Tree peonies: care and cultivation
The tree peony was bred in China more than two thousand years ago. The plant looks very decorative and is perfectly adapted to the conditions of a temperate climate, for which Russian gardeners fell in love. In general, this variety of peony can be called unpretentious in care, but, like any other culture, there are nuances of agricultural technology that need to be studied in advance.
General information about the culture
The tree-like peony is a semi-shrub 1.5–2 m high. Its shoots are thick, erect. As it grows, the bush takes on an almost regular hemisphere shape. The leaves are openwork, pinnately dissected. Flowers with a diameter of 12–20 cm. As the plant grows, their number and size increase.
The tree-like peony begins to bloom a couple of weeks earlier than the usual herbaceous one, flowers on the plant keep up to 2-3 weeks. Flowering is very abundant, up to 100 buds open simultaneously on adult plants.
A big plus for Russian gardeners is winter hardiness. Tree peonies in their homeland tolerate frosts down to -40 ° C. But it is better to play it safe and, if for the winter they promise -30 ° C and below, cover the bushes.
Tree peonies are real long-lived plants; in China there are specimens protected by specialists and the state, the age of which is more than 500 years
The plant can be grafted and self-rooted. The former can be distinguished by their numerous roots roughly the size of a pencil. They are more active in increasing the green mass and often begin to bloom in the year of planting or the next season. Own-rooted specimens have a thick rhizome, are valued for their vitality and longevity (100 years or more versus 15–20 in vaccinated ones). Young tree peonies develop slowly, this is normal for them. The first time you can admire flowers in 4-5 years after planting in the ground, when the plants reach a height of 60-70 cm.
You will have to wait a long time for the flowering of a self-rooted tree-like peony - young plants develop rather slowly
Do not focus on the first flowers. They often turn out to be not so terry or not of the complex color that is indicated in the description of the variety. In 2-3 years everything will return to normal. Even experienced gardeners recommend removing about a third of the buds from adult plants so that the remaining flowers turn out to be larger.
The care for grafted and rooted plants is the same. The only caveat is breeding methods. The grafted crops cannot be propagated by dividing the bush.
Grafted tree peonies cannot be propagated by division - new specimens will show the properties of a rootstock
Video: flowering tree peony
Planting and transplanting procedure, necessary preparation
The optimal time for disembarkation is the last decade of August and the whole of September. The place is chosen carefully, taking into account all the requirements of the tree peony to the growing conditions - this flower does not like transplantation.
Find an open area free of any structures or trees that might block the sun. The golden mean is very important here - in the dense shade the tree-like peony will not survive, and under the scorching sun the flowers will quickly fade and fall off. At home, in China, around noon, temporary canopies made of light light fabric or paper are installed over the bushes.
Tree peonies cannot exist without the sun, but its direct rays in extreme heat noticeably reduce flowering, the petals seem to "fade"
A barrier at some distance is desirable - it will protect the plant from the cold wind. It is better to plant a peony on a small hill so that water does not stagnate at the roots.
The most suitable soil for a tree peony is loam. If the soil in the chosen place is too light, powder clay and humus are added to it, river sand is added to the heavy substrate. The plant does not tolerate acidified soil, so check the pH level in advance and, if necessary, add a deoxidizer (dolomite flour, wood ash, ground eggshell). Alkaline soil with a pH of up to 7.5–8.0 is acceptable for it.
The tree peony needs space. When planting several plants at once, leave 1.5–2 m between them.
The tree peony does not like "competitors" in the fight for water and nutrients - place it at a sufficient distance from fruit trees, berry bushes and "relatives"
The procedure itself is simple:
- Dig a hole with a depth and diameter of about 70 cm. At the bottom, pour a layer of drainage 25–30 cm thick (expanded clay, brick chips, pebbles, small ceramic shards). On top of it - soil mixed with an equal volume of humus and fertilizers (30–40 g of simple superphosphate, half as much potassium sulfate), forming a mound. Add a deoxidizer if necessary.
- Let the pit sit for 2-3 weeks, covering it with a waterproof material on top.
- Before planting, soak the roots for half an hour in any root stimulator (Kornevin, Heteroauxin).
- Place the peony on an earthen mound, water the roots abundantly so that they straighten. Instances with a closed root system are planted with a clod of earth, making a hole in the soil of a suitable diameter.
- Fill the hole with soil, carefully compacting it in the process so that the root collar is at the level of the soil. When the substrate settles, it will go 3–5 cm underground, as it should be.
- Water the plant again abundantly (4–5 liters of water). Mulch the peony with peat chips, humus, compost.
When planting a tree peony, do not forget about a drainage layer so that the water does not stagnate at the roots.
