Fashionable stainless steel for the chimney: types, characteristics and installation features
Furnishing houses with a heating system that runs on any fuel is not complete without chimneys, which, if properly selected and installed, ensure the natural release of carbon monoxide into the atmosphere and guarantee the safety of others. But combustion by-products - soot, smoke, ash - also pass through the smoke channel. They settle on the walls of the chimney, making it difficult for the gases to move. This can have dire consequences for the residents of the house. To prevent this from happening, the inner surface of the chimneys should be as flat and smooth as possible, which is fully consistent with products made of corrosion-resistant steel.
Stainless alloy chimney pipes: classification, pros and cons
The chimney made of corrosion-resistant alloy steel is a complex device, which, in addition to pipes of oval or round cross-section with impeccably smooth walls, consists of many forming modules, such as:
- support brackets;
- tees, plugs, elbows, revisions, adapters;
- mounting brackets and wall clamps;
- mouths, condensate collectors (watering cans), cones;
- skirts for fixing the waterproofing layer, deflectors and spark arrestors.
The stainless steel chimney consists of several modules connected to each other
Today on the market there are all kinds of chimneys made of various materials. Nevertheless, stainless steel systems are in greatest demand due to their advantages.
Advantages of stainless chimneys
Before talking about the advantages, it is worth dwelling on one significant factor - condensate with acidic properties, which forms as a result of cooling hot air as it passes through the chimney system and negatively affects the metal, gradually destroying it. Stainless steel surpasses all metal chimney structures in terms of resistance to condensation, which is often the main selection criterion for many.
The destruction of the pipe occurs under the influence of condensate, which is the main enemy of any chimney system
In addition, stainless steel chimneys differ:
- Versatility and ease of installation. They can be combined with different heating devices and installed independently at any time of the year, without experience and skills.
- Long service life. Naturally, they cannot be compared with chimneys made of brick or stone, but stainless pipes, with the right device and proper care, are guaranteed to serve for 10–20 years.
- High heat resistance. They can withstand temperatures up to 600ºC and more, depending on the steel grade.
- Excellent resistance to climatic influences, biological, mechanical and chemical agents.
- Maintainability. If any component fails, it can be easily replaced without dismantling the entire system.
- Light weight. This eliminates the need to lay a separate foundation for the oven.
- Aesthetics. Steel models have an attractive appearance and harmoniously fit into the exterior and interior of any style.
- Security. By quickly heating up, stainless steel chimneys provide effective draft, which is the key to absolute safety when using them.
- Good cross-country ability and lack of corners. The rounded shape of the pipes prevents the turbulence of the combustion products, which minimizes the formation of soot and does not interfere with the intensive natural extraction of smoke.
- A variety of models, ease of maintenance, availability and reasonable cost.
Photo gallery: stainless steel chimneys of different designs
Disadvantages of stainless steel chimneys
Alloy steel flues are practically flawless. Even the most ardent opponents point out only three disadvantages:
- the need to insulate the structure;
- the presence of supports when arranging a high chimney;
- inconsistency with the architecture of the buildings.
But even these shortcomings are controversial. It is possible not to insulate the system if you use sandwich pipes with a laid mineral wool heat insulator. The cladding of the outer part of the chimney with material to match the roof covering, and the inner part with fire-resistant decor will help to maintain the overall style of the house. As for pipe supports, modern support structures are very diverse, which is why there is always the opportunity to choose suitable models that will give the house a special charm.
There are very few disadvantages of stainless steel chimneys, which significantly distinguishes them from other analogues
Video: comparison of stainless steel with galvanized, ceramics and asbestos
Classification of stainless steel chimneys
Stainless steel chimneys are extremely diverse and differ in many ways.
By type of chimneys
Today there are the following options:
- Single-wall models - pipes of round or oval cross-section made of single-sheet steel with a thickness of 0.5–1.0 mm. Usually, single-circuit products are used as an independent structure inside the premises or outside in pre-insulated channels.
To reduce the cost of the chimney, you can purchase single-wall pipes and wrap them with a layer of basalt insulation, and then with fiberglass or heat-resistant foil
- Double-walled (sandwich chimneys) are three-layer universal structures that have proven themselves in the arrangement of external and internal systems. They consist of two stainless steel pipes and a basalt or mineral wool insulation between them. Double-circuit elements are distinguished by a large range of cross-sections (from 100 to 1000 mm) and a high level of fire resistance, which is the reason for their wide range of application.
Stainless steel double-circuit chimneys improve the operation of heating installations, increase their efficiency and make operation economical
- Corrugated pipes - flexible stainless steel hoses up to 10 m long. They are used in heating systems with low boiler efficiency, in old houses and to create smoke channels of non-standard geometry.
When using a corrugated pipe for arranging a chimney, a minimum of component elements will be required
By stainless steel grade
Condensation is the main cause of chimney damage. It is especially harmful for metal products. But the condensate itself is not so terrible as the sulfuric acid formed in it, which in the form of oxide settles on the walls of the chimney, reducing its permeability. Cleaning the channel, unfortunately, does not solve this problem for long. Therefore, when choosing pipes, among other characteristics, it is necessary to take into account the grade of steel from which they are made, as well as pay attention to the level of heat resistance and acid resistance - they must be high.
