exclusive, so there are no universal floats for all conditions. If we take into account that different types of fish take the nozzle in principle the same way, namely with the mouth, then the search for floats "for crucian carp", "for bream", etc. is very unpromising. We can talk about more or less universal floats and about special floats, that is, adapted to very specific fishing conditions.

There are several types of floats, the most versatile in shape and size, which are good for the most common fishing conditions. Fishing conditions should be understood not only as a set of depths, bottom topography, wind, current, weather, but also the behavior of the fish that you catch, its activity, size. In a number of forms of floats, two "extreme" designs can be distinguished - a ball (fig. 11) and a thin rod (fig. 12). Floats of these shapes are used in various conditions. A ball-shaped float is indispensable when fishing in a line on an unstable, fast current, especially if the nozzle does not touch the bottom, and cautious fish are caught with very light rig. Floats in the form of a thin rod (feather) are ideal for fishing without flow, at shallow depths, from the bottom in calm weather. In windy weather, on bodies of water without a current, especially shallow ones, a surface current appears, and such floats no longer work.

Fig. eleven

All the variety of shapes of floats are in the row between the ball and the rod. In the middle of a number of possible forms, there is naturally a classic spindle-shaped float (fig. 13).

Fig. 13

Regardless of the shape, the floats should signal a bite well. For this, the upper part of the float is usually tapered (fig. fourteen), which is important if there are frequent bites with the rise of the nozzle and the support (the support is the sinker closest to the hook.) Since the material for the float is the lightest, usually fragile materials, the upper, thinnest part of the float - the antenna - is made of polymeric materials in the form of a thin rod.

The statement about the necessarily high quality of the surface treatment of the float to a mirror-like shine (to reduce water resistance) does not have soil under them, given the speed of movement of the float in the water - it is very low. This is true for all floats except those made of highly porous, hygroscopic balsa wood. For such floats, careful surface treatment is paramount in terms of tightness.

2.1. Making floats

Modern flywheel and short rig floats are of the design shown in fig. fifteen... The float consists of a body, antenna, keel and line ring. For the secondary attachment of the float to the line, a cambric is used, worn on the keel.

For beginner anglers, it will be useful to talk about the technology of self-made floats.

The materials for the bodies of the floats are pine, linden, balsa wood, expanded polystyrene and polyurethane foams or foams, burdock and elderberry cores, pine and spruce bark, thermoplastic polymers. Dry poplar root is a very good material, but it is difficult to harvest it.

Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages.Pine wood, linden wood, pine bark are good for floats designed for fishing at shallow depths using the “long cast” method and for ball-shaped floats for fishing in strong currents and shallow depths.

Foams and burdock core are used when there is no balsa at hand. Thermoplastics, as the most technologically advanced material, are widely used in industrial production. The most versatile material is balsa wood due to its own low specific gravity and high processing technology.

At home, to make floats, it is enough to have an electric drill, a file, sandpaper and drills. If it is necessary to process sufficiently hard wood or polystyrene, then the workpiece of the square profile is clamped directly in the drill chuck. When processing balsa, burdock core and light foams with a specific gravity of less than 0.15 g / cm³, a regular pencil is clamped into the cartridge, a short soft tube is put on the pencil, and a workpiece is inserted into the other end of the tube with an interference fit. A flexible tube drive prevents the workpiece from breaking during machining. The carved body of the float is drilled, the antenna and the keel are glued into it. The material for the keels is fiberglass, rigid stainless wire, tinned steel wire, bamboo, plastics, and for long-cast floats - brass, pine or other wood. What some call CFRP keels are nothing more than tinted fiberglass. By the way, let me explain how easy it is to recognize CFRP. To do this, a piece of material or a rod is placed in an open flame, the binder quickly burns out, evaporates, and the fiber remains. So, if a fiber is heated in a flame, but retains its shape and remains straight and flexible after cooling, then this is carbon fiber.

Keels with a diameter of 0.4 to 1.2 mm are made from wire and rods of fiberglass, from bamboo, plastic and fiberglass - with a diameter of 1–2 mm, and thicker ones from wood - up to 4.5 mm in diameter. Antennas are made of plastic, bamboo. For the antennas of the smallest floats, boar bristles are good. The bristles need to be sealed very well with varnish, otherwise they will quickly begin to flake.

After gluing the keel and antenna into the body of the float using epoxy resin and, if necessary, the ring for the line, the float is primed and / or painted. Bark and foam floats do not need to be painted. Floats made of foam plastic need a primer before painting with nitro enamels. Liquid polyvinyl acetate glue or white water-based paint is used as a primer.

Floats made of wood, including balsa, are best painted using the following technology. Taking the float by the antenna, it is dipped in nitro lacquer to the antenna and slowly taken out, stuck vertically with the keel into a piece of foam rubber and allowed to dry. Floats made of balsa and burdock core must be varnished 2-3 times. Furniture varnishes are most suitable. The varnish must be diluted with acetone to a density close to that of water. The diluted varnish fills the numerous pores of the wood well. If this is not done, then the fishing float will suddenly start to sink, and after drying it may even crack.

By the quality of the primer, the quality of the floats of a particular company is assessed. If a balsa float does not want to sink during the whole fishing season, then it is considered to be of high quality. If, nevertheless, the float begins to sink, take pentaphthalic varnish diluted with hexane or thinner for oil paints and varnishes and cover the entire pre-dried float with one layer.

After the primer has dried well, the float can be painted with nitro enamels, but first you need to remove the pile of wood fibers that has risen after the primer with fine sandpaper. Floats are usually painted in two ways. A quick and beautiful, but unpleasant method involves painting with an airbrush. Another good way is dipping.If the final color of the antenna is not black, then the antenna is painted white first. If you need a black antenna, then it is immediately painted black. After applying a white substrate to the antenna, the body of the float is painted. The float is taken by the antenna, dipped vertically into the enamel and very slowly taken out and stuck with the keel into the foam rubber. When the float is dry, you can paint the antenna the desired color. The floats are coated with two thin coats of urethane varnish or pentaphthalic varnish. Glyphthal varnishes are more durable, but also more fragile. If pentaphthalic varnish is used, then a desiccant should be introduced into it in an amount of not more than 4%. The varnish is removed from the keel of the dried float, a piece of cambric for the fishing line is put on the keel - and the float is ready. Instead of a cambric, it is much better and more practical to use a thin silicone tube.

A few words about the color of the antennas of the floats. There is a widespread misconception that the antenna should be bright and striped. These floats are good for trading. On the water, the antenna is visible very differently than in a jar of water. On the water, the stripes merge, dazzles in the eyes, which only interferes with fishing. Monophonic antennas are best seen. The orange and black antennas of floats for fishing in light water and lemon-yellow ones for dark water should be recognized as universal. However, each angler has an individual visual perception, so it is better to choose the color of the antenna yourself.

Antenna thickness also matters. Very thin and long antennas are good for "thin" fishing with small lures. Thick antennas are used when a worm, live bait or other heavy bait is used as bait.

One often hears complaints that thin antennas are hard to see. They say these are anglers who have never even tried to fish using floats with such antennas. I assure you that even the thinnest antenna is clearly visible against the background of water, since nothing prevents you from observing it. And the thin antenna signals any bite just fine, and not only about the bite, but also any touch to the nozzle or bait.

Replaceable antennas are still not widely adopted, despite the fact that large diameter tube antennas are very good.

Regarding the color of the body of the floats, the following can be noted. The fish sees the float from below, against the background of the water surface. Therefore, the body should be painted to match the silvery surface of the water. All other colors are only pleasing to the eye of the angler. I disagree with the popular assertion that bleak "hits" bright floats. If the bleak, and more often the top, pushes or rubs against the float, then it does not pay attention to the color. However, I fish with floats of different colors and I don't see much difference.

Installation of floats of various balls and plumage on the antennas is justified in the case of fishing by the "long casting" method. They are separated into a separate group.

"Long-distance casting" floats with two attachment points on the line are not widely used. The second attachment point does not provide any advantage, but overshooting of the rig during long-distance flights occurs quite often. Floats are often loaded in the lower part of the body, that is, part of the load is transferred directly to the float. This is done to “tie in” the maximum casting distance, reduce the drop rate of the nozzle and prevent the rig from overwhelming during flight.

I can note that floats with a body weight of 3 to 20 g are suitable for catching chub, but for catching bream - with a body weight of no more than 10 g.

2.2. Transportation, tubes, boxes, stock of cambric

A float is a fragile and delicate thing. For the transportation of the floats, I personally use a special tube or a rigid transparent plastic box of the appropriate length. It is good to transport floats for "long casting" in the tube, as they are the longest ones. It is convenient to transport floats already loaded on a line segment. For regular floats, I often use one of the compartments in my fishing box.At home, it is good to store floats by sticking them into a large and thick sheet of foam rubber. When all the floats are in plain sight, you can immediately see which ones are missing and which are clearly excess.

In addition to the floats in the shipping box, I advise you to keep a small supply of silicone tubes of different diameters and a file. The file is required in order to blunt the lower part of the keel made of metal at the new float.

I must emphasize that it is better to use silicone liners for the fishing line on the keel of the float, since they are not only the most elastic, but also the most durable.

The line is an essential element of any fishing tackle. Without it, there is no physical connection between the angler and the fish. The fishing line, as you know, is monofilament and braided.

When choosing a mono line, you should first of all pay attention to the appearance of the line on the spool - the "fresh" line has a shiny surface. If the surface is dull, it means that the line has “aged”, that is, microcracks have formed on its surface under the influence of heat and ultraviolet radiation. Aging of the fishing line also occurs because stabilizers and plasticizers sweat from it over time. After winding about a meter of line from the reel, with the naked eye or using a micrometer, make sure that the line is evenly calibrated along the length. This is easy to do if the line is not the thinnest, that is, its diameter is 0.10 - 0.12 mm or more. If the line is thinner, then a micrometer will not help. You need to use an optical method, for example, examine the fishing line under a microscope.

It is also possible to check the calibration of a thin line, that is, its uniformity in thickness, in a very simple way. To do this, you need to clamp a small sinker on the line. Moving the lead along the line, you will immediately find thickening on the line - in these places the lead will get stuck. An uneven fishing line is unsuitable for fishing. This line can only be used if it has a large margin of safety.

If the line is well calibrated, it is advisable to test its break strength. This can be done at home on a wet line about a meter long using a dynamometer. It is convenient to use flat electronic scales as a dynamometer. So, place the line on the scale and use both hands evenly and do not pull the ends of the line down quickly until it breaks. During a break, the balance will show a breaking load. This method is very approximate and is only suitable for a relative comparison of different lines with the same diameter. Accurate testing requires certain standards to be met and expensive specialized equipment available.

Cheap lines very rarely show that the markings on the spool match the true performance. Since almost all high-quality fishing line in the world is made from Japanese raw materials, it is more logical to look for good fishing line among brands of well-known manufacturers. In the marking of the highest quality lines, underestimated strength characteristics are indicated, but exact diameters. The strength of a good and average quality fishing line can vary by 1.5–2 times with almost the same rigidity, and hence the relative strength at the knot.

Line rigidity is a very important characteristic. Stiff line is generally more durable due to the higher degree of axial orientation of the surface layers. What does it mean? The process of making a fishing line consists in pulling a thread from a polymer melt and pulling it through a calibrated hole - a die. The production process includes many stages, such as drying, mixing with stabilizers and inhibitors, heating, cooling, drawing, quenching and others, but this is not the point. In the process of pulling the fishing line through the die, the polymer macromolecules are straightened and aligned along the axis of the thread. Straightening, or orientation, of micromolecules occurs more fully in the surface layer of the filament than inside the fiber - this is the axial orientation of the surface layer.The higher the degree of molecular orientation, the more fully the strength characteristics of the raw material are realized in the final line, but the harder the line is. It is because of the high rigidity that the line usually loses strength at the knot.

It is preferable to equip long rods with a rigid fishing line, since the loss of the cushioning qualities of the fishing line is compensated by the length of the rod. The disadvantages of rigid lines, of course, can be attributed to their difficult descent from the spool of the spinning reel, which leads to a decrease in the casting distance. A fishing line that is too soft can easily get tangled, twisted and has increased permanent deformation, which leads to its rapid aging. Rather, not aging, since polymer aging is a process of loss of characteristics under the influence of light, heat, radiation, but a loss of quality due to microdamage during operation. The advice known from the literature “to dry the line after fishing” refers specifically to soft lines.

The development of the fishing tackle industry is forcing a revision of old views and recommendations. So, probably, only "dummies" are now catching "weighted average" roach on fishing lines of "classic" thickness of 0.17 mm with hook No. 4. When fishing with tackle with blind rigging of fish weighing up to a kilogram, it is quite enough to use a fishing line with a diameter of 0.08 mm. So, a regular line with a diameter of 0.1 mm has a breaking strength of 1.2 kg, and an elite line - up to 1.7 kg. When fishing in visited places where the fish are careful, it is better to use even thinner lines. Personally, I, a fisherman in central Russia, use fishing lines with a diameter of 0.12 mm when fishing for large roach, bream, and even then with a good bite. For catching chub, ide, carp weighing over 2–2.5 kg, a line with a diameter of 0.14 mm is optimal, and a line with a diameter of 0.16 - 0.18 mm is suitable only for carp weighing from 5 kg.

A few words about braided lines. In braided lines, the material is divided into thousands of finest fibers, or filaments. This made it possible to realize the maximum orientation of the polymer raw material, which means its strength.

The most common "braids" based on polyethylene fibers, as the most chemically resistant.

