Planting Chinese cabbage: seeds, seedlings, cabbage stumps
Peking cabbage was widespread in Asian countries until the 70s of the last century. Now, after breeding early ripening and fruitful hybrids, its cultivation is experiencing an unprecedented rise. Beijing is actively cultivated, both on an industrial scale and in private gardens. This unpretentious plant grows well, quickly. Taking into account the peculiarities of the culture, two harvests can be obtained per season. It is important to know the little secrets and problems of the vegetable, and keep them in mind when planting and growing.
Features of Chinese cabbage and the main methods of sowing it
Peking cabbage, like other members of the cabbage family, is a long-day plant. This means that for fruiting (seed ripening), the culture needs a light day longer than 13 hours. If its duration is 12 hours or less, then the plant will not be concentrated on reproduction, but the growth of leaves and ovaries will be active.
If, when growing Chinese cabbage, all the work was carried out according to the rules, then the harvest will be early and rich.
Since Peking cabbage is primarily grown for the sake of leaves and heads of cabbage, this feature of the culture should be taken into account when choosing a cultivation and sowing method. There are two main ways of growing Peking:
Note! Not everyone knows that by buying a head of Peking cabbage in a store, you can not only eat it, but also grow a new plant out of it.
Seeds, seedlings and cabbage stumps can be planted both in open ground and in protected. Let's look at all the methods and rules for sowing a culture, let's talk about their features and advantages.
What kind of soil does Peking cabbage like?
When preparing the soil for growing a vegetable, you need to take into account the following preferences:
- neutral soil acidity. Therefore, during the autumn digging of a site, the land must be calcareous, add dolomite flour or fluff lime into it;
- good breathability and looseness;
- fertility. When preparing the soil for each square. meter you need to make a bucket of humus. It is recommended to add wood ash just before planting.
Important! Fertilizers for plant nutrition must be applied before planting. Peking cabbage has the ability to accumulate nitrates, therefore, it is not recommended to use mineral fertilizers for its cultivation.
The introduction of humus significantly improves the quality of the soil cover on the site
If we talk about the type of soil, then loam is the most suitable for growing Peking. When choosing a site, be sure to take into account the height of the groundwater table. With a lot of moisture, the roots of the plant can rot. In addition, the soil, under the influence of moisture, will intensely supercool or overheat, which is very undesirable for the culture.
For growing seedlings, loose soil is used. Preference can be given to coconut substrate, in which selected and healthy seedlings of Peking cabbage grow. It is advisable to mix the substrate with humus in a 2: 1 ratio. To improve the nutritional value of the mixture and its liming, a glass of ash is added to the bucket of soil mixture.
The composition of the coconut substrate includes dried and crushed remnants of the surface of the coconut, which give the mixture looseness, air permeability, and have a drainage effect
Note! A comfortable soil can be obtained by mixing turf with peat (1: 1). The mixture will be loose and nutritious.
To obtain high-quality greens and heads of Peking cabbage, you need a short daylight hours, so the best time to plant a crop is early spring (second decade of April) and the last months of summer. Sowing a crop within the specified time frame will help to avoid the main problem - plant shooting.
Peking cabbage is one of the early ripening vegetables, but it also has varieties with early (40–55 days), medium (55–60 days) and late (60–80 days) ripening periods. When determining the time of planting a crop, it is necessary to take into account the features of the selected variety: early varieties are preferred for spring sowing, and late varieties for autumn sowing.
Helpful information! New varieties of Peking cabbage of the Dutch selection are resistant to shooting.
To get an early harvest, you must opt for a seedling growing method. Seeds for seedlings are planted 25-30 days before the possible dates of planting in open ground or a greenhouse, that is, in mid-March to get early heads of cabbage or after June 15 for the autumn harvest in the open ground. For the subsequent planting of seedlings in a greenhouse, sowing seeds for seedlings can be organized even earlier - in mid-February, in order to plant seedlings in the ground in the second half of March.
With a seedless growing method, the first sowing of seeds can be carried out in well-heated soil. For the middle lane, this is the end of April or the beginning of May, and the second sowing is organized from 20 July to 10 August.