Condensate in the form of a tarry liquid under the influence of low temperatures settles on the inner surface of the chimney and, mixing with other combustion products, flows down the pipe, significantly narrowing the passage channel and causing metal oxidation
The most common steel grades for chimneys:
- AISI 310 is a heat-resistant steel with a high content of nickel and chromium, which allows it to perfectly resist oxidation. And scale formation occurs at a temperature of 1050 ºC. This brand of stainless steel is considered the most expensive and elite.
- AISI 304 is a non-magnetic low-carbon steel (no more than 0.08%) with a high density, but at the same time it is quite ductile. Withstands high temperature conditions, maintaining the structure even if the outer layer is disturbed. Good resistance to corrosion, alkalis and acids. In addition, it lends itself well to polishing, due to which it is often used in the design of housing.
- AISI 316 is a high temperature austenitic steel containing 15–20% chromium and at least 7% nickel. It is considered an improved version of AISI 304, easy to process, resistant to corrosion and acid, used for the manufacture of components for almost all types of chimneys.
- AISI 321 is a non-hardenable, austenitic, non-magnetic steel with an addition of titanium, characterized by high strength, durability and corrosion resistance.
- AISI Group 400 is a stainless steel with a balanced chemical composition, which provides it with excellent corrosion resistance. The know-how from this raw material is decorative stainless steel, which, after grinding, surface structuring and spraying, is widely used to decorate interiors and facades. This is a good answer to opponents of stainless steel to the myth about the inconsistency of such chimneys with architectural style.
Decorative stainless steel includes rolled metal with various degrees of surface treatment - oxidation, pickling, spraying, embossed finishing and color texturing using ColourTex technology
Video: how to save money on a stainless steel chimney
By the method of connecting pipes
The most common connection schemes for stainless pipes:
- Assembly of the exhaust duct "by smoke", where each next pipe is put on the previous one. This method reliably protects the interior from smoke, but does not solve the problem of condensate drainage, therefore good insulation is needed to prevent the insulation from getting wet and rotting. It is used if the system has a tee for condensate drainage.
Basically, they use the assembly of chimneys "by condensate", using the assembly "by smoke" only in sauna stoves and fireplaces
- Condensate assembly is a design in which the upper pipe is inserted into the lower one. In this case, the condensate flows down into the condensate trap from above, without harming the insulation, but there is a high probability of smoke penetration into the room, even if there is even a tiny gap. They use this technology in systems where there is no need for tees for condensate drainage.
When assembling a sandwich chimney, the narrowed end of one pipe is inserted into the hole of the other, due to which condensate is easily removed and soot hardly accumulates, especially if special tees are additionally installed
Incorrect assembly of chimney components, for example, installation of a smoke-free system without a tee, can result in serious consequences - the release of condensate and resins into the insulation of sandwiches or onto the surface of the chimney, which can lead to soot ignition and fire.
By purpose and wall thickness
Depending on the coolant, pipes are serially produced for:
- gas generators;
- solid fuel systems;
- diesel and universal (multi-fuel) units;
- fireplaces, sauna stoves.
In this case, the wall thickness of stainless steel pipes should be for:
- solid fuel equipment - from 1.0 mm or more;
- gas devices - not less than 0.5-0.6 mm;
- boilers or stoves for liquid fuel - 0.8 mm and more.
Here, special attention should be paid to calculating the height of the chimney.
The efficiency and long-term operation of heating devices depends on the correctly calculated height of the chimney.
It is regulated by normative acts - a set of rules numbered 7.13130.2009 and SNiP 41-01-2003 - regardless of the material of manufacture of pipes and component elements.
In addition to height, the diameter of the pipes, which is selected taking into account the type of heating equipment, its capacity, is of considerable importance for the smooth operation of the chimney system - the less the boiler's power, the smaller the section of the smoke channel will be needed - the type of building and its purpose, the size and configuration of the roof.
The section of the chimney is directly proportional to the dimensions of the furnace (a ratio of 1: 1.5 is used), while the diameter of the pipes should not be less than the diameter of the blower
Table: Chimney height in relation to the ridge of the roof in accordance with regulations
|Distance from chimney to roof ridge, m||Chimney head length, m|
|≤ 1,5||≥ 0.5 above the level of the ridge|
|from 1.5 to 3.0||flush with the skate|
|≥ 3,0||below the ridge so that the angle between the level of the ridge and the upper cut of the chimney is 10 degrees|
|When the building has a flat roof||≥ 0.5 above a line drawn at an angle of 45º from the highest point in the vicinity to the plane of the roof|
|The minimum length of the branch duct from the grate to the outlet should be at least 5.0 m for pitched roofs and 0.5 m for flat roofs.|
Video: which stainless steel to choose a chimney
Leading manufacturers of stainless chimneys
The choice when buying one or another chimney largely fluctuates between cost and quality. But it should be remembered that safety is above all, therefore, the issue of saving when arranging a chimney system is best considered last, and initially focus on the products of trusted manufacturers, including:
- PP "Vulkan" is a leader in the Russian market, producing modular stainless steel flue systems of the same name since 1996, recognized as the best thanks to a large guarantee (up to 50 years) and a combination with boilers of world brands.