"Braid" can be good when catching large fish using the "long cast" method. The disadvantages of braided fishing line include the difficulties that arise when knots are knitted.

The expediency of using braided lines in rigs for a swinging float rod is very doubtful. Perhaps, only when catching a predator with live bait with the help of a float rod, it is advisable to use a "braid". Due to the very high rigidity of the braided line, when fighting fish, the entire load is transferred to the rod. During dead hook, if the rod is equipped with braided line, there are problems with the hook breakage. The braided line gives a very hard hook, and the result is a lip on the hook instead of a fish. “Braid”, even the thinnest one, is well recognized in water by such fish as grayling, large ide and chub.

When fishing for peaceful fish, it is advisable to use "braids" only as leashes when hunting for very large specimens.

The main thing in fishing is the choice of the name of the line that is needed for specific fishing conditions. It is necessary to take into account the fact that fishing line manufacturers in the world can be counted on one hand. Most of the distributors accompany the unwound line with their own trademark, so the lines under different names may be exactly the same.

The material issue is important. After all, one cannot say in advance which is better - choose an expensive elite line and use it for the whole season, or buy a cheap, short-lived line and change it after each fishing trip. It all depends on the quality of the water in the reservoir and on how often the angler chooses to fish. If you fish in sedimentation tanks and in the warm current below the state district power station in alkaline water, then it is better to use the cheapest fishing line as possible. In an alkaline environment and elite fishing line withstands no more than two fishing trips.And if you fish in ecologically clean reservoirs with crystal clear water, then you simply cannot do without the highest quality fishing line: both the fishing line will serve up to four years, and careful fish will not be afraid of ultra-thin tackle. And the last thing. I repeat, but most of the lines are marked in such a way that, when measured independently, the true characteristics, such as diameter and breaking strength, do not coincide with the "passport" ones. Firstly, at home it is almost impossible to test the strength of a fishing line according to any of the internationally accepted standards. Secondly, the diameter of the line is still a more important characteristic than the strength, because the strength of modern lines is already very high, and there is not much difference in whether a line with a diameter of 0.10 mm has a breaking strength of 1.4 or 1. 6 kg.

Nowadays, the issues of fishing line storage are no longer relevant. I remember how before, when good fishing line could be purchased only for Vneshposyltorg's checks, fishermen packed the supply of fishing line hermetically and stored it in the refrigerator for years. Now there is no need to stock up on fishing line for the rest of your life, it is easier to go to the store and buy a line of the diameter and quality required for a particular fishing. However, there is no need to store the line in the sun or on a central heating battery. Most of all, the line is afraid of direct sunlight, namely the effects of ultraviolet radiation. This is why good manufacturers and suppliers pack each spool of line in individual opaque packaging.

The success of fishing depends on the quality of the hook and on how correctly it is selected. Each part of the hook has its own name (cm. fig. sixteen). Hooks are classified by size, shape and material. There is also an additional classification of hooks by purpose, for example: seahooks, nesting hooks, carp hooks.

The main hook size is the distance between the tip and the shank, or width. According to the Russian classification, the width of the hook, expressed in millimeters, is called its number. The old numbering of hooks is practiced all over the world, from large (eg # 10/0) ​​to the smallest (# 28 and even # 32). For reference, hook # 16 is approximately 4mm wide and # 10 is 5mm wide. Approximately because the width of the hooks from different manufacturers "floats" somewhat.

The most common forms of hooks are given their own names. Judging by the volume of production, the most bought hooks in the world are "kirby" hooks, followed by "crystal" hooks and hooks with a round bend and a straight sting. These hooks are the most versatile in terms of using different baits when fishing for a wide variety of fish species, both freshwater and saltwater.

Each hook has a standard empirically determined forend length. But, in addition to hooks with a standard forend length, special hooks with an elongated forend are produced for catching fish with a small mouth on relatively long attachments, for example, for catching a ruff on a worm. To the same class belong ugleye hooks, but in this case an elongated forend on a very small hook is needed for the convenience of gripping it with your fingers.

Hooks with a shortened forend are designed for catching strong fish with small baits - for catching bream with bloodworms or carp with boilies and corn. On the forend of large and medium-sized hooks, one to four barbs may be present. The barbs serve as fixators for the nozzle (not necessarily the worm, but also the maggot and the dough).

Now let's talk about the head of the hook. Which is better: a ring or a spatula? The anglers in the answer to this question are actually divided into two camps. Some prefer only a ring, while others - exclusively a spatula. The ring has the advantage that the line is always correctly positioned on the hook, which means that the line exit from the knot is on the inside of the bend (fig. 17). Hooks with a ring are indispensable when using braided lines and metal leads.The spatula is good in all cases when a rigid monofilament line up to 0.16 mm in diameter is not used. Therefore, when fishing for peaceful fish weighing up to 3 kg, I always use hooks with a spatula.

There are hooks without a ring and without a spatula, but with several small notches in the upper part of the forend. I fished with such hooks and I can say that if you use a line with a diameter of less than 0.1 mm, then there will be no problems. These hooks are great for worm fishing. Part of the worm moves to the line and the nozzle looks like a live one.

A few words about the lateral bend of the sting, forehead and nape of the hook, which can often be seen on hooks with a shortened forend. My opinion is that the hook bend in the second plane does not provide any advantage in terms of grip, but the strength of the hook decreases. Many models of hooks are distinguished by the bend of the sting inward ("eagle's claw" or "bird's beak"). From hooks with such a bend, the fish comes off much less often due to the more perfect hooking provided by them. Why - I don't know, it's just that these are facts from personal experience. Often it is enough to "fill" in only half the length of the sting, and the number of empty undercuts is literally halved. Bending into the forehead of the hook leads to a sharp decrease in the number of fish descents. These are almost all carp hooks. But another fact should be noted. If the whole sting is "piled up" inside the hook, then when fishing on such a hook (cm. fig. eighteen) there are relatively many empty bites with careful biting of the fish.

For all barbless hooks, the sting should be "piled up" inward, at least the very tip or point (fig. nineteen)... This is necessary so that the nozzle does not fall off the hook when manipulating the rig. First of all, this applies to sports fishing for bleak on maggots.

Almost all models of hooks are available in “shod” and “bare” versions. Assertions that a "savvy" bend contributes to cutting the lip of a fish, I refer to the field of theoretical inferences that have not been confirmed by practice. The crochet shoe increases the rigidity of the crochet forehead. Shod hooks are good for maggots and corn. The expansion of the wire in the place of the horseshoe serves as a stopper preventing the maggot from sliding onto the forehead and even the barb of the hook.

It is important to choose the right not only the shape of the hook, but also the thickness of the wire. Often you have to catch large fish with a very delicate animal bait (bloodworm, maggot, caddis flies). A large barb, uneven anti-corrosion coating and thick wire cause the bait to die after being hooked. But it is not uncommon for a fish to take bloodworms only as long as it moves on the hook.

Hook color is essential for many anglers. I believe that the choice should be approached not from the point of view of color, but from the point of view of the stability of the protective coating of the wire when exposed to water. Most often, nickel plating is used to protect the base material of the hook. It can be light or blackened. The most durable, but also expensive, coating is technical gold. Used, albeit rarely, tinning and chrome plating - this is how hooks designed for sea fishing are processed. The color of the hook is determined by the color of the cover. The only color that is created by a special varnish is red (under the bloodworms), but the varnish serves no more than one fishing trip. In addition, it has been noticed that lacquered hooks are somehow less durable.

The hooks are made of alloyed and unalloyed carbon steels. For alloying steel used for the manufacture of high-quality hooks, vanadium is more often used, which is indicated on the package.

As for the specialized hooks, I have already mentioned the hook and carp hooks. Hooks for the attachment of fly flies are distinguished into a separate group. Almost all of them have a semicircular bend, often such hooks are shod.Their ring is bent inward, so that the axis of the line strictly coincides with the axis of the hook. Hooks with a standard forend are used for tying flies and nymphs. For attachment of streamers and some models of nymphs, hooks with an extended forearm are used.

Personally, for fishing peaceful fish with a float rod, I use hooks of a semicircular bend (Round Match), white, with a standard forend, with a spatula, No. 14-24 (fig. twenty).

Which manufacturer is indicated on the package does not matter. Just as in the production of lines, good hooks are produced by a few companies in the world. Hooks are custom made and delivered unpackaged. The finished product distributor prepares hooks in their own branded packaging and sells them. Therefore, you should not completely rely on the information provided on the packaging of hooks, since fakes under well-known brands are not uncommon.

How to choose a hook for quality? The question is very difficult, but solvable. The difficulty lies in the fact that custom-made manufacturers can make hooks from different materials. This applies primarily to Chinese and Korean firms. Since the manufacturers themselves do not sell hooks under their own trademark, this enables sellers, firstly, to pack hooks from different manufacturers in the same package, and, secondly, to pack the same hooks in different packages. Therefore, when choosing hooks, the label should not overwhelm the mind.

A good hook is properly hardened, and when pressed or wrung out the tip, it resiliently returns into place. Hooks made of soft low-quality wire bend quite easily, and overheated branded hooks are practically not found. It is important that the hook is thin, with a neat little beard, a tip of the correct taper, without roughness on the surface. And the most important thing is that a good hook "holds" the sharpening of the tip. It is hardly possible to check this in a store before buying, because this will require breaking the original packaging. And only on fishing, after catching about a hundred fish, it will be possible to judge the true quality of the hook. Usually, after catching 40-50 fish of any size, the sting of a poor-quality hook becomes less sharp. It feels good when planting the bloodworm. The "hooked" hook begins to tear the delicate nozzle, and not pierce it. As a rule, editing such a hook has no effect. I adhere to the rule: if the hook is dull, you need to throw it away and attach a new one. If I use up a package of hooks over several fishing trips, then you shouldn't regret them. It's just that next time I buy other hooks. But if I liked the hooks during the first fishing trip, then when I return home, a seasonal supply is created. How many hooks do you need, say, for the summer? From my own experience I know that more than 50 pieces of one running type are never used. And this is taking into account the breaks after the hooks and just losses. And further. Don't skimp on hooks! You can save on a fishing rod, on floats, but never on hooks.

The storage of hooks must be taken with the utmost responsibility. The worst way to store hooks is to stick them in foam and put them in a box. It is better to keep the hooks in their original packaging. The best way to store the hooks is to scatter the hooks into special magnetic boxes. Even if such a box gets into the water, it is enough to open it, shake the water out of it and dry it without removing the hooks. The hooks are held so well by the magnet that even turning the box over will not lose them.

In addition to the float, fishing line and hook, a sinker is also included in the rigging of a float rod. With its help, the hook with the bait is lowered to the required fishing horizon within a reasonable time. The sinkers help to keep the attachment on the desired horizon, and also help to ensure that the line on the rig remains in a taut position, in which the bite is transmitted to the signaling float with virtually no time lag.

Sinkers are subdivided into stationary and sliding. Stationary sinkers weighing up to several grams in world practice are standardized by weight and have their own numbering. Since only a few of our "floaters" are familiar with it, I will give the European numbering in accordance with the mass of the most common shot-shaped leads with one line slot.

The lightest weights come in thin cylinders with a line slot along the (cm. fig. 21)... The following numbering is adopted for them.

The quality of lead weights is determined by the hardness of the lead and the shape of the notch. A good lead can easily be pinched on the line with your fingers and just as easily released with your fingernail. The clamped sinker during fishing does not move spontaneously along the line. A good lead with some tension can be moved along the line by hand. This is necessary to change the design of the rig already in the process of fishing.

Heavy stationary sinkers are very good (cm. fig. 22)especially if they are made of heavy tungsten alloy. The line passes through the cambric like on the keel of a float and is not injured. The best cambric is silicone.

Sliding sinkers are made of hard lead or even tungsten alloy so that the holes in them do not quickly deform when hitting the sinkers against each other, against stopper nodes and other additional equipment elements. To cushion shocks, pieces of insulation are used, put on the line between the weights (cm. fig. 23)... Very good sinkers in the form of olives, through which the cambric passes (cm. fig. 24).

Fig. 23

If you are making your first fishing rod in your life, then take lead, melt it in a tin can and carefully pour it into a bucket of water in a thin stream. Cut the resulting balls of lead slightly more than to the middle with a thin knife - and the sinkers are ready. The worst stationary weights come from a shot - it's too stiff. But if you melt the shot and add an amount of pure lead approximately equal in weight to it, for example, removed from the cable insulation, then you get what you need.

Rarely enough in the practice of fishing with a float rod, sinkers are used made of soft plastic mass, including heavy tungsten powder. From such a mass it is easy, like from plasticine, to roll up any sinker. The bad news is that plastic leads stick well to cords and braided lines, but not mono lines. However, if a plastic sinker is placed on the line above any pellet or knot, then it will hold on to it quite satisfactorily.

Storage of loads is also an important issue. The grains must be stored separately in the compartments of a special box or even in separate boxes. This applies above all to the smallest weights. The fact is that under the influence of water, the material is oxidized, a soft coating appears on it, due to which the mass of a standard sinker changes. On the lid of each compartment of the box, it is imperative to mark with information about the weight of the sinkers, then it will be much easier and faster to design the rigs.

It is recommended to store sliding weights either in bags or with pieces of wire or thick line inserted inside the hole. Otherwise, the holes in the weights will be clogged due to impacts of the weights against each other during transportation.

It should be emphasized separately that it is better to have a set of standard weight leads than to make them specifically for each rig. Standard sinkers make it possible not only to quickly make a rig on a pond using a float of a standard carrying capacity, but also to restore the rig as easily as possible in case of entanglement or breakage.