Video: about the timing of planting Beijing cabbage
Peking cabbage seeds do not need special pre-sowing treatment. They can be immediately planted in the ground. In the event that you are unsure of the quality of the seeds, they can be tested for germination. For this, the seeds are spread between layers of moistened cloth, gauze and placed in a warm place. If the seed is of high quality, then after 3-4 days sprouts will begin to appear. Such seeds can be immediately planted in prepared containers.
Note! If necessary, you can carry out antifungal prophylactic treatment of seeds. To do this, they are kept for 15 minutes in hot water (+ 48-50 degrees), and then placed in cold water for 2 minutes. Seeds treated in this way should be dried before planting.
When using self-collected seeds, they should be carefully sorted out and sorted
When choosing a seedling method of growing, it is necessary to take into account that Peking cabbage does not like transplants, therefore, when choosing containers, it is recommended to stay on peat pots or cassettes. This container can be planted together with the plant in the ground, thus it will be possible to avoid the slightest damage to the root system, and the plant will go into active growth faster.
Step-by-step process of sowing seeds for seedlings:
- The selected landing container is filled with prepared soil.
- A small depression is made in the center, into which from one to three seeds are lowered.
- Sprinkle the seeds with soil mixture with a layer of 0.5 to 1 cm.
In each pot with a nutritious and loose soil mixture, 2-3 seeds are sealed
- Watering is carried out.
- The pots are placed in a warm, dark place. Provided quality seeds, seedlings will appear quickly - in 2-3 days.
- After the sprouts appear, the containers must be placed in a bright, cool (with a temperature of about +10 degrees) room.
Peking cabbage seedlings are demanding on light
- Watering is carried out with settled water at room temperature as the soil dries up.
- After each watering, the soil must be loosened carefully.
- As soon as real leaves appear, pluck out weak plants in each pot (pulling out from the ground can lead to injury to the root system of the main seedling) weak plants and leave one strong seedling.
When 2-3 true leaves appear in the pot, one of the strongest sprout is left, the rest must be plucked
Sowing seeds in the ground
Spring sowing of seeds directly into the ground can be carried out in the southern regions. In the middle climatic zone, favorable weather for sowing will come only by May, and with this period, the growing season will fall on a long daylight hours, and it will be difficult to avoid shooting the plant. If a seedless growing method is possible, preferably narrow ridges are prepared and seeds are planted in them in the following ways:
- Ribbon-line, which provides for wide distances between the ribbons (about 50 cm) and narrower between the lines (about 30 cm). Sowing seeds is carried out densely, since thinning will be carried out in the future.
- Group planting in holes, which are done at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other. 2-3 seeds are dipped into each hole.
Before sowing, it is recommended to mix the seeds of Peking cabbage with sand, and moisten the soil in the grooves.
Peking seeds are recommended to be buried no more than 2 cm. After covering the seeds with the soil of the ridge, it is worth pollinating with wood ash. This is an effective way to protect future seedlings from cruciferous fleas. Seedlings will appear 4-7 days after sowing.
As soon as 1–2 true leaves are formed on them, the first thinning is carried out. When choosing a ribbon-line growing method, first about 10 cm is left between the plants, and when closing, a second thinning is carried out and the plants are left at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other. When planting in the holes, immediately after the appearance of real leaves, one seedling is left in each hole, and the rest are plucked out.
You need to thin out the shoots after the second leaf grows, removing the weakest plants from the group
Planting seedlings in open ground
Peking cabbage seedlings can be planted in open ground at the age of 3 weeks, provided that by this time the seedlings will have at least 5 true leaves. It is recommended to harden the seedlings before planting. About a week before planting, they begin to take it out into the fresh air: first for several hours, gradually increasing the residence time. 2-3 days before planting, watering of seedlings is stopped and the plants are watered only at the time of transplanting into the ground.
For seedlings, holes are prepared at a distance of 25–30 cm from each other, fertilized with humus and ash, and moistened. If necessary, the seedlings are carefully removed from the planting container and placed in the hole so that all the leaves are above the ground.
Peking cabbage seedlings are very delicate and fragile, so they should be planted carefully.
After planting, it is advisable to cover the seedlings with a film or spunbond in order to:
- protect seedlings from lower night temperatures;
- shade from the sun;
- protect the roots from excessive moisture during the rainy period;
- protect seedlings from pests.