Video: how to plant a tree peony correctly
A tree peony is transplanted only if absolutely necessary, at the same time as the planting. The plant can move away from the experienced "stress" for the next few years. Most often, the transplant is combined with the reproduction of the bush by dividing:
- Remove the plant from the ground along with a lump of soil.
- Clean the rhizome by hand, rinse off the rest of the soil under running water with low pressure.
- Remove dried, rotten roots. Wash the cut sections with a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate and sprinkle with crushed activated carbon.
- If necessary, divide the rhizome, gently stretching parts of the bush to the sides in the area of the root collar. If you have to cut it, cut it as described above. Be sure to have roots and 2-3 growth buds on each part.
- Immerse the roots in a mixture of powdered clay and fresh manure (a thick, homogeneous mass of creamy consistency), let dry for about half an hour.
- Plant the peony in a new location. Until he, after disembarking or transplanting, has not started to grow, he needs protection from the sun. Place arcs over the plants, pulling any white covering material over them.
Further care of plants
Caring for a tree peony is simple, even an inexperienced gardener can handle it:
- Watering. Rare, but abundant - 6-10 liters of water per plant every two weeks. In the heat, the interval is reduced to 5–8 days. Since the beginning of August, the rate has been gradually reduced, by October, the peony has ceased to water at all. After each watering, the soil is loosened to a depth of 4–5 cm, the diameter of the trunk circle is 0.5 m. Refill the mulch layer as needed - it does not allow moisture to quickly evaporate and interferes with the growth of weeds.
Frequent but moderate watering is not an option for tree peonies
- Top dressing. Enough 4 times per season. Every time before feeding, abundant watering is required. At the beginning of the active growing season - 40-50 g of nitrogen fertilizer (carbamide, ammonium sulfate). During the formation of buds and after about a week from the beginning of flowering - a complex top dressing for decorative flowering. A month after flowering - 15–20 g each of potash and phosphorus fertilizers or a glass of wood ash and half the amount of dolomite flour.
Complex balanced feeding helps to activate bud formation and prolong flowering
- Pruning. It is carried out in the spring, before active growth begins. Please note that buds are formed on last year's shoots. All dried and dead stems are cut off, shoots older than 5 years are shortened to 15–20 cm. When the bush fades, the stems on which there were buds are cut to the upper axillary bud. Once every 20 years, rejuvenating pruning is recommended - all stems are cut almost at the level of the soil, leaving "hemp" 3-5 cm high.
After radical rejuvenating pruning, the tree peony releases new shoots from the growth buds located on the rhizome and in the lower part of the shoots
- Shelter for the winter. The plant is afraid not so much of frosts as early thaws and subsequent cold weather. In October, the stems are tied, the trunk circle is cleaned of plant debris and mulched with a layer of humus of about 10 cm. From above, if the dimensions allow, put on a bag or build a "hut" (a frame of poles covered with burlap or covering material). The bush under the shelter is covered with fallen leaves, spruce branches, pieces of bark, shavings.
Tree peonies tolerate cold weather well, but it is better to play it safe and protect the plant from possible severe frosts
Video: features of agricultural technology of tree peonies
How flowers reproduce
There are a lot of breeding options for a tree peony:
- Division of the bush. Suitable only for self-rooted peonies over 5 years old. The procedure is described in the plant transplant algorithm.
Only adult and healthy bushes of tree peonies can be divided, be sure to process all sections, thereby excluding the penetration of infection
- Cuttings. Cuttings are cut in June. On a semi-lignified shoot up to 15 cm long, there should be a growth bud, a leaf and a part of a lignified stem. The sheet plate is cut in half. Cuttings are rooted in a mixture of peat and sand (1: 1) in a "greenhouse" (under a film, glass). In the middle of autumn, they are seated in separate pots, kept at home until the end of next summer.
It is advisable to cut peony cuttings in the early morning.
- Rooting of layers. Carried out before flowering, in May. A well-developed shoot bends down to the ground, the skin on the underside is incised to a depth of about 2-3 mm and removed with a rectangle. A root stimulator is rubbed into the cut. The stem is buried in a groove 8–10 cm deep, sprinkled with humus on top. Water often and abundantly during the summer. In the fall, the new bush is separated from the mother plant and transplanted.
Rooting cuttings is one of the fastest ways to get a new tree peony bush.
- Graft. The right time is August. The root of a herbaceous peony is used as a stock. Graft is a stalk with 2-3 growth buds. From below, it is cut in the form of a wedge, a depression of a similar shape is made in the rootstock. The stalk is tightly inserted into the root, the structure is firmly fixed with a special grafting tape or plastic wrap, coated with garden varnish. Peonies are placed in wet moss or sand under the "greenhouse" for 3-4 weeks. After this period, those copies where the operation was successful are planted in a permanent place.
Peony grafting is a simple operation, but it requires some skill and practice.