6. Additional items

In addition to the basic elements, all kinds of additional elements are often included in the equipment of a float rod. You can do without them, but often simple additional elements are very helpful not only in the design of equipment, but also in preserving the properties and qualities of the main elements.

Additional elements include beads, clasps, carabiners, swivels, locking knots. The beads are included in designs that include sliding floats and are designed to limit the depth of the descent. The beads are located between the float and the stopper knot and slide freely along the line. (Cm. fig. 25.) The best beads are those made from ceramics. They do not have sharp edges, which are often found on glass beads, and are quite heavy, unlike plastic beads. Light plastic beads "stick" to the line and often slip through the guide rings of the rod, which inevitably leads to breakage of the rig during casting (at best). Glass beads are also often broken.

The diameter of the inner hole in the bead should be noticeably larger than the diameter of the line, and the outside diameter of the bead should be larger than the hole in the ring of the sliding float. It is very convenient when the beads are painted in bright colors, then it is easy to control the location of the bead on the line during its reeling.

I must note that recently athletes have been getting rid of beads as an unnecessary element, preparing rigs for "long-distance casting". To prevent the stop knot from slipping through the float ring, this ring must be squeezed into an elliptical shape so that the stop knot does not pass through it. (Cm. fig. 26.)

Clasps, carabiners and swivels are designed for quick replacement or installation of a sliding float on a rig. The swivels also prevent the line from twisting due to the rotation of the float around its axis during the unwinding of the "long cast" rig.

The most reliable are roller swivels. It makes no sense to discuss the power of fasteners and swivels, because they only carry the mass of the float. The most practical are swivels of the smallest size (No. 18–20). Swivels are also often used to connect the main line to the leash. Due to the fact that the leash is usually of a smaller diameter, while pulling the rig out of the water, it rotates and twists under the action of the nozzle. The swivel protects both the leash and the main line from twisting.

Swivels are absolutely necessary in the rigging for live bait float rods, but the requirements for them are somewhat different. The difference is that in a rig designed for fishing with live bait, all elements, without exception, must be especially strong.

The color of the fasteners, carabiners and swivels does not matter.

An important element of many rigs are locking knots. On a fishing line with a diameter of up to 0.14 mm, it is better to use stopper knots made of silk thread or nylon-lavsan thread. The specified threads do not injure the line after drying. If a fishing line with a diameter of more than 0.14 mm is used in the equipment, then a line with a diameter of 0.14 - 0.16 mm can be used to knit stop knots. In order for the stopper knot to easily pass through the guide rings of the rod, you need to leave a long mustache after tightening the knot on the line.

As additional elements of rigging, cambric pieces made of various materials are often used. Typically, shims are used as dampers between sliding weights and knots or other weights.

The best dampers are made from lengths of soft, calibrated silicone tubing.

Fishing rod equipment usually consists of a piece of line with float (s) on it, sinkers, stoppers, beads, leads, clasps, carabiners and a hook. All sorts of additional elements are not always used. The float, line and hook are indispensable elements of the rig. The rig is designed by the angler himself for certain fishing conditions. Under the conditions of fishing, I repeat, one should understand the depth of the reservoir, the strength of the current, the strength of the surface current, the distance of fishing, the strength of the wind and the activity of the fish.

When fishing with fly rods, the length of the line is approximately equal to the length of the rod. I always make the rig 30-100 cm shorter than the rod.Otherwise, it becomes inconvenient to cast and catch the fish with a landing net or take it in your hand. If you need a longer casting distance, it is better to take a longer rod.

Depending on the fishing conditions, the rig is modified quite widely. In most cases, I design rigs directly on the pond before fishing. And, believe me, this is not long. But on the other hand, I always fish with rigs of optimal weight and optimal design.

For example, in case of high activity of fish, you can use heavier sinkers - for the fastest delivery of the bait to the fishing area, and sometimes thicker fishing line, so that less time is spent on playing. This is also necessary if you need to "break through" the top layer of small fish and quickly deliver the nozzle to the bottom. Conversely, the lower the activity of the fish, the lighter the sinkers should be so that the nozzle passes through the water column as slowly as possible. Light rigs are always more sensitive as they have less inertia due to their lower mass.

In both foreign and domestic literature, all possible, necessary and unnecessary options for rigging are described. But before discussing the options for rigs designed for a particular method of fishing with a float rod, I will dwell on the technical issues of making rigs and what is needed for this.

Most anglers make their rigs in advance at home. For some of them, the process of preparing, I can't find another word, equipment for all occasions turns from a hobby literally into a mania. First of all, this applies to sportsmen and especially "advanced" fishermen.

Since stocking starts in March, imagine how many rigs are piling up by May! It comes to the point that the angler does not have time to try them all during the season. Let's count. If a sports angler has ten rods of different lengths, then for each of them you need to prepare a very light rig, light, two medium, heavy for the current, as well as for standing water. And if you also make spare rigs of each type, in case of breakage, then the total number of rigs can exceed several hundred. Don't do it!

More practical anglers do it differently. They make rigs of standard length, for example 3-5 m, and before fishing they lengthen or shorten them, depending on the length of the chosen rod. But after all, having shortened the rig, you need to remember this. Don't get carried away with stocking standard-length rigs either! It is more practical to pre-load the floats at home and keep them with a load on a short piece of fishing line in a box.

But you can also skip this if your arsenal has floats of various carrying capacities and standard weights in a full range. Since few have really standardized floats and weights, I move on to the next tip.

I often hear surprised exclamations about the fact that the load is carefully measured at home, and on the pond it turns out that the float is underloaded or overloaded. What's the matter? Overloading floats with a load capacity of up to 1.5 g can occur for several reasons. When diving in a can of water, a small piece of line is used. And what if sinking line is used later in the rig? It is clear - there will be an overload. Many also do not consider the weight of the hook and bait, especially if it is canned corn or a worm. I had cases when I did not take into account the fact that the varnish on the float had not yet dried completely and in the process of fishing, with the washing out of the solvent, the float well loaded at home began to sink after an hour or two of fishing. The reason for overloading the float at home can be air condensation on the line and sinkers from the water that has just been poured into the jar. Moreover, when using very light rigs, the same can happen on the pond, especially during the first casting of the rig.

Based on my own experience, I can say the following.If you are loading a float at home, it is better to underload it than to overload it. Adding a sinker in the process of fishing is much easier than breaking your head for a while, watching the imaginary bites - the movements of an overloaded float.

So, in order to quickly and competently make equipment, pre-loaded floats and standard weights are required. I unfold the rod and put it on the stand. At the end of the line, I knit a regular loop and hook it to the end piece or adapter on the rod. I rewind as much line as is required for the rig. I put a float on the line and clamp the sinkers without effort until I distribute them on the line. I make a control cast a short distance from the shore in order to make sure that the float is loaded as it should. Then I tie the hook and distribute the weights along the length of the line. The rig is ready. After fishing, I hook the hook to the reel jumper (fig. 27), I wind the fishing line on the reel, hook a piece of copper wire in insulation to the loop of the fishing line and hook it to the reel jumper. In this form, the rig is easy and convenient to transport and store either in a special box or directly in a fishing box.

On the side of the reel, it is imperative to write in pencil what the length of the rod and the diameter of the fishing line are, other information, as experience shows, is superfluous, but this is already a matter of taste.

It is better to use a reel that is wide and deep, so that the body of the float completely fits in it, as shown in fig. 28.

In the process of making rigs, some special tools are very convenient and useful. First of all, these are the so-called "linecoaters", or cutting pliers. With such a tool, even braided line can be easily and easily snipped anywhere. Useful, but not as indispensable as the "lincoter", special sinker pullers. It is necessary to remove the sinkers from the finished rig not only in the case of rig design, but also when it gets tangled. The fastest and most reliable way to untangle a rig is to remove all the sinkers from the rig, after which the line literally untangles itself. The sinkers are attached to the untangled line again, but it must be borne in mind that the likelihood of re-entanglement will be very high, especially in the first hour of fishing.

Most anglers add an element such as a leash to their rig design. I would like to talk about this in more detail.

In a float rig, the leash has a piece of line between the hook and the main line. The diameter of the line of the leader is smaller than the diameter of the main line. Such a leash is intended so that when catching a snag or catching a fish that is too large, it does not lose the main line and equipment. The obvious disadvantages of this design are that the leash is constantly twisted, the relatively thick main line sails unnecessarily in the wind and in waves, and the "remains" of the leash after a break is not very convenient to remove from the rig. It is easy to get rid of the last inconvenience if you use the knot shown in fig. 29... The use of the specified connection allows you to fearlessly use the same fishing line as the main one and for the leash, since when hooked, only the leash knot breaks almost 100%.

In the modern fishing world, the concept of a leash is somewhat broader, and it is associated with the technique of performing some types of harnessing equipment. Now it is customary to call a leash a piece of line between the hook and the sinker nearest to it. It doesn't matter if there are differences in the diameters of the main line and the length of the line at the hook. For example, for many years now I have not used any leashes in the classical sense of the word. From the rod to the hook, my rig is a line of the same diameter, with one spool. But this is advisable only if you use high-quality, very well-calibrated fishing line and sinkers that do not pinch the fishing line, if you use high-quality accessories for attaching the fishing line to the rod.If these conditions are met, the weakest point on the rig is the knot on the hook, and it breaks off when hooked. And tying a new hook is a matter of seconds.

Rarely enough, a classic leash is used in the construction of sports equipment, but its diameter is larger than the diameter of the main line. The field of application of such rigs is high-speed catching of bleak with ultra-light rigs. A thicker leash conceals the flaws of the angler when removing or shaking the fish off the hook. Indeed, during the spring bleak zhora, the normal rate of fishing is from 2 to 6 fish per minute.

Classic leads are absolutely essential when fishing with the "long cast" method in extreme conditions. Strong currents or great depths, combined with wind and low fish activity, force the use of very heavy rigs, using lines with a diameter of 0.14 - 0.20 mm. The caution of the fish forces them to put leashes from a fishing line from 0.08 mm.

Classic leashes are absolutely necessary when fishing in a strong current and on a rocky bottom, when almost the entire leash with a hook and a nozzle drags along the bottom, slowing down the rig. The same applies to bottom gear.

When fishing in heavily overgrown bodies of water, in the windows among the grass for a more accurate casting of the nozzle, the design shown in fig. thirty... When casting, the leash is higher than the sinker and practically does not cling to the grass when it falls to the bottom.

In addition to the classic connection of the main line and the leash in the loop-to-loop method, the connection method using a micro-swivel or micro-fastener is good. You just need to take care that the carabiner or clasp is really small and does not sink the float. The micro swivel avoids the twisting of the leash.

There is no need to repeat the literary, rather stupid in wording, statement that the best quality line should be selected for leashes. Let me explain with an example. We take the main line of medium quality 0.14 mm with a breaking load of 2.0 kg, and for the leash, a very high quality line with a diameter of 0.12 mm with a breaking load of 2.2 kg. And what do we get?

In practice, the following is often observed. If fishing is carried out in places where hooks are frequent, then the leash does not "live" for more than one fishing trip. And if you do not periodically change the main line, then after several fishing trips, the strength of a constantly "fresh" leash will certainly be higher than the strength of the "aged" main line. It is good if you fish in a pond with clean water, and in warm alkaline waters below the thermal power plant any monofilament is aging before our very eyes.

Of course, classic leashes are indispensable when fishing for pike with girders, mugs or bait bait. But many anglers already use, both in summer and in winter, a thinner main line with a diameter of up to 0.16 mm and a line with a diameter of 0.5-0.6 mm as a leash. The thick mono line has proven to be a good alternative to braided nylon, tungsten and steel leads. Metal leads and leads made of intertwined metal and polymer fibers are difficult to replace on bottom tracks, when fishing with live bait in a plumb line, and in general in those cases when you need to keep the bait at a given depth and not let it get tangled around the main line.

Leash is actually broader than a piece of line at the hook. Leashes are understood as all the lengths of line connected to the main line. So, sinkers and feeders are attached on leashes in almost all "carp" rigs. Several times in my fishing practice, I had to use such rigs in which even a float was attached to a leash. But these are already specific cases.

In my further narration, when I say "leash", I will mean a piece of line between the hook and the sinker closest to it.

7.2. Design principles of rigs for different fishing methods

Many years ago, Oskar Yakovlevich Sobolev found in the Library of Foreign Literature a book by a Swiss author, which was nothing more than a kind of catalog of all imaginable options for rigging for a swing float rod. A huge number of diagrams and drawings puzzled, and inevitably the conclusion was born that everything in life is much simpler. And so it turned out. There are basic principles for designing rigs in relation to each of the methods of fishing with a float rod.

Before moving on to the rigs, you should decide on the requirements for them. And the requirements for the rigs themselves arise from the possibility of the tackle and the fishing technique with its help.

7.3. Fly Fishing Tackle

Fishing with fly rods is the simplest technically. After casting the rig with the attachment, the angler is no longer able to effectively influence the movement of the rig. The movement of the nozzle, or wiring, depends on the action of the current, wind, waves.

Under the modern interpretation, wiring is understood to mean all the time the rig is in the water, starting with casting and lowering the nozzle and ending with pulling the rig out of the water with or without fish on the hook. The angler has the ability to influence the movement of the rig while it sinks to the bottom in the water column after casting and when it floats with the current. Moreover, at any of these stages of the movement of the rig, the angler can only pull it towards him or take it away, and nothing more.