Covering the beds with foil or agrofibre will create additional protection for seedlings from pests and weather disasters
Video: planting Chinese cabbage seedlings in open ground
Features of planting cabbage in protected ground
A vegetable will feel great in a greenhouse if you can create a comfortable temperature (no higher than +20 degrees) and humidity (around 70-80%) for it. The process of planting seeds or seedlings of Peking in a greenhouse does not differ from the process of planting in open ground. The only difference is the landing time, which we talked about above.
Note! Planting Chinese cabbage in greenhouses will allow you to harvest the vegetable several weeks earlier than in the open field.
Video: autumn sowing of Peking cabbage in a greenhouse
How to plant cabbage stalk
Peking cabbage is so cheerful that it can delight with the harvest even from its own stump. Moreover, the technology for obtaining such a crop is very simple. To plant the stump, you need to prepare:
- a deep container in which the bottom of a head of Peking cabbage will fit;
- nutritious, loose soil. It can be a mixture of turf land with peat or sand in equal proportions;
- a pot for planting, which in size will slightly exceed the bottom of the head of cabbage;
- dark package;
- sharp knife;
- the head of cabbage itself.
For growing green mass of leaves, the bottom of almost any dense head of Peking cabbage is suitable.
Note! On the selected head of cabbage, there should be no signs of disease: spots, specks and other symptoms of future decay.
The planting process consists of the following steps:
- We separate the bottom of the head of cabbage. The cut piece should be at least 6 cm. This is the starting material for growing greens and the future head of cabbage.
- We fill the container with water and place the lower part of the stump in it.
Only the bottom of the stump should be immersed in the water.
- We place the vessel in a cool room. The high temperature will inhibit the growth of the stump. The best place for her is a windowsill facing the north side or a closed balcony if the temperature is above zero.
Literally in a day or two, roots will appear at the bottom of the bottom, followed by green leaves. They can be plucked almost immediately and eaten.
Important! The planted stalk quickly releases a flower arrow. It must be removed without fail. If allowed to develop, the greens will become rough and tasteless.
For growing greens, the stump can be left in a container with water. If you want to grow a head of cabbage, then the bottom with the roots that appear is transplanted into a container with soil. This is done carefully, since the roots of Peking cabbage are tender and brittle. Therefore, the stump with roots is first placed in a container, and then sprinkled with earth in such a way that only the roots are covered with soil mixture, and the entire upper part of the stump is above the ground.
After about a week, after the appearance of a sufficient number of roots, the stump can be planted in the prepared soil mixture
Note! When growing in a pot, it is not always possible to achieve a good result. A greater percentage of the guarantee of obtaining a head of cabbage is given by transplanting the cabbage stump into the open ground.
For some time, the planted plant is not watered and watering is resumed after it begins to release new green leaves. The growing stalk can be artificially shortened daylight hours. For this, it is recommended to cover the plant with a dark bag for 12-13 hours a day.
Important! Provided that the daylight hours are short and the temperature regime is observed (no higher than +18 degrees), in 40-45 days you can get a head of Peking cabbage. Most likely, it will not be very dense, but by weight it can reach 1 kg.
You can also plant Peking cabbage from a stalk for the purpose of obtaining seeds. For this, the flower arrow that the plant releases is not broken off, but allowed to ripen. After a while, it will be possible to collect the seeds and use them for planting in the garden.
Seeds can be allowed to ripen and then sown in open ground or greenhouse.
Video: growing Peking cabbage from a stalk on a windowsill
Peking cabbage compatibility with other garden crops
Experienced gardeners know that with permanent cultivation or the rapid return of a garden crop to its old place, the soil is depleted, pathogens and pests accumulate in it. Therefore, when planting all vegetables, including Chinese cabbage, it is important to follow the rules of crop rotation, to take into account good predecessors for the crop. For Peking, these are green manure, legumes, grains, carrots. It is not recommended to plant a crop after any cruciferous plants, beets and tomatoes.
When planting Chinese cabbage, it is useful to take into account the favorable neighborhood of crops. All types of salads, onions, garden sage will feel good next to this vegetable. Joint planting of Peking cabbage and dill are mutually beneficial. The latter can be used as a sealant for cabbage plantings. According to reviews, it improves the taste of cabbage.