- LLC "Vent Ustriy" is an association whose chimneys are made on the basis of GOST 3262-75, they are used for any heating equipment, do not take up much space and are easy to install.
- Vesuvius is a company whose products are characterized by compactness, elementary design, ease of assembly and lower price.
- Enterprises "Baltvent", "Rosinox", "Kraft", "Termofor", "Elits", as well as "Ferrum", "Etalon", "Sphere", "Teplodar" and "Phoenix".
Products from reliable manufacturers will help to assemble a high-quality and durable chimney, which, after installation, will not need maintenance work for many years
Video: chimneys of popular brands - assembly
Installation and installation of a stainless steel chimney
Knowing the principles and installation schemes, having on hand a full set of parts, any homeowner can independently assemble and install a stainless steel chimney. And the costs of the arrangement, despite the considerable price of the components, will be much lower.
Thanks to a large assortment of fittings, you can assemble any required configuration of a stainless steel chimney
Before installation, it is necessary to carry out the appropriate calculations and approvals with the technical supervision service:
- choose the right cross-section of pipes and forming parts;
- adhere to the standards governing the minimum permissible length of the chimney duct and its rise above the roof;
- provide that the horizontal sections are no more than 1 m long, and the total number of turns, regardless of the bending angle, is no more than three;
- insulate the external or internal (in a cold room) areas of the structure, if its component parts do not have their own thermal insulation;
Properly executed insulation of a stainless chimney, which does not have its own thermal insulation, is important from the point of view of fire safety and protection of the roof from leaks
- to equip the chimney with a spark arrester - a prerequisite for the passage of a stainless chimney through a roof made of combustible materials;
During operation, the chimney heats up to high temperatures and scatters sparks, to neutralize which a spark arrester is installed
- decide in advance on the junction of all structural elements, since joining in walls and ceilings is unacceptable - the smallest distance from the floor, walls and ceiling is 700 mm;
- pay attention to the gap (spacing) between the roofing and the pipe - at least 130 mm for non-combustible covering decks, from 200 mm (sandwiches) to 1000 mm (single-circuit) between pipes and combustible material.
On inclined and horizontal sections of the chimney, the pipes are connected "through the smoke" in order to ensure free movement of combustion products along the channel. On vertical sections - "by condensation", so that the resulting moisture does not penetrate into the insulation.
The chimney can be positioned in different ways based on the location of the boiler, the layout of the house, compliance with standards and expediency. There are three arrangement schemes:
The internal chimney does not require additional insulation, it has better draft and heat transfer
- outside the building on brackets;
When arranging an external chimney, the structure is usually assembled on the ground and the finished one is fixed with wall brackets evenly every 1.5-2 m
- outside the house on a special support console, which is now more common, since there is no need to create complex passages through the load-bearing floors and the roof.
If the external chimney is located on the side of the slopes, and the eaves overhang is less than 40 cm, then the chimney structure is placed in special support brackets
Video: chimney through the roof and along the wall - the pros and cons
Alloy steel chimney installation
When the scheme is thought out, the permission of the controlling services is received, which is mandatory, the necessary forming elements are purchased, then the assembly and installation of the system is not difficult. All modules of the future branch duct have adapted interface zones, due to which the installation of the chimney resembles the layout of a children's designer, where everything is simple and clear.
The possibility of long-term operation and durability of the entire heating system largely depends on the quality of the chimney assembly.
Installation work begins with a preparatory stage, which includes:
- chimney calculation;
- wall markings;
- drawing up a sketch;
- selection of the installation scheme;
- purchase of materials.
All further work depends on the location of the structure.
Installation of an internal chimney
You can assemble the internal chimney according to the following instructions:
- The sequential assembly of all parts of the structure begins from the heat generator, on which the adapter is put on, coated with sealant and secured with a clamp.
- Next, single-wall pipes and accessories are inserted until a channel is formed before reaching the roof. Pipes are packed to a depth equal to half of their outer diameter.
- When passing through the interfloor floors and the roof, nodes are formed from a homemade box or a finished structure. A sandwich pipe is brought out to the required height through the roofing pipe and a rat is put on it (an angular element commensurate with the slope of the slopes), a foxhole (decorative ring), a cone (prevents moisture from entering the insulation) and a cap (a cap on the pipe).
The passage of the chimney through the floors must be reliable, since the heated pipe walls are in close proximity to combustible materials
- The seams inside the chimney are treated with a high-temperature sealant, which will prevent a decrease in draft and the penetration of flue gases into the room. The processed modules will create a monolithic structure, therefore, internal sealing should be done only after the final adjustment of all components. If you plan to install a collapsible channel, then experts recommend using heat-resistant foam only at the joints.
Despite the fact that manufacturers guarantee the reliability of the module connections, for long-term operation of the heating system and fire safety, it is still necessary to use a special sealant for the chimney
- Single-circuit pipes are insulated and waterproofed at the junctions using sealant and special seals.
Seals are designed to seal openings in places where chimneys, ventilation and other pipes pass through the roof
Video: installation of a stainless steel chimney with removal to the roof
Installation of an external chimney
Installation of a chimney is possible outside the house. For this:
- The adapter is put on the boiler or furnace branch pipe, sealed and clamped with a clamp.