The arsenal of techniques when fishing with fly rods is limited to artificial retrieval, when the angler gives the rig movement with the flow or against the flow. Immediately, I note that this is also typical for fishing in reservoirs without a current, because in stagnant reservoirs there is always a surface current going in the direction opposite to the direction of the wind.

Since the arsenal of techniques when fishing with a fly rod is limited, the optimal design of the rig is of great importance during such fishing.

If you are fishing for medium-sized fish (such as bleak, dace, small perch and roach) at a depth of up to half a meter, then the most reliable design of the rig will be the one shown on fig. 31... It is extremely simple: a line without a leash, a light float (it can be replaced by a heavier one in case of strong wind or current) and two sinkers. The weight ratio of the sinkers is 3: 1. If bites are frequent, it is better to use one sinker. Weights do not have to be replaced, just slide them together.

Using a single lead can be effective when fishing in strong currents and when using the lightest rig (0.2 g) on ​​a line with a diameter of 0.06 mm and thinner. But these are already exceptional cases. Although in my practice there have been such cases more than once, I will tell you about the most revealing of them.

Once, while preparing for a competition on one of the shallow ponds, I started fishing with a nine-meter rod. Fishing was carried out at a depth of about 80 cm. Despite the use of good bait and the lightest for such a rod equipment weighing about 0.8 g on a line with a diameter of 0.08 mm, I hardly managed to catch the heels of roach weighing 10-15 g. I took the rod with one thing (that's when the flywheel plug was needed), so I began to gradually remove the lower knees from it. Having shortened the rod by another meter, I reworked the rig, making it lighter, and tried to fish again. The result was unchanged, but stable - a few small roach. Gradually it got to the point that only a 90cm rod tip remained in my hand. The depth underfoot was no more than 15 cm. The water at the very shore became muddy, but it was clear that even the smallest float was now too big here. Then, as a float, I put an ordinary match, a sinker weighing 0.05 g and hook number 22 on a fishing line with a diameter of 0.08 mm (twenty years ago it was unrealistic to get a thinner fishing line).The large bloodworm I brought with me seemed too big to me, and I “lathered” a few of the local bloodworm right at my feet from the sand. I left the distance between the match and the sinker the same - 15 cm, and doubled the distance between the sinker and the hook. So, one bloodworm on the hook, a cast follows, a weak surf pulls out the rig and slowly pulls the nozzle along the sandy bottom, and after a few seconds - a bite. Within about one hour, I caught more than a kilogram of roach, but already weighing 70-90 g, and crucians weighing 50-100 g. And this at the very feet, on the simplest, but thinnest rig.

Rigging of the structure shown in fig. 32, almost all over the world it is used when fishing for roach, both on the stream and without it.

Small weights of almost the same weight are distributed over 1–1.5 m of line with a progressive increase in the distance between them towards the hook. What does it do? Firstly, such a rig is almost never overwhelmed when casting from behind. This is very important when using light rigs while fishing in windy conditions. Secondly, the nozzle descends in the water column with a uniform deceleration, which initiates the fish's grip on all horizons. Thirdly, the bite during the movement of the nozzle to the bottom is perfectly transmitted along a smooth arc of the fishing line. To do this, you only need to do a very slow wiring to the side at a constant speed while the nozzle is lowered. On reservoirs and lakes in the middle of summer, not only roach, but also the breeder rise from the bottom and take the nozzle halfway down. And at this time, the described equipment becomes indispensable.

In cases where the fish bite on horizons differing in depth by more than 1.5 m, use the equipment shown in fig. 33... It does not differ fundamentally from the previous equipment. The nozzle goes through different depths in jumps with a step of about half a meter, and from the bites it becomes clear what horizon the fish is occupying today. If necessary, weights can be shifted from group to group or even combine groups with each other. It is advisable to do this when the "cool" depth is precisely found.

If the fishing area is several meters deep and heavy rigging is required, the upper weights are combined into one large sliding lead (cm. fig. 34).

The rigs shown are also used during current fishing, but their designs are somewhat simplified for this. The stronger the flow, the simpler the rig design (cm. fig. 35), otherwise the nozzle may not have time to reach the bottom during the drive.

Fig. 35

Very common rigs "for flow" of such a design, in which small pellets are attached above the main sinker (cm. fig. 36). Their function is twofold. Firstly, the additional pellets “take out” the slack in the line in the eddies of the flow, and secondly, they serve as a small reserve for increasing the mass of the main lead. When the flow increases, the upper pellets are lowered to the main sinker, thereby rapidly increasing its mass, usually by 15–20%. It should be noted that the experienced angler will quickly redistribute the weights on the rig if the wind changes direction or if the speed of the current in a river or channel changes. Redistributing weights is much easier and faster than changing the depth of the descent. So, for example, if the current begins to weaken, then the sinkers should be raised higher and the length of the leash should be increased, and vice versa.

7.4. Short Line Fishing Tackle

The real revolution in float fishing was made by rods designed for fishing with a short line. Thanks to them, almost all the problems associated with the control of the rig were solved, both in stagnant water and when fishing in a stream, even a very strong one.

At first, long and reliable plug-in rods contributed to a slight revolution in sport fishing, and gradually they are making their way to the masses. There are two factors that hold them back - price and inertia.But the price with the development of mass consumption is already falling rapidly, but the old habits are very, very strong. Plug-in rods up to 16m long with internal shock absorbers have been designed to eliminate the parasitic line between the rod tip and the float. There is no point in explaining for a long time that because of this unnecessary piece of fishing line, it is often simply impossible to perform efficiently. Everyone knows that carp, bream, crucian carp and some other fish species prefer a fixed bait on the current. It is incredibly difficult to catch a bream weighing over a kilogram with a free-floating bait. With the advent of plugs, it became possible to fish with extremely light and sensitive rigs, while performing any manipulations. When fishing with fly rods, the minimum weight of the rig is limited by the possibility of casting, especially in a headwind. It is not uncommon for heavy rigs weighing 6 - 12 g to break (and continue to break) fly rods during casting against the wind. Excess line sails in the wind, pulls and jerks the rig. When fishing in a stream with bait, the nozzle literally 1–2 seconds is at the optimal point for fishing.

Plug rods allowed to get rid of the listed inconveniences. The weight of the rigging for the plug is determined by the required sensitivity, the set speed of immersion of the nozzle and the drift of the rig by the current, if any.

The design of the rig should be started based on how much fish you are going to fish and how quickly. Having decided on this, you need to choose the diameter of the fishing line for the rig. After choosing a fishing line, you need to select a shock absorber for the plug. I have already talked about the Teflon sleeves that go over the tip of the plug to guide the line. Not only did he not say that these bushings are still in short supply, and they are quite expensive.

Teflon cambric will serve as a full-fledged replacement for them. It needs to be pulled over the tip of the rod and cut so that its edge protrudes 3-4 mm. Once I caught a season with cambric and I can say that both the rubber remained intact and the cambric was in place. Actually for plug fishing with a shortened fishing line, all rigs designed for fly rods are suitable, but there are some peculiarities. The peculiarities, as I have already said, are due to the fact that in the same conditions when fishing with a plug, much lighter rigs can and should be used.

Let's take as an example fishing on a canal with sluices. So, if for a ten-meter fly-rod it is necessary to use rigs with floats with a carrying capacity of 3.5 to 9 g, then for a fourteen-meter plug, rigs with floats with a carrying capacity of up to 2.5 g are quite suitable.

For fishing with plug rods, rigs are used not only lighter, but also structurally simpler and thinner. It makes no sense to divide the main lead weighing half a gram into a dozen smaller ones. It is possible to carry out the falling wiring with a plug using accessories of any design.

But with a very careful bite in reservoirs without a current, you have to make a variety of forced wiring, and then the design becomes more complicated.

The most common rig options are shown on fig. 37 (for fishing with a stream) and fig. 38 (for fishing without flow).

Fig. 37

The rigs work well at depths from 2.5 m to 6 m. If the depth is shallower, then the weight of the rig can be reduced by 1.5–2 times.

A separate issue concerns floats for rigs with a shortened line. After all, the stability of the float no longer plays a big role, with a slight movement of the rod, the rig is placed at the desired point. But the stability of the float, that is, the ability to maintain a vertical position during wiring or "holding" on the current, plays a decisive role. Therefore, floats with a thicker upper body are preferred. These floats look like an inverted drop. It may be objected that such floats show bad bites "on the rise", but this is not required.With a light rig, after a bite "uphill" inevitably follows a bite "on the sink", which is perfectly visible. There is a very special class of floats designed specifically for plug-in rigs. These are the so-called flat floats. Technologically, it is most simple to make a flat float in the form of a disk (fig. 39).

Features of fishing on circles - Pursuit of a predator - garden and vegetable garden

Author: Komarova Tamara
Publisher: Mosaika-Synthesis, 2008
Series: Program library: Techniques
Genre: Learning the art of drawing

Annotation to the book "Children's artistic creativity. Methodological manual for educators and teachers"

The manual provides guidelines for teaching preschool children to different types of visual activities: drawing, modeling, applications. Particular attention is paid to the development of artistic and creative abilities of preschoolers.
The methodological manual is addressed to preschool educators, teachers of additional education and heads of art studios.

Author: Simonovich Sergey Vitalievich
Editor: Sergey Simonovich
Publisher: Peter, 2015
Series: Textbook for High Schools

Annotation to the book "Informatics. Basic course. Textbook for universities"

The textbook examines the main categories of hardware and software for computing. The basic principles of constructing architectures of computing systems are indicated. Provided a methodological substantiation of the processes of interaction of information, data and methods. The effective techniques for working with common software products are presented. The basic tools, techniques and programming methods are considered.
The book is intended for students of technical universities who study information technology within the discipline "Informatics", for the teaching staff, for the service. Read more "

Author: Kibardin Gennady Mikhailovich
Editor: Shestova O.
Publisher: Eksmo-Press, 2012
Series: Guardians of Health

Annotation to the book "Leeches: home hirudotherapy"

Leeches are a natural remedy for diseases, proven for centuries, the effectiveness of which has been confirmed by modern science. Gennady Kibardin, a well-known naturologist, gives examples from his personal practice, when hirudotherapy helped him literally bring back to life exhausted people.
Together with Gennady Kibardin, those who wish will be able to master the basics of this method. You will find the necessary information in this book: where to buy leeches, how to store them, how to carry out a treatment procedure, a detailed description of how to cure the heart, blood vessels, skin and eyes with the help of a leech.

Author: Karpov Vladimir Vasilievich
Editor: Fedotov D.S.
Publisher: Veche, 2014
Series: Military Adventures

Annotation to the book "Take it alive"

The book of the famous front-line writer Vladimir Vasilyevich Karpov (1922-2010) is a collection of stories about the harsh everyday life of the front-line intelligence officer Vasily Romashkin. Some events in them look absolutely incredible, however, according to the author, they are all genuine!
This edition includes the most fascinating and exciting episodes of the intelligence missions of Romashkin and his comrades.

By: Hall Allan, Leidig Michael
Editor: Rumyantseva Elena
Publisher: Amphora, 2010
Series: Memoirs of a Geisha

Annotation to the book "Girl from the Basement"

In this book, the authors do not pass judgment on anyone, but they try to solve the riddle of what became the most exciting story at the turn of the century - the kidnapping of ten-year-old Natasha Kampusch in Austria.

Author: Teryukova Tamara Semyonovna, Golovin Maxim Valerievich, Artemieva Elena Andreevna
Artist: Mikhailova E.A.
Editor: Sasova Irina Abramovna
Publisher: Vita-Press, 2013
Series: Economics

Annotation to the book "Economics. My school. Textbook for the 6th grade of educational institutions"

Can a school be considered as an independent farm with its own economy? How is the economy of the school connected with the economy of the region and the country? Why are some schools public and others private? How do regular school schedules and changing shoes have to do with economics? And, finally, does the school need. elephant?
Students will find the answer to these and other questions in this page. Read more "

By Williams Ted
Translator: Strepetova M.
Publisher: Eksmo, 2014
Series: Fantasy Book

Annotation to the book "Discount Time in Hell"

I've been sent to hell a thousand times. But now I'm really going there.
The New Adventures of Bobby Dollar, also known as the Angel Doloriel. This time, he will have to go straight to the Underworld to rescue his friend, the beautiful Countess Cold Hands, from the clutches of Eligor, the Grand Duke of Hell. Having overcome thousands of miles of horror and suffering, Bobby must reach Pandemonium, the capital of Gehenna, and kidnap Casimira. But even if he manages to get out of Hell unharmed, a killer, the psychopath Smile, awaits him on earth. Black humor, even blacker adventures and unusual characters will please even the most demanding reader.
For the first time in Russian!

By: Maugham William Somerset
Artist: Rybakov A.
Translator: Weber Victor
Editor: E. Tarusina
Publisher: B.S.G. - Press, 2005
Series: Mosaic

Annotation to the book "Catalina"

The last novel by the famous English writer William Somerset Maugham (1874-1965) "Catalina", written in 1947, tells the story of a crippled girl who, after an amazing meeting with a mysterious stranger, was healed and found the joy of life. However, the heroine still had to overcome many dangerous obstacles before fate gave her happiness and peace.

Author: Wood Alex
Publisher: Panorama, 2007
Series: Panorama of love novels

Annotation to the book "The Last Bridegroom: Novel"

In the English village of Lockerhart Valley, a commotion arose - at last the owner appeared in the "Heather" estate. He is young and unmarried, which is most important for the Lockerhart Valley girls, because there are absolutely no suitors left in the village. Which of them will fate smile on? The beauty Lily, the artist Agatha, the shy Jerry, or, which is unlikely, the strict and unfriendly Megan.