Dill is a great neighbor for Chinese cabbage.
Helpful information! Joint planting of Chinese cabbage and potatoes also has a positive effect on the yield and quality of the vegetable.
The attractiveness of Peking cabbage is obvious: it is not difficult to plant and grow it, it quickly grows in mass, and is fruitful. So choose a variety, and let the cabbage harvest be plentiful, and the process of planting and growing - informative and positive!
My name is Ludmila. Higher education, graduated from the Minsk Institute of Culture. I live in Belarus.
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Peking cabbage care
Caring for Peking cabbage, as well as for any vegetable crop, consists of watering, weeding and feeding the plants.
- To obtain good yields, an optimal balance between air temperature and humidity is extremely important, this statement is especially true during the formation of a head of cabbage and a rosette.
- daytime from 15 to 19 ° C
- at night not lower than 8 ° C.
- on a cloudy day 70%
- sunny day 80%
- at night about 80%.
If these requirements are not met, the leaves are often affected by various diseases, such as gray, white and black rot, as a result of which the plant does not develop normally and the formation of a head of cabbage does not occur.
Important! Despite the fact that the culture needs well-moistened soil, it does not tolerate stagnant water.
- Nutrition - Chinese cabbage prefers fertile soil, which is rich in nitrogen and calcium. But even if the land of the garden is poor in organic matter and microelements, it does not matter. The plant responds well to various feedings of both natural origin (mullein) and complex fertilizers.
- Autumn - for each m² you need to add 4.5 kg of manure, 1.5 dessert spoons of double superphosphate and 2.5 dessert. tablespoons of potassium sulfate. In the absence of the latter component, it can be replaced with ordinary wood ash at the rate of 1 liter can per 1 m² of soil
- before planting - a solution prepared from poultry droppings (water 10 liters and ½ kg of droppings) or from eggshells (30 grams of crushed shells to insist for 2 days in 5 liters of water) is introduced. If, for some reason, fertilizers were not added to the soil in the fall, then before planting, during spring digging, you need to add potassium sulfate, superphosphate and ammonium nitrate, each component is taken in the amount of 1 tbsp. l. for every m².
Important! Peking cabbage has a high ability to accumulate nitrates; therefore, it is not recommended to apply fertilizers during the growing season. All fertilization must be applied before the plant is planted on the site.
- Watering - in dry weather it is necessary to water every day, it is better to do it by sprinkling, in this case the plants receive the required amount of moisture and at the same time the soil does not become overmoistened.
The nuances of forcing seedlings
The seedling method of growing "Peking" has a number of positive aspects - early fruiting, increased resistance to disease or pests. Agrotechnology for growing cabbage seedlings has its own nuances. Before starting work, it is necessary to prepare the container and soil for planting seeds, germinate the seed, harden it and disinfect it.
Substrate and container
Initially, it is worth preparing separate containers for seedlings. Cabbage does not tolerate transplanting well and takes root in a new place for a long time. For this reason, it is better to use peat pots or tablets. They can be placed in the garden along with the plant. The walls of the pot will rot over time, allowing the roots to develop in the underlying soil.
A nutrient substrate is used to fill the container. You can buy it at the garden center or prepare it yourself. The seedling soil consists of peat, humus and fertile soil. As a rule, they are mixed in a ratio of 5: 3: 2. Rotted sawdust of any tree species can be added to fertile soil. Mineral fertilizers are additionally introduced into the substrate in the proportions indicated by the manufacturer.
When they plan to grow a vegetable from their own seed material collected from garden plants, they carefully examine it, only large specimens are selected. They must be treated with antifungal compounds. To do this, the seeds are immersed in water with a temperature of about 50 ° C for 15 minutes. Thermal exposure will destroy fungal spores if they get on the seed. Then they are briefly placed in cold water and laid out on an absorbent substrate.
Before sowing, the seeds are treated, germinated and hardened. The first is necessary to protect the plant from pests and diseases. Gardeners pickle the seed with a solution of potassium permanganate or special means of directional action. To accelerate growth, germination is used. For this, the seeds are soaked in water or a growth stimulator. Then they are hardened.