The branch pipe must be well sealed so that smoke does not enter the room
- Collect and mount the horizontal section, leading it out through the passage node in the wall. The principle of its arrangement is the same as for the passage through the ceiling and roof.
- Below the outlet of the horizontal part of the chimney, a bracket with a plate is attached to the wall, on which revisions and a condensate drain are installed.
The exit of the chimney through the wall must be strictly horizontal and no longer than 1 m, and all vertical structures must be clearly perpendicular
- The assembly of the vertical part of the branch duct is started, fixing it on the wall with brackets every 1.5-2 m. If the structure is heavy, then additional fastening is made at the junction of tees and branches.
- A cone, a head and a chimney are installed, which will protect the system from atmospheric precipitation.
Video: installation of a sandwich chimney, nuances and tips
Chimney passage through ceilings and roofs
With the internal arrangement of an alloy steel chimney, it is of great importance to correctly form the nodes of passage through the ceilings and the roof. Most manufacturers include in the assortment specially designed products for these purposes (master flush), which provide good waterproofing and the necessary gap between the chimney and the roofing.
The elasticity of the technologically advanced seal master flash allows you to create a tight junction of the chimney to the roofing
You can make a similar part from stainless steel, for example, in the form of a simple box with a hole in the center for the passage of the pipe and walls equal in height to the required gap, you can independently:
- First, a hole is cut out between the rafters, in the floor or wall, and its edges are additionally strengthened.
- Then two blanks are cut out of sheet metal 5 cm larger than the hole made. Bend the edges at a right angle by 5 cm. It turns out two U-shaped fragments, which are fixed with self-tapping screws on both sides of the hole.
- Similarly, two more blanks are made and installed in the hole with an overlap with the first, so that a continuous edging of the passage is formed.
- The bottom is made according to the size of the hole, a circle is cut out in the center for the passage of the pipe and the structure is fixed in the box.
The place of passage of the chimney duct through ceilings, walls or roofs must be closed with a protective box for safety, first filling the empty space with basalt fiber or other heat insulator
The box is installed and fixed in the thickness of the floors, and the space around is filled with expanded clay or basalt wool. Then the lower and upper holes are closed with decorative plates.
A slightly different approach to the design of the passage of the pipe through the roof. Here it should be borne in mind that:
- on pitched roofs, even with a slight slope, the hole for the pipe will not be round, but elliptical or rectangular;
- the smoke duct must pass through the roof structures approximately centrally between the rafters and the ceiling beams;
- immediately after the pipe is withdrawn, it is necessary to provide for the restoration of thermal insulation and waterproofing of the passage unit in order to prevent heat loss and the penetration of atmospheric precipitation into the under-roof space;
- it will not be superfluous to put on a crimp skirt on the chimney to seal the joint with the roof, and install an umbrella head on top, if this is not prohibited by the rules, and a spark arrester, if necessary.
The passage of the pipe through the roof must be carried out in accordance with the regulations in force in order to ensure the safe operation of the heating system and not to impair the functionality of the roof structure.
Video: do-it-yourself chimney box
Sealing and insulation of stainless steel chimney
Correct installation without good sealing does not guarantee the stable functioning of the chimney and safety.
Steel chimney sealants differ in:
- based - silicate or silicone;
- temperature parameters - heat-resistant;
- composition - one- or two-component.
In addition to liquid sealants, there are also other convenient and reliable sealants. In particular, hot glue with waterproofing adhesion properties or thermal tape is a self-shrinking sealant that shrinks under the influence of temperature and tightly covers the joint.
When choosing a suitable composition, you need to navigate:
- on the type of generator (stove, boiler, fireplace), heating temperature and operating conditions;
- where exactly the sealant will be used - passage nodes, connection of pipes with structural elements;
- on the recommendations of manufacturers - it is not advisable to use acidic mixtures for stainless steel, solid sealants are good for sealing cracks, and elastic sealants are good for hard-to-reach areas and joints most susceptible to thermal deformation.
Video: chimney sealants - choosing the right one
How to properly seal
The sealing technology is as follows:
- Before starting work, cut off the tip obliquely so that a hole is obtained equal in diameter to the future seam.
- The surface is cleaned and degreased, and then, using a construction gun, the sealant is evenly applied to the desired sections of the chimney.
- Leave for a day to dry completely, after which the boiler is melted to check the quality of the seal.
When working with sealants, you need to follow simple rules, namely, do not use the compounds at temperatures below +5 ºC and work with gloves, and in case of contact with the skin, rinse immediately with running water.
For better protection against moisture, the stainless steel chimney is sealed by processing the joints with a special compound that can withstand temperatures of 100 ° C and more, which should be taken into account when choosing a sealant
The key parts of the structure, for example, passages and connecting seams, should be especially carefully sealed, since the effectiveness of the entire heating system and the durability of the roof depend on the high-quality insulation of these places.
The main reason for the thermal insulation of chimneys is the displacement of the dew point (the place of condensation formation) in structures without insulation. Its location in the chimney depends on the temperature of the exhaust gases - the higher the temperature, the higher it is, which means that the heating system will be more reliable and durable.