Author: Svechin Nikolay
Publisher: Eksmo, 2015
Series: Detective of the Russian Empire. N. Svechin's novels

Annotation to the book "Fatal Numbers"

Nizhny Novgorod police detective Alexei Lykov and his mentor Pavel Blagovo arrive in St. Petersburg at the invitation of the new Minister of Internal Affairs, Count Ignatiev. They now serve in the capital's police department. In St. Petersburg, mysterious murders of pregnant women are taking place: five have already been killed, but Blagovo is sure the count will reach nine! These murders can lead to serious and terrible events: the overthrow of the monarchy in Russia ...
Lykov will have to descend to the very bottom of the underworld, grapple with a real cannibal and stand alone against a dozen remarkable scoundrels. Transform into a real demon of flesh and blood ...

Publisher: Russian Bible Society, 2008

Annotation to the book "The Bible in synodal translation with commentaries (blue in a case)"

The translation of the Bible into Russian was started by the Russian Bible Society at the command of the Sovereign Emperor Alexander I in 1816, resumed by the Imperial permission of the Sovereign Emperor Alexander II in 1858, completed and published with the blessing of the Holy Synod in 1876. This edition contains the text The synodal translation of 1876, again checked against the Hebrew text of the Old Testament and the Greek text of the New Testament. Commentary on the Old and Fresh Testaments and the addition "The Holy Land in the Time of Our Lord Jesus Christ" are reprinted from the Bible published by the Brussels publishing house "Life with God" (1989. Read more »

Author: King William
Publisher: Azbuka, 2007
Series: WarHammer 40,000

Annotation to the book "Space Wolf"

For any man born in the harsh world of Fenris, there is no more worthy fate than a valiant death in battle. But only for the most furious fighters beyond the threshold of death are the gates of the House of Russ, the abode of the warlike god Fenris, opened.
Young Ragnar was destined to learn that the myths of his people do not lie. And although the role of the Valkyries is played not by blond maidens on winged horses, but by beast-like men on landing shuttles, the promised feast is really eternal, for this is a feast of war. Wars that engulfed entire galaxies. And the Order of the Space Wolves, to which the life of Ragnar is henceforth dedicated, is fighting at the forefront of it.
Translated from English by Valery Lushnikov.

Author: Gerritsen Tess
Translator: V.S. Zaitseva
Editor: L. I. Glebovskaya
Publisher: Tsentrpoligraf, 2013
Series: World Bestsellers Tess Gerritsen

Annotation to the book "Call after midnight"

The midnight phone ringing woke and frightened Sarah Fontaine. She was waiting for her husband to call from London, but instead she heard a completely unfamiliar voice on the phone. Nick O'Hara from the US Department of Foreign Affairs brought her the terrible news - her young husband Jeffrey Fontaine died in a fire in a Berlin hotel. But Sarah is convinced that her husband is alive! And they, together with Nick, will turn the whole of Europe, looking for him! While trying to stop a dangerous assassin, they fall into a network of mysterious international espionage, risking everything to get their questions answered.

Author: Varlamov Alexey Nikolaevich
Editor: Kotova M.A.
Publisher: AST, 2010

Annotation to the book "The Last Times"

At first glance, Alexei Varlamov is a happy man. A well-known writer, professor at Moscow State University, author of several books of prose, almost all of which have been awarded prestigious prizes. Recall, for example, "Antibooker", the Alexander Solzhenitsyn Prize, the National Literary Prize "Big Book". But in each of his works, pain is for what is happening in the world, in Russia, in the fate of compatriots. Varlamov does not invent anything. Everything that is told in this book has been experienced by the author, and therefore has such a force of influence.

Publisher: Egmont, 2011
Series: Mosaic Book
Genre: Puzzle books

Annotation to the book "The Little Mermaid. Merry Mosaic"

This amazing puzzle book will tell you about the adventures of the Little Mermaid! Read a fairy tale, look at bright colorful illustrations, disassemble and re-fold pictures in special windows!
It's not difficult at all!

Editor: Katasonov Vladimir Nikolaevich
Publisher: Orthodox St. Tikhon University for the Humanities, 2013

Annotation to the book "F. M. Dostoevsky. Writer, thinker, visionary. Collection of articles"

The book "FM Dostoevsky. Writer, Thinker, Seer" is called upon to return to the fundamental questions posed in the work of Dostoevsky, to discuss and evaluate the answers given by him, his predictions, his insights and delusions.
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, whose 130th anniversary was celebrated in 2011, remains one of the most widely read writers in the world. In the main, this is due to the concentration of his works on the fundamental issues of human existence: about the meaning of life, about the existence of God, about the Church, about the foundations of morality, about freedom. Read more "

Author: Kovaleva Yulia Vladimirovna
Editor: Yakhina A.
Publisher: Phoenix, 2013
Series: We light it up!

Annotation to the book "From animator to showman. Workshop"

This book is about how to make big money using your creativity, how to start your own business in the direction of "Activities of actors, directors, composers, painters, sculptors and other representatives of the creative professions acting on an individual basis." We are offering you ready-made business plans that have been successfully implemented by the author in order to receive a subsidy from the employment service and a competitive grant for the purchase of the necessary equipment.
The book will be useful to people who love their stable job, but receive low wages. How to use creatively. Read more "

Author: Berezin Viktor Gennadievich
Editor: El'yanov V.
Publisher: Printing House News, 2013
Series: Practical Tactics

Annotation to the book "Practical training on tactics. Stage 1. Intermediate move. Quiet move"

At the present stage of the development of chess, the ability to find hidden tactical resources of a position, both for oneself and for an opponent, is gaining more and more importance - intermediate and quiet moves, counter-attacks, non-standard tactical defense techniques. Much less attention is paid to this topic in the literature than to the usual combination techniques and motives. This series of books seeks to fill that gap to some extent. Reshebnik is intended for a wide range of chess players, trainers and connoisseurs of chess beauty. Z. Read more "

Author: Kuzmina Marina
Artist: Chizhkova Tatiana
Editor: Julia Winkler
Publisher: Hatber, 2014
Series: Learning to read syllables

Annotation to the book "The Little Mermaid"

After the child learns to put letters into syllables, and syllables into words, a novice reader will need special books to practice reading skills.
Here is the fairy tale "The Little Mermaid" with large colorful illustrations, adapted for reading by syllables.
Before you start reading the story, ask your child to do some practice exercises. They will prepare him for reading simple words and sentences. At the end of the book, the kid will have exciting game tasks.
Your activities will become even more effective if you are creative with them. Come up with and act out scenes with the participation of the heroes of the fairy tale together with the baby. Invite your child to describe their appearance. Read more "

Translator: Tatiana Korshunova
Editor: E. N. Ponkratova
Publisher: Chronicle (church.), 2015

Annotation to the book "Letters of the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna. Selected Works"

Among the thousands of strong, talented and courageous people killed by the so-called Soviet government in Bolshevik Russia, an unforgettable figure stands out. This is a woman, a courageous and generous woman, whose life path began in the splendor of imperial splendor and ended in the black depths of a Siberian mine, where her executioners threw her after cruel torments.
Countess Alexandra Olsufieva.

Publisher: Rosman, 2005
Series: Tests with Stickers

Annotation to the book "Wildlife (tests with stickers)"

New series "Tests with stickers"! Interesting facts and exciting tasks under one cover. Read and play along with new books!
For preschool age.

Author: Kolychev Vladimir Grigorievich
Publisher: Eksmo, 2012
Series: Kolychev. Master of Criminal Intrigue (cover)

Annotation to the book "Vicious Place"

The body of Vadim Ostroglazov, a relative of the owner of the estate, Yevgeny Kostin, was found in the backyard pond. On the eve of the murder, there was a picnic in the estate, the guests invited by the owner were noisy. The nicest people have known each other for a long time and, at first glance, none of them could commit murder. Lieutenant Colonel Stepan Krucha left for the crime scene. Interrogation of witnesses gave no results, and then the detective began to question the guests present at the picnic. And then it turned out that absolutely everyone falls under suspicion.

Author: Muravin Georgy Konstantinovich, Muravin Olga Viktorovna
Editor: Khromova G.N.
Publisher: Bustard, 2013

Annotation to the book "Algebra and the beginning of mathematical analysis. Grade 11"

The textbook on algebra and the principles of analysis corresponds to the mathematics curriculum for the general education school.
The theoretical material is divided into compulsory and optional. Each section of the chapter contains exercises, control questions and home control questions.
Exercises and home tests are differentiated according to the level of difficulty. The book contains a section "Answers. Tips.Solutions ", in which the author considers the solution of the most difficult problems.
Recommended by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
6th edition, stereotype. Read more "

Author: Lunina Alisa
Publisher: Eksmo-Press, 2013
Series: Love Stories (soft)

Annotation to the book "Three tea roses"

They are very different - three sisters, three beauties. One of them loves without reciprocity, the other is loved, but she cannot sincerely respond to the feeling, the third rushes between two men. Life goes on, circumstances change - and now one sister left her beloved, another found family happiness, the third found herself at a crossroads. One thing remains unchanged - their tea drinking in the old parental home. Sincere conversations until midnight, pies, tea, cherry jam - these attributes of simple Russian happiness help them. And in sorrow and in joy…

By Hartwig Dallas, Hartwig Melissa
Translator: Chigrinets Svetlana
Editor: Primakova Evgeniya Stepanovna
Publisher: Mann, Ivanov and Ferber, 2013
Series: Healthy food

Annotation to the book "Health begins with the right food. What, how and when to eat to feel and look .."

What is this book about
This book is about your health. The foods you eat make you either healthier or less healthy. There is no third. By reading this book, you will learn to help your body and live longer.
Why we decided to publish this book
Scientists around the world are looking for the secret to prolonging human life. The main ones. Read more "

Author: Nikonov Alexander Petrovich
Publisher: NTs ENAS, 2006
Series: Point of View

Annotation to the book "The Fate of a Civilizer"

In the new book, analyzing the socio-economic and political-psychological conditions of the formation, prosperity, decline and death of great empires using the example of Ancient Rome, the author, in a large-scale historical perspective, shows the reader a stunning picture of the eternal struggle between Reason and savagery, Enlightenment and ignorance, Civilization and barbarism. talks about the thorny paths of civilizers.
Moving easily to the present, A. Nikonov comments on his point of view on the "current historical moment" and offers his, as always, an original and witty model of the development of Civilization.
For a wide range of readers.
Published in the author's edition.

Author: Levin Alexander Shlemovich
Publisher: Peter, 2009
Series: Tutorial

Annotation to the book "Tutorial of useful programs (+ DVD)"

The sixth edition of the popular book presents the most useful programs for extending the capabilities of the Windows operating system in areas where these capabilities are clearly insufficient. Programs are considered in groups depending on their area of ​​application: programs to make it easier to work with Windows, to improve work with files, to burn CDs and DVDs, to save data in case of an accident, test and configure a computer, etc. The book includes a story about electronic dictionaries, translators and image recognition programs. Methods of protecting your computer from viruses, spam and hacker attacks are considered. A separate section is dedicated to. Read more "

Author: Stogov Dmitry
Editor: Platonov O.A.
Publisher: Algorithm, 2012
Series: Study of Russian Civilization

Annotation to the book "Black Hundreds: Life and Death for Great Russia"

The monograph by D.I. Stogov, Candidate of Historical Sciences, is dedicated to the Black Hundreds - outstanding figures of the Russian monarchist movement at the beginning of the 20th century, who played an important role in the formation of Russian national ideology and in the formation of the national self-consciousness of the Russian people. In the pre-revolutionary years, facing the threat of the death of Historical Russia, a healthy part of the Russian people organized themselves into numerous right-wing (Black Hundred) structures that were able to repulse the instigators of the Troubles of 1905-1907. The book examines the biographies of the most prominent representatives of p. Read more "

Artist: Pyltsyn Mikhail Alekseevich, Nechitailo Victor Vladimirovich, Babkin Oleg
Editor: Rashina T.
Publisher: Prof-Press, 2015
Series: Favorite fairy tales (Gift)

Annotation to the book "The best fairy tales for kids"

The title of this collection - "The best fairy tales for kids" - speaks for itself. It includes the most famous and beloved from childhood fairy tales: "Turnip", "Kolobok", "Zayushkina's hut", "Ryaba chicken", "Mashenka and the bear", "Three little pigs", "Winter animals" and others. It is these works that open the door to the world of folk wisdom for kids. Small readers will see large bright pictures on the pages of the book, which, no doubt, will attract their attention and help make the reading process more interesting and memorable. The collection contains illustrations by M. Pyltsyn, V. Nechitailo, O. Babkin and S. Bolotnaya.
For preschool and primary school c. Read more "

Author: Sergeev Victor, Uvarov Sergey, Grigoriev Mikhail
Publisher: Alfa-Press, 2008

Annotation to the book "Logistics: Information Systems and Technologies"

The training manual provides a systematic description of information technologies and models, the effectiveness and appropriateness of their practical application, as well as solving problems in modern logistics and the effective use of information resources of the company. A detailed description of information systems and software products used in the field of logistics and supply chain management and practical recommendations for the user is given.
The manual is addressed to university students, listeners of programs of additional postgraduate education (primarily students of the item Read more "

Author: Kolychev Vladimir Grigorievich
Publisher: Eksmo-Press, 2006

Annotation to the book "Camp Wolf: Novel"

The paths of the former special forces soldier Rolan Tikhonov and the bandit Volok have long crossed. Need forced Roland to become a hitman in the gang of authority. But, as you know, the executor of orders does not live long, no matter how ideally he works. The day came when Drag gave the go-ahead to his bulls to overwhelm the obstinate killer. However, Roland cannot be easily removed, he calmed the bandits himself ... and got to the zone. Spun his camp merry-go-round, threw it out into the wild like a hardened wolf. And there is only one wolf's law - it will be the first to grab the throat of its enemy ...