The seedling method of cultivation of "Peking" makes it possible to get a harvest of greens in the first half of summer. Sowing culture:
- 3 seeds are placed in pots with prepared soil mixture. The soil is moistened with a spray bottle. Cover the top with plastic wrap to retain moisture. Seedlings should appear on the fourth day.
- After the formation of 2-3 true leaves in the plant, one of the strongest sprout is left.
- The soil is regularly moistened and loosened a little.
- The plant is transplanted no earlier than 5-6 leaves are formed.
Peking cabbage seedlings do not need special care. However, do not leave it unattended for a long period. As the soil dries, it is moistened by pouring water in at the very root. After watering, the substrate is loosened to a shallow depth. This contributes to the retention of moisture in the soil mixture, the development of the root system, and the supply of oxygen to the plant. The soil can be mulched 15 days after germination with sawdust, straw or peat. At the same time, the first feeding with organic fertilizers is carried out.
In our latitudes, both varieties of Chinese cabbage are cultivated. Growing and caring for them practically do not differ, but planting different varieties that differ in ripening time should be farther from each other so that they do not conflict.
Cabbage prefers open, unshaded areas. It will do well on the east or west side. Although the plant has a high degree of frost resistance, germination of seeds or seedlings occurs at a temperature not lower than +16 degrees. Soil for cabbage should be light, loose, neutral, but fertile. The crop grows well in drained and moderately moist soil, so a loamy substrate is ideal for it. Sour soils should be limed in the fall. In the spring, they dig up the site and add a mixture of humus with compost to the soil.
The best precursors for Chinese cabbage are legumes, grains, potatoes, onions, carrots, cucumbers, and garlic. Experts do not recommend growing an Asian plant after tomatoes or beets due to common diseases and parasitic insects.
The culture is grown in a seedless way and using seedlings.
Growing from seeds
Before planting, the seed material needs preliminary preparation, after which the seeds have a better chance of germinating in the shortest possible time:
- The material is wrapped in cheesecloth and placed in a bowl of warm water for 15-20 minutes.
- Then the seeds are cooled in cold water for 1-2 minutes.
- Then the planting material should be treated in a special garden solution for half a day.
- If you plan to plant the seeds the next day, then they should be left in the refrigerator at a temperature of -9 degrees.
Treated seeds are planted in prepared soil, well warmed up by the sun. The soil is well watered and subsequently monitored for the required level of moisture and heat.
Usually disembarkation is made in April, when the temperature will be around + 14-20 degrees. At higher rates, cabbage can release flower stalks. If the growing conditions are favorable, then the first harvest after germination can be expected in a month.
A more time-consuming but fruitful way is to grow cabbage for seedlings.
The seeds are prepared in the same way as described above. If you grow seedlings in advance, then the risk of losing the planned harvest will decrease. The first fruits appear earlier than when planting seeds immediately in open ground. It is necessary to sow material for seedlings a month before planting on the site. The best planting time for a summer harvest is late March - early April. If you plan to stock up on vegetables for the winter, then the seedlings are planted in late June - early July.
- For seedlings, a substrate is prepared, consisting of a mixture of coconut soil and humus.
- Since cabbage does not tolerate picking well, experienced gardeners and gardeners advise placing no more than two or three seeds in one peat pot. Plants should be planted in open ground directly in these containers, so there is no need to worry about possible damage to the seedlings.
- The material is planted in moist soil at a depth of 1.5-2 cm.
- The pots are placed on a pallet or in a common container in a dark and warm room until sprouts appear.
- With the emergence of seedlings, containers are transferred to a balcony or loggia so that the plants can receive the required amount of light.
- Subsequently, the material is moderately watered as the topsoil dries out. Watering is carried out with light loosening.
- When 2-3 true leaves appear on the seedlings, one strong sprout is left in the peat containers, pinching off the weak ones.
- 8-10 days before planting in open ground, seedlings begin to be taken out into the street, so that they gradually get used to the new conditions.
- When there are about 6-7 leaves on the seedlings, they stop watering them in the next few days, in preparation for planting.
- On the site, holes are dug for each seedling, which are filled with drainage from the sand.
- Moistened peat pots with seedlings before planting are moved into prepared holes and covered with earth.
Depending on the variety, the seedlings should be located at a distance of 20-40 cm from each other, there should be 0.5 m of free space between the rows.