Naturally, in non-insulated chimneys, especially those located outside, the flue gases cool faster, which leads to a movement of the dew point down the pipe and abundant condensation. Insulation will help to raise it to a reasonable limit, ideally outside the chimney, but this practically does not happen.
Insulation of chimneys will reduce the release of condensate by shifting the dew point to the outside, which will have a beneficial effect on the operation of the entire heating system
The simplest insulation of a single-wall stainless pipe:
- Wrap all the forming elements of the area to be insulated with mats made of kaolin or basalt wool.
For self-insulation of a chimney stainless pipe, an insulator is usually used, which is easy to fix alone, not forgetting about its moisture resistance
- Fix the material with steel wire or asbestos cord.
- Put on a case on top to protect the heat-insulating material and fasten it at the joints with self-tapping screws or rivets.
Before insulating a stainless steel chimney, you need to check the reliability of the connection of all components and the quality of the sealing, since the heat-insulating layer is not able to protect the wooden elements of the roofing structure from fire.
It is possible to insulate a stainless steel chimney with a coolant temperature of up to + 400ºC with finished products - cylinders made of dense basalt fiber, lined with aluminum foil, fiberglass or fiberglass. They are available in various thicknesses and diameters, and have cuts on the inside and outside for easy coverage.
All mineral wool cylinders comply with a single state standard, but at the same time differ from each other in density, thermal conductivity, vapor permeability, as well as in the presence or absence of a foil coating
When choosing, you need to consider:
- Exhaust gas temperature. The higher it is, the less the stainless pipe needs to be insulated, but at the same time the heat insulator must be fireproof and heat-resistant.
- Chimney location. External or internal. In the first case, the pipe along the wall of the house warms up longer, therefore, more moisture is released during this time, which is why such areas especially need high-quality thermal insulation.
- Manufacturing material. For stainless steel, the best option is mineral wool heat insulators based on basalt rocks.
The weight of the insulating layer should not exceed the bearing capacity of the supporting devices and the main structural systems of the house, so as not to disturb them.
Video: thermal insulation for the chimney
Care and maintenance of a stainless steel chimney
In order for the steel chimney to function properly during the heating season, it is necessary:
- before the first ignition of the stove, check for debris or foreign objects in the smoke channel, push the blockage to the next revision, then close the hatches, brush the chimney with a brush, removing soot, and then clean the revision tanks;
- do not burn household waste in ovens;
- for solid fuel heat generators, do not use coniferous trees containing resins, but sometimes heat with aspen wood, which gives a high flame that can burn out soot in the pipe.
In addition, you need to periodically inspect the roof for the formation of rust around the chimney, which tends to spread and is capable of affecting even stainless steel chimneys.
Rust affects pipes made of poor quality material
Therefore, if it appears, you need to find out the cause and take appropriate measures:
- Free up space around the pipe and dismantle the problem area if necessary.
- Clean the work surface, sand and degrease.
- Close up small holes and cracks.
- If possible, rinse with water and dry.
- Fill the cracks around the pipe with a suitable sealant and put a silicone nozzle on the pipe, securing it with self-tapping screws.
Errors in the arrangement of the chimney can lead to significant negative consequences, for example, to the formation of rust on the metal roof
Chimneys made of stainless steel are a new generation of products that have successfully replaced bulky traditional chimney designs that cause a lot of trouble. They are reliable and durable. In addition, they are distinguished by a beautiful and stylish appearance, especially the latest innovative models with colored powder coating. It is much easier to assemble and install them than, for example, asbestos-cement or brick with a ceramic insert, and the cost is significantly less. Therefore, stainless steel chimneys are much more popular than their counterparts.
A wall-mounted fireplace is installed next to a wall or partition. It can be frontal or angled. The chimney of such a fireplace is usually attached to a fireproof wall or joins the chimney of the stove (if any). A wall-mounted fireplace is built both in a new and in an existing house. It can have many finishes: brick, artificial and natural stone, ceramic tiles.
Such a fireplace takes up a lot of usable space, and in small rooms it is not very convenient to use a wall-mounted version.
Island fireplaces are freely located in the room and are open from all sides.These fireplaces come in various shapes and sizes, they look very impressive and, moreover, the heat from them goes in all directions. Chromed or brushed metal and glass are very often present in the decoration of island fireplaces.
Island fireplaces take up a lot of space and require special fire safety measures.
Built-in fireplaces are built during the construction phase of a house, since this type of fireplace is installed in a wall opening. The firewall of such a fireplace can have not only a classic rectangular shape, but also round and triangular. Sometimes the fireplace is built into the partition and made two-sided. Facing along the contour of the furnace screen is not always performed, therefore the fire "in the wall" looks very mysterious and unusual. You can make a wooden frame around it, then you will get a “picture with living fire”. Built-in fireplaces are widespread due to their main advantage - they do not take up a lot of usable space, which means they can be installed even in small rooms.
If you are planning (or just starting) building your own home, then our article will help you correctly design a built-in fireplace.