Author: Gorova L.A.
Editor: Berdnik V.M.
Publisher: Onyx, 2005
Series: I want to know everything

Annotation to the book "The Most-Most"

The animal world is great and varied! How many amazing, dissimilar animals live in different parts of our planet. The book "Most-Most" will tell the kid about the most unusual of them, about the most mysterious, about the most-most. And colorful illustrations and various tasks will make this process not only informative and interesting, but also truly exciting.

Author: Golod Lev Efimovich, Katorin Yuri Fedorovich
Editor: S.V. Nosenko
Publisher: Astrel, 2011
Series: Military History Library

Annotation to the book "Secret and Paradoxical Weapons of the World"

This book contains information about unusual samples of military equipment, that is, according to their design, size or methods of application, they go beyond the usual notions. The authors sought to explain why this or that exotic model was created, based on combat examples, to show the justification of some, at first glance, paradoxical, technical solutions.
The publication is intended for a wide range of readers interested in weapons and military equipment.

Publisher: Karapuz, 2004

Annotation to the book "Books-toys: Tiger cub (from 3 books)"

The publishing house "Karapuz" brings to your attention a series of books of an original form for your baby.
The books are glued to a cardboard cut-out and open with an accordion.

Author: Milburn Melanie
Publisher: Publishing house "Raduga", 2008
Series: Love Story

Annotation to the book "According to the debt of love"

Having experienced a family tragedy in her youth, Nikki stopped thinking about her future.The meaning of her life was to take care of her sick brother. That is why she refuses love and marries a rich old man. Years passed, but her lover did not forget Nikki's betrayal ...

Author: Tkacheva Maria Vladimirovna
Artist: Andrianov V.A.
Editor: Akimova T. Yu.
Publisher: Education, 2014
Series: Mathematics and Informatics

Annotation to the book "Algebra 8kl [Thematic tests] to the teacher. Kolyagin"

These tests are intended for teachers and students working on the textbook "Algebra. Grade 8" authors Yu. M. Kolyagin and others. The manual contains tests for all chapters of the textbook in four versions. The tasks proposed in the manual can be used before the tests to determine the level of formation of the knowledge and skills of students on the topic. These tests are also used for the textbook by Sh. A. Alimov et al. "Algebra. Grade 8".
2nd edition.

Author: Nikitin Anatoly Fedorovich
Editor: I. M. Zakomolkina
Publisher: Education, 2014
Series: Textbook

Annotation to the book "Law 10-11kl [Textbook]"

This course is addressed to high school students, as well as students of vocational secondary educational institutions. Studying the course will contribute to the development of legal culture, the upbringing of a civilized sense of justice and respect for the law among the younger generation.
Recommended by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.
10th edition.

Author: Grin Alexander Stepanovich
Editor: Shishkova I. L.
Publisher: AST, 2010
Series: Adventure Library

Annotation to the book "The Golden Chain. Stories"

The novel "The Golden Chain" and the stories of the Russian romantic writer A.S. Green (1880-1932).

Editor: Klyushnik L.
Publisher: Eksmo, 2012
Series: Kamasutra of the XXI century

Annotation to the book "Really hot sex"

The revolutionary guide to sexual pleasure is in your hands. You are offered several hundred priceless ideas on how to bring the desire of your sexual partner to the limit and completely satisfy him, without forgetting about your addictions.
You will become a tireless and sensitive lover who knows the secrets of amazing stimulation, learn the techniques of full-fledged oral and anal intercourse, ending with an orgasm, experience completely new sensations from immersion in the world of role-playing games, master the basic techniques of erotic massage and the secrets of influencing the erogenous zones, explore a lot of spicy options for alternative sex, get Submit a free crazy menu for two for every day of the week. Read more "

Author: Kulikov S.P.
Publisher: Krylov, 2010
Series: Gold Fund

Annotation to the book "Classics of natural healing. Complete encyclopedia"

Katsuzo Nishi, Paul Bregg, Herbert Shelton, Galina Shatalova, Norman Walker, Michelle Montignac - these names are familiar to everyone who is interested in health improvement and wants to be energetic, healthy and happy. All the secrets of healthy eating, breathing, cleansing and fasting are collected in one book - read, apply, get well!

Editor: S. N. Savushkin
Publisher: Karapuz, 2010
Series: Pedagogy of childhood
Genre: Child psychology

Annotation to the book "Let the Children Live"

This collection includes articles by foreign authors of the second half of the 19th-20th centuries, devoted to pedagogical problems that are relevant today both for family education and for schooling.
It is about the child's right to be who he is, about the need for the natural development of his personality, freedom of expression and refusal to pressure him about the traumatic consequences of suffering suffered in early childhood.
Teachers and thinkers of that time advocated the rejection of traditional education, from scholastic book education, they were looking for an optimal school model that would allow children to independently "discover" knowledge, giving them freedom of expression and real self-government, turning them into something like that. Read more "

Author: Sviridonov Mikhail Gennadievich, Sviridonov Gennady Mikhailovich
Editor: Petrov A.V.
Publisher: Molodaya Gvardiya, 2007

Annotation to the book "Russian Bath"

G. M. Sviridonov, candidate of biological sciences - the author of several books about the life-giving power of wild food and medicinal plants "Forest Garden" (1984), "Springs of Health" (1986), "Health Treasure - Nature" (1990), which included obligatory chapter on steam room and sauna. Now the scientist-enthusiast has co-authored with his son a generalizing work on the healing, healing power of the Russian bath. The collection contains information about the emergence of the custom of being treated in a steam room, useful tips for those who use the procedure of steaming with a broom to maintain health in adverse environmental conditions, stories about "living will", about medicinal fees, etc. Read more "

Author: Dneprov Alexander
Editor: Kalyaeva E.
Publisher: Peter, 2012

Annotation to the book "Free calls over the Internet. Skype and not only"

A familiar situation - your friends live in another country, thousands of kilometers from you? Or did you yourself go to work far from home? Or the simplest option - you are relaxing in an exotic resort. In all these cases, it is quite natural to want to talk with friends and family, but you are probably stopped by the high cost of conversations.
But we live in the 21st century! Modern technologies allow you to communicate with a person who is anywhere on the planet, practically for a penny, or even completely free. The name for these technologies is IP telephony. It is about her that is described in this book. P . Read more "

Author: Afanasiev Alexander
Editor: Malkin D.
Publisher: Eksmo, 2012
Series: Russian imperial fantasy

Annotation to the book "The Long Road Home"

XXI Century. In this world, the Russian Empire is a great superpower. But the higher its success, the more zealous the numerous enemies, especially Britain, are taking secret and overt steps against it. In Poland - the center of vices and demagoguery - a rebellion breaks out, senseless and bloody. In Persia, the Russian ambassador and intelligence officer, Prince Vorontsov, involuntarily becomes a participant in an anti-government conspiracy. Afghanistan seeks to crush its invincible northern neighbor with the help of the "white death" - heroin. Local bandits kidnap hundreds of Russian children, boys and girls, turning them into slaves and victims of the sexual pleasures of the fat masters of the local life. Heir to the Russian throne. Read more "

Author: Bushkov Alexander Alexandrovich
Publisher: OlmaMediaGroup, 2009
Series: The Adventures of Alexey Bestuzhev

Annotation to the book "Combatant"

The novel "Combatant" is the fourth book in the series "The Adventures of Alexei Bestuzhev". The pursuit of the far-sighted - Stepanek's apparatus - continues through the streets and outskirts of Paris. Detective Bestuzhev finds himself in the European den of revolutionaries and anarchists of all stripes and begins a real "hunt for the devil." Who will win?
Incredible intrigue, unbearable tension of the plot, thorough knowledge of the topic. Alexander Bushkov confirms his reputation as a skilled master of bringing history to life in the most fascinating genres.

Author: Sillov Dmitry Olegovich
Publisher: AST, 2013
Series: Rose of the Worlds

Annotation to the book "Law of the Dragon"

Many hundreds of years have passed since the end of the nuclear war. The world burned to the ground was reborn anew, but became completely different. Cities and fortresses have grown over the underground bunkers, people have learned to control the elements. But a quiet life did not work out. The restless dead roam near the old cemeteries, demons-kutrubs are born on the cursed earth, and from time to time intelligent mutant dragons appear in the sky, belching streams of all-devouring flame on the blooming earth.
A young guy, whose village was burned by a dragon, is forced to look for a new place in life. However, in a revived society, all the best places are occupied, and the powers that be to the outcasts can offer a poor choice - slavery or death.But meeting with an alien from. Read more "

Author: Smirnova E.D.
Publisher: Eksmo, 2008
Series: Gift Editions

Annotation to the book "The Middle Ages. Culture, Art, History. Illustrated Encyclopedia"

This edition is a richly illustrated encyclopedia of the history and culture of the Middle Ages. Its more than 500 articles contain the most complete information about the main historical events of these eras, about states and their rulers, about wars, battles and commanders, about architectural styles and works of art, about artists and writers, religious figures and famous saints, about household items and public institutions. Encyclopedia articles accompany more than 800 color and black-and-white illustrations: drawings, prints, photographs, maps. Read more "

Author: Ilyina Valeria Valerievna
Publisher: Fiton +, 2009
Series: Lessons in garden design

Annotation to the book "New direction of landscape design: gravel garden. Lessons of garden design"

High decorativeness, richness and variety of used plants, ease of maintenance are the main advantages of the new modern style of landscape design called "Gravel Garden". The large-scale gravel coverage of the soil creates an excellent backdrop for ornamental plant compositions and inhibits the growth of weeds, which is best suited to the spirit of the times. How to create such a garden, what materials to use, what plants to fill it with and how to care for it, you will learn from this beautifully illustrated. Read more "

Author: Senkevich Alexander Nikolaevich
Editor: Petrov A.V.
Publisher: Molodaya Gvardiya, 2010
Series: Life of Remarkable People

Annotation to the book "Blavatsky"

The name of this woman is fanned with myths and fantasies. The reaction to the works and practice of the famous Theosophist - from a stormy admiration for the hidden capabilities of Homo sapiens, which Helena Blavatsky studied, to violent rejection and accusations of black magic and charlatanism. Blavatsky managed a lot in her life: she wrote several books, hundreds of articles, thousands of letters, established the Theosophical Society. She was almost the only Russian woman who turned to the wisdom of India and promoted its philosophy and culture. To a large extent, in her work, she created myths, dressing them in realistic clothes, and she did it so skillfully that many people still cannot. Read more "

Author: Kozyreva Nina Alekseevna
Publisher: Sputnik +, 2012

Annotation to the book "The poet's love. Eternal mystery in verse"

The book presents a collection of love poems by the poets of the Golden and Silver Ages of Russian literature with commentaries that make it possible to penetrate deeper into the nature of this powerful feeling and the personality and creativity of the poet.

Author: Steblyanskaya Natalia Georgievna
Publisher: Phoenix, 2008
Series: City of Masters

Annotation to the book "Designing and Modeling Clothes for We Take"

The book contains a detailed description of taking measurements, the simplest and most accurate method for constructing a drawing of the basis for the design of clothes for pregnant women, taking into account their position. Descriptions of various types of clothing are given. The book is supplied with numerous illustrations, drawings, diagrams, sketches. The author's extensive knowledge and experience ensures that if you follow the guidelines in this book carefully, your success is guaranteed.

Author: Gutina Svetlana
Editor: Maria Grigoryan
Publisher: Geleos, 2010

Annotation to the book "Satin Ribbon Embroidery"

The women of Ancient Greece also loved narrow strips of fabric. The ladies of that time weaved colored ribbons into their hair. In the middle of the 16th century, the Lyon manufactory became the trendsetter for braid fashion. Louis XIV even decorated shoes with ribbons, and under Louis XV, dresses with an unstitched fold on the chest, which was tightened with luxurious lacing, came into fashion. It was then, in the middle of the 17th century, that silk ribbon embroidery appeared.Noble ladies spent their lives participating in an unspoken competition for the most elegant corsage: small roses a la rococo, leaves of unprecedented plants, bouquets, exotic buds with dew drops made of natural pearls and transparent crystal. Now the most famous on. Read more "

Author: Bogachenko Vera Mikhailovna
Editor: Volkova D.
Publisher: Phoenix, 2015
Series: Secondary vocational education

Annotation to the book "Fundamentals of Accounting. Textbook"

The textbook was prepared in accordance with the program of the general professional discipline "Fundamentals of Accounting" and complies with the Federal State Educational Standard (FSES) of the third generation, approved by Order of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation No. 282 dated 06.04.2010. The textbook will allow you to master all the general and professional competencies of a specialist accountant. It is a great companion for learners, students and anyone who starts learning accounting.
The book contains educational theoretical material on the discipline, including the history of accounting, its subject and method,. Read more "

By: Maugham William Somerset
Publisher: AST, 2009
Series: Classical and modern prose

Annotation to the book "Theater (soft)"

The most famous novel by Somerset Maugham. A subtle, caustically ironic story of a brilliant, intelligent actress celebrating a "midlife crisis" with an affair with a handsome young "predator"?
Vanity Fair of the Roaring Twenties?
Or - a timeless book in which each reader finds something personally for himself?
"The whole world is a theater, and the people in it are actors!"
So it was - and it will always be so!