Roof gutters: advantages and disadvantages
The design of the system depends on the type of roof and your own wishes in the location of the drainage points. They are divided into three groups, according to the material from which they are made: galvanized iron, steel coated with a polymer layer, PVC gutters. For utility and secondary buildings, roof gutters can be made from unnecessary building materials that were previously used. Let's consider these groups in more detail.
Due to the low cost and ubiquity of galvanized iron, DIY installation of roof gutters from this material is most common. Galvanized steel is easy to cut, bend and very easy to adjust to the desired configuration.
- The best ratio of weight to strength (7-8 g / cm 2 at ultimate strength up to 500 MPa)
- Insensitive to solar radiation, extremes and temperature extremes
- Simple installation of the drainage system, available even to an unskilled performer
- Lowest price.
- The fragility of the coating
- Rapid loss of aesthetic appearance
- Poor sound-absorbing qualities
- Slight rigidity, leading to depressurization of joints and joints.
Color coated steel
Do-it-yourself metal plums with a polymer coating for the roof have significantly better operational parameters than galvanized ones.
- High strength and rigidity of elements
- Increased resistance to all atmospheric factors
- Longer service life comparable to that of a metal roof
- Improved anti-noise parameters
- Large assortment of elements
- Developed system of fasteners, connections and locks
- The ability to choose a color to match the tone of the roof.
- Relatively high cost
- Do-it-yourself drainage system covered with paint, sensitive to mechanical damage
- Steel drain from the roof for water, it is made by hand, or factory-made - it has a lot of weight
- Elements of drainage systems from different manufacturers do not fit well.
PVC drainage systems
Polymer gutters have combined the best qualities of their metal predecessors.
Plastic roof gutters
- High rigidity and strength
- Long service life
- Resistance to mechanical stress and damage
- Aesthetic qualities
- Excellent anti-noise performance
- Installing drains on the roof with your own hands is not difficult
- A large number of connectors, elbows, tees, adapters and other fittings.
The only drawback is more stringent requirements for installation technology than other types.
On outbuildings, secondary and temporary buildings, in order to save money, homemade elements can be used to build a drainage system. If you have basic skills in working with tin, the gutters can be bent out of suitable metal waste. Pieces of rebar, scrap metal, rejected brackets and other suitable waste can be used as fastening brackets.
Do-it-yourself roof gutters
When deciding how to make roof gutters with your own hands, pay attention to construction waste. A very interesting version of the gutter is a PVC sewer pipe cut along the length. Cuts of such pipes can be collected for a song or for nothing on the construction of multi-storey buildings. In terms of mechanical parameters, such plastic roof gutters are no worse than branded ones, although they are naturally inferior to them in aesthetic terms.
What materials should be made of exhaust pipes
With a wide variety of materials, only a few types can be used for the operation of the chimney. The main ones are:
The most popular are pipes made of bricks. They are able to withstand very high temperatures. Its maximum reaches 1000 degrees. Today, on the roof of modern expensive cottages, you can see the original pipe made of Eurobrick. However, upon closer examination, you will notice that pipes inserted inside are visible from the brick chimney. They can be made of steel or ceramic. The explanation is very simple. One brick is not good for normal work. In other words, it will work, but not for very long. It will be quickly destroyed by corrosive condensation. Therefore, an insert is inserted into the brick pipe. Free cavities are filled with insulating material.
Sandwich pipes made of ceramics are able to withstand very high temperatures. It can exceed 1200 degrees. This value is much higher than the maximum smoke temperature after coal combustion.
Such a pipe is not afraid of condensation and any atmospheric phenomena. Condensate drainage takes place through a special cream hole. Sometimes for this, an additional container is made under the end of the watering can. The ceramic chimney is installed on the facade or inside the building.
The Schiedel Uni chimney, if soot ignites, is able to cope with this thermal stress. When burning, the soot heats up to a temperature of 1100 - 1200 degrees.
Disadvantages of ceramics
They do not differ in their beautiful appearance. Their cost is much higher than their steel counterparts. Installation of such pipes requires construction skills and experience. These pipes remain popular with low-income consumers.
For its manufacture, ordinary steel or stainless steel is used. Unfortunately, steel chimneys cannot withstand
aggressive environment. When the boiler runs continuously, the pipe will become unusable in a very short time, it can cause a fire.
The used stainless steel contains special additives consisting of several chemical elements
It is they who save the stainless steel from corrosion. For installation
boilers use the following steel grades:
- 316 L.
They contain substances that allow steel to withstand temperatures in the range of 700 - 800 degrees. These steel grades are not afraid of condensation, they are neutral to acids, do not react with other aggressive substances.
The cost of a chimney made of stainless steel is available to the average buyer. It is considered the most suitable for installation in a solid fuel boiler.
Very rare. Its positive qualities include:
- Low thermal inertness.
- Corrosion never occurs.
- Original look.
The cost of such a design is very high. Therefore, it is very rare. In addition, its installation is very laborious and costs a lot of money.
Recommendations for the installation of sandwich pipes for chimneys
When installing a stainless steel sandwich chimney, you should adhere to the following recommendations:
- when installing a sandwich chimney, it must be remembered that the structure should not have horizontal pipe sections longer than 1 m
- it is necessary to exclude contact of the flue duct with electrical wiring, pipeline, gas appliances
- the installation of the chimney through the wall is accompanied by the installation of insulated pipes in these places
- when assembling a sandwich pipes for a chimney with your own hands, it is necessary to provide an inspection window for maintenance and cleaning from soot.
You can install a chimney from a sandwich pipe yourself
How to properly install a chimney from a sandwich pipe? Before installing the structure, you need to know how to calculate the diameter of the chimney and its total length. The section of the pipe is selected depending on what kind of gas equipment it will be used with: the more powerful the device, the larger the diameter you need to choose. The diameter value is indicated in the technical documentation for the device.
Another important size of a chimney sandwich pipe is its overall length. The length of the structure should not be less than 5 m.If the chimney involves a slope, elbows from 20 to 90 degrees are used for its device. The length of the outer part of the pipe must be such that it exceeds the level of the roof ridge by at least 0.5 m, if it is 1.5 m from it to the ridge.In the case when the chimney is 3 m away from the ridge, the length of the pipe can be even with him.
Sandwich chimneys made of stainless steel: prices for pipes and accessories
Prices in stores. Chimney production. Chimney sizes. Recommendations for selection and installation. Where to buy chimney pipes.
Before assembling a chimney from a sandwich pipe, you should familiarize yourself with the key assembly steps. You can get a visual idea of the installation by watching a video of the assembly of a chimney sandwich on the Internet. Basic installation rules:
- the inner pipes of the sandwich structure are joined by the upper contour of the pipe to the lower one, and the outer ones are vice versa. On the one hand, this ensures unobstructed smoke extraction, on the other hand, it protects the system from moisture
- docking points, areas where the pipe joins the equipment, as well as the places where the chimney passes through the roof are fixed with clamps
- to improve the strength of the connection, the joint seams are treated with a heat-resistant sealant
- for maintenance of the chimney, a tee is built into the structure for revision, for moisture removal - a condensate collector
- the outer section of the pipe is equipped with a cap to prevent foreign objects from entering the channel.
Features of installing a chimney from a sandwich pipes through the wall
When installing a chimney through a wall, you must follow the basic rules and requirements for the installation of chimney ducts. However, there are some nuances that must be taken into account when removing the chimney through the wall. If the first link of the chimney is planned to be displayed horizontally into the wall, it is necessary to make a slight bias from the device. This will prevent condensate from getting inside the boiler.
How to install a chimney through a wall? There are two ways: you can raise the duct to the ceiling and bring it outside at this level, or make a place for the chimney to exit through the wall at the level of the inlet pipe of the gas appliance. From the point of view of ease of installation and the use of fittings, the second method is more preferable, since it has one swivel elbow.
The procedure for performing work on the installation of a chimney through the wall:
- We punch a hole in the wall where the pipe will pass. Its dimensions must be such that the SNiP requirement is met: the distance from the outer surface of the pipe to the wall is from 0.5 m.To reduce the distance to 0.38 m, the hole is sheathed with sheet metal or a finished metal box is inserted into it
- a sandwich pipe for a stainless steel chimney is inserted into the finished hole so that the joints do not fall into the passage unit. The pipe is fixed, and the space between the box and the channel is filled with heat-resistant insulation
- the length of the horizontal section should not exceed 1 m
- the hole in the wall is closed with decorative overlays, which are sold complete with pipes
- from the outside of the wall we fix the holding bracket and the swivel unit under the withdrawn channel
- we fasten the vertical section of the pipe to the wall in such a way that the step between the fasteners is at least 2 m apart.
Helpful advice! It is strictly forbidden to insert ordinary single-circuit pipes between the sandwich pipes. The entire system must be made up of identical pipes.
If the height of the outer part of the pipe is more than one and a half meters, it is additionally strengthened with wire ties
Installation of a chimney from a sandwich pipe through the roof
Before installing the chimney from the sandwich pipes through the roof, it is necessary to correctly plan the outlet. The fact is that given the configuration of the roof structure, it is not possible to draw the chimney through the roof in all places. These include:
- Endowy, where a lot of precipitation accumulates and it is difficult to provide waterproofing.
- Places in the immediate vicinity of roof windows.
- Opposite the windows of neighboring buildings.
Before installing the chimney through the roof, you should also consider the location of the floor beams and rafters. The channel must be located between these elements. To move the chimney line, you can use two pivoting bends at 45 degrees. The sequence of work on the passage through the roof of the chimney sandwich:
- a hole is made in the ceiling in accordance with existing regulations
- the ends of the hole are protected with a material that does not lend itself to combustion
- a pipe is inserted vertically into the formed box. It is worth noting that the chimney cannot be rigidly fixed, it must move freely up and down, since its length will change when heated
- the space between the pipe and the box is filled with basalt-based cotton wool, after having sewn up the entry point with a metal sheet. Mineral wool cardboard is laid in the space between the screen and the ceiling. It is possible to simplify the organization of the passage for the chimney through the roof and ceiling if you purchase a ready-made ceiling passage unit consisting of a factory box and a decorative stainless steel screen
- for the passage of the chimney through the ceiling, arrange a hole in the roofing cake. The layers of the cake are cut crosswise so that they can be folded over and secured with staples. A hole in the crate is made so that the distance from the edge of the passage to the surface of the pipe on all sides is at least 13 cm
- all the resulting ends of the hole are covered with fiber cement slabs - minerite.