Author: Sandford John
Translator: V. Goldich, I. Oganesova
Editor: Elena Gulyaeva
Publisher: Eksmo, 2010
Series: Misterium

Annotation to the book "Shadow of the Assassin"

A crime committed many years ago by two police officers went unpunished. Since then, one of them has made a dizzying career and became the director of the FBI. He is famous for his intransigence in the fight against crime.

Author: Rafienko Vladimir Danilovich, Zaraisky Dmitry Anatolyevich, Smekhov Alexey Markovich
Artist: Ivanov A.
Editor: Klyushnik L.
Publisher: Eksmo, 2013
Series: Complete Fishing Guide

Annotation to the book "Cool fishing. Complete encyclopedia"

What does "cool fishing" mean to you? Intense round-the-clock nibbling in the very place of the reservoir where you are located? Or maybe a single fish, but VO-O-FROM SUCH, caught with great difficulty?
Whichever answer you give, it is very difficult to get good fishing. If you succeed, you can rightfully bear the title of "Coolest Angler". Is this what you dream about? Means, your dream is close to realization. All you need is to read carefully. Read more "

Author: Murakami Haruki
Translator: Kunikova Natalia
Editor: Yanovskaya M.
Publisher: Eksmo-Press, 2013
Series: Murakami-mania (cover)

Annotation to the book "My Favorite Sputnik"

... This woman loves Sumire. But he does not feel any sexual attraction towards her. Sumire loves this woman and wants her. I love Sumire and am attracted to her. Sumire likes me, but she neither loves nor wants me. I am sexually attracted to one woman - the name does not matter. But I don’t love her. Everything is so confused that it looks a lot like some existentialist play. Continuous dead ends, no one can go anywhere. There should be alternatives, but they are not. And Sumire leaves the stage alone ...
"My Favorite Sputnik" (1999), a classic of modern Japanese literature, Haruki Murakami, is one of the most mysterious novels of the late twentieth century.

Author: Mikhailov Yu.M.
Publisher: Alfa-Press, 2010
Genre: Human Resources

Annotation to the book "All orders for personnel"

The book contains over 150 orders and orders for personnel.Examples are grouped according to functional criteria: orders for hiring, for transferring to another job, for granting leave, for sending on business trips, for rewards and punishments, and for dismissal of workers.
Each chapter contains a short and clear description of the requirements for the preparation of an order (instruction). Unified forms of orders (orders) in most cases have been improved by the author.
An additional convenience for readers is the inclusion in the text of the book of the most demanded documents justifying the decision-making by the head of personnel management decisions and the publication of the corresponding prikaz. Read more "

Author: Blondeau Sylvie
Translator: Mamontov V.
Editor: Zorina E.
Publisher: AST, 2013
Series: The best do-it-yourself models

Annotation to the book "My home studio. Accessories for order and convenience in a needlework workshop"

This book is a real treasure for all needlewomen. Now everything in your little home workshop will turn into a real handicraft boutique. You will craft stylish and fashionable, practical and convenient "storage" for the necessary instruments and unfinished masterpieces. Precisely masterpieces - can something else be kept in cozy chests, delicate baskets, magic pockets? Anyone who comes to visit you will immediately understand that this is the house of a jack of all trades. To you. Read more "

Author: Borodaevsky Valerian Valerianovich
Publisher: Aquarius, 2011
Series: The Silver Age. Chronicles

Annotation to the book "The staff in bloom. Collection of poems"

Valerian Valerianovich Borodaevsky (1874-1923), an original poet of a religious and philosophical warehouse. In 1909, Mr .. quite clearly declared himself a collection of poems, published by the publishing house Vyach. Ivanov's "Ora", but having released a second collection in 1914, he moved away from the literary process and was forgotten for a long time. This edition is the first experience of a complete collection of Borodaevsky's poems, a significant part of which is being published for the first time.

Author: McLean Alistair
Publisher: Eksmo, 2007
Series: All McLean

Annotation to the book "Golden Rendezvous. Santorini: Novels"

At first glance, this novel continues the tradition of English "pirate" literature. The difference is that modern marine predators are much more sophisticated, and the stakes in the game are much higher: the fate of multimillion-dollar treasures is at stake.
The pleasure yacht of a Greek multimillionaire explodes in the Aegean Sea. At the same time, an unidentified plane crashes in the same area. And this is just the beginning of an ominous series of events that could lead to a global catastrophe ...

Author: Bryukhanov Oleg Nikolaevich, Korobko Vladimir Ivanovich, Melik-Arakelyan Arkady Telemakovich
Editor: L. N. Kuzmina
Publisher: INFRA-M, 2010
Series: Secondary vocational education

Annotation to the book "Fundamentals of hydraulics, heat engineering and aerodynamics"

The book provides the basics of hydraulics, aerodynamics, examines the methods of hydraulic and aerodynamic calculations, the types and characteristics of pumps and fans, the basics of thermodynamics, heat transfer and heat transfer.
It is intended as a textbook for students and teachers of construction specialties of secondary vocational education in the specialty 2914 "Installation and operation of internal plumbing devices and ventilation".

Author: Pavlova Marina
Publisher: Publishing House of the Institute of Psychotherapy, 2000
Series: Neuro-linguistic programming

Annotation to the book "Intensive literacy course with the help of NLP. Study guide"

The proposed manual presents a system of work to intensively improve practical literacy, the development of attention, memory, thinking and speech, using the latest psychotechnologies of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) and includes elements of psychocorrection.
It consists of an introductory NLP course, detailed abstracts of 26 3-hour sessions, and an appendix of versatile spelling and punctuation exercises based on the frequency of spelling errors. Read more "

Author: Preobrazhenskaya Natalia Viktorovna
Editor: Lappo Lev Dmitrievich
Publisher: Exam, 2011
Series: Educational-methodical kit

Annotation to the book "Workbook on biology. Grade 7. To the textbook VV Latyushin" Biology. Animals. Grade 7 ". Federal State Educational Standard"

This manual is fully consistent with the new educational standard (second generation).
The notebook contains a variety of tasks aimed at practicing and consolidating the skills and abilities of students in biology. At the end of each major topic, questions and tasks are given, drawn up in the format of the GIA and the Unified State Examination, which will allow you to assess the degree of mastering of the educational material by the student, gradually. Read more "

Author: Phyllis Vega
Editor: Nikiforova T.S.
Publisher: Ripol-Classic, 2009

Annotation to the book "Faith, Hope, Love. Astrology for Every Day"

One single glance - and you can no longer live without each other. But how often something that began so beautifully ends very badly. "What can you do," you say, "you can't do without mistakes. Especially in such a delicate matter as love." Maybe we can try?
And the stars will help us in this. Everything they know about love has been collected and described in her new book "Faith, Hope, Love. Astrology for Every Day", a well-known astrologer, numerologist and specialist in fortune telling on Tarot cards in the USA, author of the bestseller "What the date will tell about you birth "Phyllis Vega.
Phyllis paints 366 romantic portraits to help you. Read more "

Author: Grin Alexander Stepanovich
Editor: Sidorok E. Yu.
Publisher: AST, 2011
Series: Whole

Annotation to the book "The best novels and stories in one volume"

The collection includes the most famous works of Alexander Green. Adventurous plots, unexpected endings, heroes-dreamers, flickering love, passionate dates and bitter partings - the world of Alexander Green and the secrets of his imagination.

Author: Stepanov V.
Artist: Remizova G.
Publisher: Adonis, 2011
Series: Frost-Red Nose

Annotation to the book "New Year's round dance"

The book includes poems by V. Stepanov. The text is intended for parents to read to children.
The series of books for preschoolers includes fairy tales, poems and stories by popular authors of Russian literature.
Beautiful illustrations and wonderful texts will appeal to the youngest readers and their parents.

Author: Zhuk Alexey
Editor: Kalyaeva E.
Publisher: Peter, 2011

Annotation to the book "Freebie on the Internet"

The author warns: this book is absolutely legal and does not violate anyone's rights and freedoms! On the contrary, it talks about the rights and freedoms that such a generous Internet can give you. This book is about freebies for every taste, color and choice. Free audio-video media? You are welcome! Free communication with loved ones? No problem! Almost free shopping and travel? This is real! Easy money on the web? As you wish! Everything you did not know about the Internet and its unlimited possibilities, you will find in this book. Trust me, free cheese isn't just in a mousetrap!

Author: Burovsky Andrey Mikhailovich
Editor: Nezvinskaya L.
Publisher: Eksmo, 2010
Series: The Whole Truth About Russia

Annotation to the book "The revived nightmare of Russian history. The terrible truth about Muscovy"

The most scandalous book of the most uncontrollable historian! A defiant bestseller of the main troublemaker! The shocking truth about our past, a cruel blow to national conceit!
Daring to raise his hand against the most untouchable myths of national consciousness, the author undertakes to prove that "Russia is ruined by an excess of natural resources, which prevents the country from developing, making everything complex and perfect unnecessary," and "each of us carries such a" psychological face "in our souls that if it explodes, it won't seem a little! "
This book can be cursed. Read more "

Author: Eskindarov Mukhadin Abdurakhmanovich
Editor: Eskindarov Mukhadin Abdurakhmanovich, Fedotova Marina Alekseevna
Publisher: Knorus, 2015
Series: Undergraduate

Annotation to the book "Business value appraisal (for bachelors). Textbook"

The theoretical foundations of valuation are systematized, domestic and foreign experience of valuation activity is summarized, the main stages in the history of valuation and the peculiarities of the current state of Russian valuation are revealed, taking into account the latest regulatory legal acts, including the Roadmap "Improvement of valuation activities".
Corresponds to the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in the direction of training "Economics".
For students enrolled in the bachelor's program in the direction of preparation "Economics". Read more "

Author: Gromyko Andrey Andreevich
Editor: Alexandrova V.
Publisher: Tsentrpoligraf, 2015
Series: Our XX century
Genre: Politicians, businessmen

Annotation to the book "Memorable. New horizons. Book 1"

Andrei Andreevich Gromyko, diplomat and statesman of the USSR, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. In the first book of his memoirs, Andrei Gromyko talks about his childhood, youth, family, as well as his first confident steps in the public arena. Perseverance, hard work and dedication of Andrei Andreevich helped him make a dizzying career as the most outstanding diplomat of the Soviet era. Gromyko's life motto became the inexorable credo of Soviet diplomacy: "Better ten years of negotiations than one day of war."
Memories. Read more "

Publisher: OlmaMediaGroup, 2012
Series: Smart kid

Annotation to the book "I am a mathematician. Mathematics for the little ones. 4-5 years old"

The book is designed for preschoolers 4-5 years old. It will help develop memory, attention, logical thinking, and the ability to concentrate. The Smart Kid books are suitable for parent-child activities and help prepare toddlers for school.

Author: Ivanovich Yuri
Editor: Malkin D.
Publisher: Eksmo, 2013
Series: Mages and Heroes

Annotation to the book "The Insane Dragon"

The whole World of the Triple Rainbow knows who Cremon, nicknamed the Insane Sorcerer, is!
True, Cremona himself does not get any better from this. After all, he is a Hero with a capital letter. And who said that being a Hero is easy? Yes, everyone admires. Yes, women go crazy. Yes, just what - they call for help! But these "little things" happen almost every day. So it will not be brutal for long. Turn into a monster. In the Dragon, with a capital letter! And when the dragon is not one, but, say, two hundred ... Imagine exactly two hundred of the best El-Mitolans, unsurpassed in battles! And the same amount of portions of a deadly fiery mixture, ready to pour out on enemies. And the same number of lithanr ready for battle - the most terrible weapon that has survived in the World. Read more "

Editor: Gornostaeva Varvara
Publisher: Corpus, 2011

Annotation to the book "On the" Freedom ". Conversations at the microphone 1972-1979"

Anatoly Kuznetsov was born and raised in Kiev, where, during the occupation, he witnessed mass shootings in Babi Yar. This experience formed the basis of his most famous work - "Babi Yar". In August 1969 A. Kuznetsov asked for political asylum and stayed in Great Britain. His name was no longer mentioned in the USSR, books were withdrawn from shops and libraries. In London, A. Kuznetsov worked for Radio Liberty and hosted a weekly program under the heading "Writer at the Microphone" (a total of 233 conversations sounded on the air), creating a number of samples of so-called "confessional journalism" and at the same time remaining in line with the literary tradition he had created ... And in this genre he found himself. According to one of the. Read more "

By Lee Linda Francis
Publisher: AST, 2009

Annotation to the book "In the power of love"

Expelled from the secular society of Boston, Matthew Hawthorne vowed henceforth not to believe in anything, not to fear anything and to forget the words "honor", "feeling" and "nobility". However, the meeting with young Finny Winslet, whom he almost accidentally saved from certain death, changed everything for Matthew - and the cold cynic, for the first time in many years, knew the great, imperious power of Love. Love is tender, passionate and irresistible. Love that heals the soul and gives hope for new happiness.

Author: Hauner Dagmar
Translator: Sas Ekaterina Georgievna
Editor: Y. Surzhenko
Publisher: AST, 2014
Series: Anti. Nutrition rules

Annotation to the book "Anti-Diabetes. Your New Diet Rules"

The most important treatment for diabetes is dietary changes and weight loss. Anyone who succeeds in this will be surprised how quickly and clearly blood sugar and other indicators - for example, high blood pressure - will improve. It is at the initial stage of the disease that a consistent change in diet, combined with weight loss, can affect high blood sugar much more strongly than medications.
Dr. Hauner's nutritional principles are simple and easily applicable to everyone, regardless of wealth and health.