When arranging the passage of a chimney through a roof made of metal or other roofing, a special universal master-flash seal is used. Its purpose is high-quality sealing of the site when the chimney passes through the metal tile. The skirt of the roof seal is shaped into a roofing material, after which it is fixed to the surface. The joint lines of the sealant with the pipe and the roof surface are treated with a heat-resistant sealant.
Chimney heat exchanger options
To use the heat generated as a result of the removal of combustion products, a special device is used - a heat exchanger for the chimney pipe. There are various options for such devices, among which there are the most relevant:
- Air heat exchanger - the principle of operation of such a device is identical to that of a convector.Cold air enters the heat exchanger through the inlet pipe, after which the heated stream exits through the holes at the top of the device. As a result, additional heating of the room occurs. With a certain set of tools and skills, you can make an air heat exchanger yourself.
- Coil-type design - flexible and corrosion-resistant copper or aluminum pipes are used for such a device. They are bent to obtain the required shape; at the end sections of the pipe, threads are made to connect to the expansion tank. For safety and to improve heat transfer, it is recommended to protect the pipes with a special casing. The principle of operation of such a heat exchanger is the natural circulation of water. It is easy to mount it yourself, however, it is necessary to make weight calculations that take into account the properties of the liquid when heated to expand. The disadvantages of such a system include a decrease in the temperature of the carbon monoxide output, which can negatively affect the traction and combustion of fuel.
- A container with water - for the device of such a device, you will need copper pipes and a metal container with a capacity of about 20 liters. The container can be made independently from sheet steel. Holes are made at the bottom and top points of the tank. A tap is cut into the lower outlet of the tank to drain the water.
- Corrugated device - for the manufacture of such a heat exchanger, three corrugated pipes are used, with which the chimney duct is wrapped in the place of its passage through the attic floor. The surface of the chimney gives off heat to the corrugation, and the heated flow from it is directed to the room that needs to be heated. The operation of this heat exchanger reduces the chimney temperature, thereby providing fire protection.
Varieties of pipes and steel grades for chimneys
A sandwich system is considered a universal chimney system, which is produced with ready-made thermal insulation. They are easy to assemble with your own hands inside and outside the building. "Sandwich" is a double stainless steel chimney with a layer of basalt wool.
A corrugated pipe for an internal building heating system or a stand-alone fireplace is the optimal solution for installing a curved chimney inside a building. They are also widely used for ventilation and extraction, although they are quite heat-resistant and durable.
A steel chimney made in 1 layer is used only for the lower part of the fireplace, chimney inside a building or a seasonal boiler room - summer cottages or saunas that are not used in winter.
Stainless steel grades used in chimneys:
- 316 - metal enriched with nickel and molybdenum, heat-resistant, non-oxidizing, used in solid fuel boilers, gas and fuel oil
- 304 - has similar characteristics, with a lower content of other components, strong and resistant to corrosion
- 310S - high temperature resistance
- 316i, 321 - versatile alloys with sufficient ductility and resistance to acid fumes
- 409 - ordinary steel for chimneys from solid fuel boilers
- 430 - goes to the outer parts of the "sandwich".
Stainless Steel Railing Hardware
Railing accessories have a special place on the market for various staircase designs. With such fittings, it becomes safer, more convenient to use, more aesthetically pleasing, individuality, harmony is acquired, the interior turns out to be stylish. With the help of such little things, the staircase gets a complete image.
Such fittings are durable, easy to install, and resistant to the influence of various factors. It creates not only "beauty", but also provides reliable structural strength, can be used outdoors.
The accessories are presented in several groups, such as elements for decoration, connections of elements, fasteners. When installing decorative stoppers for stairs, a classically strict look is given, fastening holes are hidden. They are installed in accordance with regulatory requirements for safety.
Components are represented by a variety of assortments. With the help of fasteners, reliability and safety are acquired when people use the stairs, colossal loads are withstood.
Roof protection box installation
The chimney passes through an unheated attic and rises more than half a meter above the ridge of the pitched roof. To prevent the exhaust gases from cooling and condensing on the inner surface of the pipe (the temperature of the smoke at the exit from the fireplace is 200-400 ° C, the dew point is 44-62 ° C), the chimney is insulated with non-combustible thermal insulation.
1, 2. Mount the aluminum frame of the protective chimney box
3. Install a waterproofing envelope covering the junction of the waterproofing film and the chimney duct
4, 5. The chimney is taken out. The pipes are wrapped with rolled basalt wool Rockwool Wired Mat 80
6. The protective box is filled with Rockwool basalt wool
7. The aluminum frame of the chimney is sheathed with a profiled sheet of roofing steel with a polymer coating to match the color of the roof
8. A special weather vane is installed on the chimney pipes and the top of the shaft
9. In the attic, the box is additionally sheathed with profiled sheet
10. An umbrella is mounted above the mine. Protective nets are attached.
Please note that an open firebox requires increased attention for fire safety purposes, a lit fireplace must not be left unattended
Calculations of the cost of work (if you do not do it yourself but hire a team) and the prices of building materials