Author: Malysheva Anna Vitalievna
Editor: Timonina M.V.
Publisher: AST, 2011
Series: Classical and modern prose

Annotation to the book "Hold your breath"

In the abyss of human consciousness hidden secrets, the existence of which can not even be suspected. What is genius, clairvoyance, prophetic dream or coma, where the unsteady boundaries of insanity lie, what kind of dark forces sometimes control a person's actions, carefully hiding from his understanding? We make the most dizzying journey in the world, trying to know ourselves. And on this path we are accompanied by demons eager to steal our soul, and angels ready to save it.

Author: Rudnitskaya Victoria Naumovna
Editor: Kozlova M.A.
Publisher: Exam, 2016
Series: Educational-methodical kit

Annotation to the book "Mathematics. Grade 3. Oral counting. Workbook for the textbook MI Moro and others. FGOS"

This manual is fully consistent with the federal state educational standard (second generation) for primary schools.
The book is offered to help teachers working on the "School of Russia" teaching and learning method (authors MI Moro and others) and is intended for organizing individual or group training work of students to develop the skills and abilities of oral counting.
The material is recommended for use with students in the classroom.
By Order No. 729 the Minister. Read more "

Publisher: IG Lenizdat, 2014
Series: Lenizdat-classics

Annotation to the book "Town in a Snuff-Box. Russian Literary Tale"

This book contains the most famous fairy tales of Russian writers of the 19th century: "The Black Hen, or Underground inhabitants" by Anthony Pogorelsky (1787-1836), "The Town in a Snuffbox" by Vladimir Fedorovich Odoevsky (1803-1869), "The Little Humpbacked Horse" by Pyotr Pavlovich Ershov (1815-1869), "Ashik-Kerib" by Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov (1814 - 1841), "The Scarlet Flower" by Sergei Timofeevich Aksakov (1791-1859) and "The Frog-Traveler" by Vsevolod Mikhailovich Garshin (1855-1888). Taking their origins in folklore, these stories - in the best traditions of Russian classics - fascinating, witty and instructive, often in allegorical form, tell children about the most important and complex phenomena. Read more "

Author: Safronova Ludmila Nikolaevna
Publisher: Lan, 2015
Series: Textbooks for universities. Special literature
Genre: Dancing

Annotation to the book "Lessons of classical dance. Teaching aid"

The book outlines the sequence of teaching five movements of classical dance, which are in the program of the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet in all classes: 1 - Rond de jambe en l'air (in development by class) 2 - Turn fouett (all types) 3 - Temps li (all forms) 4 - Pasassembl (all types from simple to complex) 5 - Pas jet (all types and their varieties in development).
The manual is intended for teachers of classical dance and students of choreographic educational institutions.
2nd edition, stereotyped.

Author: Kondratyev A.N.
Publisher: GEOTAR-Media, 2009
Series: Library of the Medical Specialist

Annotation to the book "Emergency neurotraumatology"

The guide considers the factors influencing the outcome of traumatic brain injury: aspects of neurological diagnosis, assessment of the severity of damage to the central nervous system, primary and secondary injuries, materials are given on anesthetic management and intensive care for traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries.
The book is intended for traumatologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists, anesthesiologists-resuscitators and other specialists involved in providing assistance to victims with lesions of the central nervous system.

Author: Simachev Egor
Publisher: Geleos, 2005

Annotation to the book "Mystical Paris. Following in the footsteps of Leonardo da Vinci"

Dan Brown's novel "The Da Vinci Code" rocked the world. Legions of curious tourists from all over the world march through the streets of Paris, hoping to touch the great mystery. Scientists, historians and archaeologists have clashed in fierce disputes in search of the truth. Isn't it time for you to start an independent investigation and visit mysterious places ?! The book-guide "Mystical Paris. In the footsteps of Leonardo da Vinci" will take you the shortest way to the holy of holies of mysterious Paris!

Author: Tamonikov Alexander Alexandrovich
Editor: Dyshev A.
Publisher: Eksmo-Press, 2010
Series: Storm gate (soft)

Annotation to the book "Strategic reserve"

Russian professor Andorin invented a highly effective remedy for AIDS and, full of bright hopes, began to prepare for a triumphant speech at an international medical symposium. But the leaders of the Bloody Sunset terrorist sect have their own plans for the talented scientist and his miracle cure. The terrorists got the information that after a simple processing the professor's potion turns from a life-giving substance into a monstrously dangerous chemical weapon of mass destruction. The sectarians kidnap the professor and hide him in the impenetrable jungles of Lagos, where they force him to continue the experiments for not at all for medical purposes. Above what. Read more "

Publisher: Afisha, 2006

Annotation to the book "Around Moscow: Guide"

All destinations for weekend trips with descriptions of attractions, historical and architectural monuments, and just out-of-town entertainment, the best restaurants, sports clubs, beaches and scenic spots for fishing, hunting, walking and picnics.

Author: Astashenko Oleg Igorevich
Editor: M. V. Smirnova
Publisher: Vector, 2010
Series: Healing Practices: Russian Experience

Annotation to the book "Respiratory gymnastics according to Strelnikova (+ DVD)"

The technique of paradoxical breathing by Alexandra Nikolaevna Strelnikova is one of the most popular breathing practices in our country. This is a set of rapid body movements in which breaths are taken at the end of the movements with the chest being compressed or unable to expand. That is why gymnastics is called "paradoxical".
Gymnastics is recommended for the following diseases:
- asthma and chronic diseases of the bronchi and lungs
- rhinitis (chronic rhinitis), sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia
- diabetes mellitus and its complications
- neuroses and. Read more "

Author: Akhmadullina Roza Gabdullovna
Editor: E. I. Pravotorova
Publisher: Education, 2016
Series: Literature

Annotation to the book "Literature. Grade 5. Workbook in 2 parts. Part 2"

The workbook is a part of the educational-methodical kit on literature for grade 5, edited by V. Ya. Korovina.
The purpose of this manual is to teach fifth-graders to analyze a literary work, to form their own attitude towards it, to teach how to retell a work using figurative means of the Russian language and quotations from the text, to create oral and written statements of various types, to conduct a dialogue.
The workbook consists of two parts. The first part includes the section "Preparing for the lesson" (tasks for the implementation. Read more "

Author: Lizinsky Vladimir Mikhailovich
Editor: Pereslavtseva E.V., Poddubny A.V.
Publisher: Pedagogical Search, 2006

Annotation to the book "Resource approach in managing school development"

The book substantiates the necessity and importance of introducing a resource-based approach to school management. The book is intended for school leaders, methodologists, specialists of educational authorities.

Author: Grass Gunther
Translator: Fridland S.
Publisher: IG Lenizdat, 2012
Series: Lenizdat-classics

Annotation to the book "My centenary"

Gunther Grass is the largest contemporary German writer, artist, sculptor, Nobel Prize laureate in literature. Among his most famous novels are "Tin Drum", "Cat and Mouse", "Dog Years" and many others. Along with, perhaps, only one Sartre, he managed to embody in his work the entire XX century - in all its painful complexity and nightmare of apocalyptic upheavals. Grasse's prose, nervous, uneven and, as Marquez aptly put it, “frankly uncomfortable,” both attracts and shocks the reader. "My century" is a kind of chronicle, consisting of a hundred stories and short stories, in the center of which is an important event, incident, memory, where history appears in words. Read more "

Author: Ter-Minasova Svetlana Grigorievna, Uzunova Larisa Moiseevna, Sukhina Elena Igorevna everything, Obukauskaite Dalia Stasyevna hide
Artist: Kapninsky A. V., Savchenkov I. Yu., Saychuk D. V. all, Tokarev R. V. hide
Publisher: Akademkniga / Textbook, 2014
Series: English

Annotation to the book "English language. Grade 2. Textbook for educational institutions. In 2 parts. Part 2. FSES"

The textbook was developed in accordance with the requirements of the federal state educational standard for primary general education in a foreign language.
The content of the textbook provides training c. Read more "

Translator: Natalia Vinogradova
Publisher: Eksmo, 2012
Series: Golden Tales for Children

Annotation to the book "The Golden Book of Fairy Tales about Princesses"

The best stories and the most beautiful illustrations - under one cover! Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, Rapunzel and other wonderful heroines of fairy tales will whirl your baby in a whirlwind of wonderful adventures.

Author: Brown Roman
Publisher: Interexpert, 2005
Series: Scientific and artistic publications

Annotation to the book "The Power of Rhetoric"

A simple "yes" or "no", sounded in time - and our life is not what it once was. The happiness or unhappiness of every minute of life depends on the words of loved ones. What will remain of us one fine moment? The words of the songs that our descendants will sing about us. If we found the right words for them at the right time.
Until then, we will forge our happiness - with a word.
And this should be the master!

Author: Petrushevskaya Lyudmila Stefanovna
Artist: Pavlov Ilya Alexandrovich
Publisher: Astrel, 2012

Annotation to the book "Girl's Dreams"

". I woke up and asked my family how to save myself from bad dreams.
- So how?
- They stroked my head and kissed me. They do not know.
- No one knows! - the sorcerer squealed happily. - No one here knows how to end a bad dream.
“It’s impossible to stop it,” said the princess. - Everyone told me that.
"Oh, you are the land of idiots," the sorcerer answered peacefully. -- I forgot. Every fool knows how. How will he have a terrible dream - well, about your cherry orchards, about wheat fields, about streams in the forest or about sea waves here, on you, on the ground - you must immediately ask the first passer-by that comes across: "Who are you?" And the dream will end. "
For secondary school. Read more "

Publisher: Niola-press, 2009

Annotation to the book "How to Tie a Tie: 17 Ways"

This book is for men who want to learn how to tie a tie beautifully. It provides interesting information about the history of this accessory, as well as detailed step-by-step descriptions and illustrations, thanks to which you can quickly master any of 17 modern tie knots.

Author: Aleshina Svetlana
Publisher: Nevsky Prospect, 2005

Annotation to the book "Unusual Microwave Dishes: More than 300 Original Recipes"

The microwave oven is a hardworking assistant in the kitchen for the hostess. Dishes cooked in the microwave are healthier than those cooked on a regular stove, as they retain natural moisture, vitamins and minerals. With the help of a microwave oven, you can not only quickly and tasty feed your family, but also create real miracles of the culinary art.
The book contains over 300 original recipes. Meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, mushrooms, eggs, soups, baked goods and a wide variety of drinks are all subject to our little magician.

Author: Sontag Susan
Translator: Golyshev Victor
Publisher: Ad Marginem, 2014

Annotation to the book "We Look at Others' Suffering"

"We Look at Others' Suffering" (2003) is the last book published by Susan Sontag during her lifetime. In it, the critic turns to his sensational work "On Photography" (1977), adding, almost thirty years later, a kind of afterword to reflections on the nature of the photographic image. This time, the focus is on war photography, documentary and staged photographs of other people's suffering, their meaning and purpose.

Author: Rampo Edogawa
Publisher: Kristall, 2000

Annotation to the book "Demons of the Moon"

Edogawa Rampo is perhaps the most famous of Japanese writers, rightfully considered the founder of the crime genre in 20th century Japanese literature. This edition is the most complete collection of translations of Edogawa Rampo's works into Russian.

Author: Shimmer Mark
Publisher: AST, 2014
Series: Life Changing Practices

Annotation to the book "Training by Donald Walsh. God's Answers to Any Your Questions"

The manual you are holding in your hands is a training book that allows you to put into practice the knowledge contained in the world famous bestseller "Conversations with God" by American writer Neil Donald Walsh. Having discovered an unusual and amazing form of communication with the Almighty, Walsh began to ask questions and receive answers on topics that excite many people: about the structure of the Universe and the meaning of human life, about who God is and who we are about the laws of a happy, fulfilling, worthy, abundant and healthy life. Now you can not only discover the truths transmitted by God to people through. Read more "

Publisher: Egmont, 2007
Series: Smart coloring. Point by point

Annotation to the book "Smart coloring number 1-2007. Winnie and his friends. Point by point"

Coloring book with tasks. Each picture must be drawn using special points and colored. Pictures - fabulous characters from the Disney cartoon "Winnie the Pooh".
For preschool and primary school age.

Publisher: T&P Books, 2008
Series: Thematic dictionary

Annotation to the book "Russian-Turkish Thematic Dictionary of 9000 Words"

The dictionary contains about 9000 of the most common words, organized by topic. 250 topics of the dictionary cover the main spheres of everyday activities, business, science, culture, etc. The dictionary is intended for active work with vocabulary, expanding and systematizing knowledge of foreign vocabulary. The dictionary will be useful both for self-study of the language, and as an additional guide to the main course.
Compiled by A. M. Taranov.

Author: Roberts Nora
Translator: Metlitskaya I.
Publisher: Eksmo, 2013
Series: World Mega Bestseller

Annotation to the book "Last Love"

Childhood falling in love does not guarantee either fidelity or happiness. And if this feeling is serious and for life? Avery McTavish jokingly calls Owen Montgomery her first love because she fell head over heels in love with him when she was six years old. Then she immediately announced that they would get married, and Owen willingly gave the "bride" a plastic ring from a chewing gum machine. Many years have passed since then, and Owen's surprise is boundless when he learns that his best friend Avery is carefully keeping his gift ...

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