Another way is to grow tree peonies from seeds. But it is practiced mainly by professional breeders. Amateur gardeners do not resort to it because of the laboriousness and duration of the process, low germination of seeds and the lack of a guarantee of the preservation of varietal traits.
Amateur gardeners rarely resort to propagation of tree peonies by seeds.
Video: culture breeding options
Typical problems when growing tree peonies
Most often, gardeners are concerned about the lack of flowering. There are many reasons for this:
- young age of the bush;
- excess nitrogen in the soil;
- insufficient depth of the root collar during planting;
- serious damage after winter frost;
- lack of space (the bushes are planted too close);
- frequent and / or recent transplant;
- incorrect pruning;
- lack of water or waterlogged soil.
Another common problem is the slow development of the tree peony. This is normal for young plants. In adults, it can be caused by:
- lack of sunlight;
- insufficient nutrient content of the soil (including in the absence of fertilizing);
- acidity of the soil;
- lack of normal aeration (if you do not loosen the soil).
The tree-like peony is generally resistant to diseases, but with excessive watering, gray rot can develop. The leaves are covered with a "fluffy" grayish bloom, the shoots turn brown and soften. In the early stages, the disease can be dealt with by drastically reducing watering and performing 2-3 treatments with any fungicide or a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate. It is necessary to spray both the peony itself and the soil in the near-stem circle.
The tree-like peony looks very elegant and immediately attracts attention with its abundant flowering. This is a long-lived plant that will invariably delight the gardener for decades. Caring for him is surprisingly simple, but you need to take into account the few cultural requirements.
Tree peony: care and cultivation in the Urals, in Siberia, in the Leningrad region
Tree peonies are striking in their beauty and aroma. The southern part of the country suits them best, but residents of the middle zone, and even the Urals and Siberia, can also enjoy their beauty and fragrance. Planting and caring for a tree peony in different regions has only slight differences. Even beginner gardeners can easily cope with them.
The tree peony is grown even in Siberia, the Urals and the Leningrad region.
Growing and varieties of tree peonies
Tree peonies are native to China. There they have been grown since very ancient times because of their beautiful flowers. This is a shrub with strong lignified straight or branched shoots up to 2-3 cm thick.
Beautiful large, light green, multiple dissected openwork leaves differ in shape and color. They fall for the winter. In the spring, new leaf and flower buds appear on the preserved branches.
Semi-double and double fragrant large flowers up to 18-25 cm in diameter with a large number of stamens. Most of the flowers are white, pink, pale lilac, lilac, less often red and yellow with various shades. They often have a large dark velvety spot at the base of the petals. Stamens are large, bright yellow.
Treelike peonies bloom in May, two weeks earlier than herbaceous peonies. Flowers develop on the central shoots and gradually appear on the lateral ones. They are spread out and lie on the apical leaves. The buds of treelike peonies are similar to rosebuds. Abundant flowering. One bush can simultaneously have up to 100 blossoming flowers and almost the same number of buds. The preservation of one flower on a bush is up to 10 days, and the duration of flowering of a bush is up to three weeks.
The flowering of tree peonies coincides with the flowering lilac... After its completion, the bush does not lose its decorative effect and creates a wonderful background for other flowers. As with most flowers in hot, dry summers, flowering is more rapid. Tree peonies, in comparison with herbaceous ones, are more demanding on growing conditions: a place for them is chosen sunny or with a light shade. In shady places, they bloom poorly, stretch, reduce decorativeness or do not bloom at all.
Planting tree peonies
They are planted in the same pits that are prepared for grassy peonies, but they are slightly larger in size - 60x60x60 cm or more. The distance between the bushes should be at least 1.5 m.
It allows the root system to develop more freely, and the bushes will not shade each other. Tree peonies prefer lighter sandy loam or lighter loamy soils... On the latter, peonies bloom longer.They have a large mass of suction roots located close to the soil surface.
In this regard, the trunk circles need to mulch: in spring and summer from bright sunlight, so that the earth does not dry out, in autumn and winter - so that the roots do not freeze. You can plant ground cover plants nearby with a shallow root system. They will not let the soil dry out near the trunk circle. The soil should be well fertilized, loose, permeable, neutral or slightly alkaline.
When preparing it, you need make compost, leaf humus. After planting, further care of the plants is common, like for herbaceous peonies - weeding, loosening, root and foliar feeding, regular watering. The ground should be constantly slightly damp. In the spring, top dressing is done when buds appear. The plant responds well to feeding with organic fertilizers, you can add a complex mineral fertilizer with a predominance of phosphorus and potassium, preferably in liquid form.
Then it is necessary to feed during flowering with the same fertilizers or slurry solution or green fertilizer. In autumn, the base of the bush is covered with compost or rotted manure (one bucket per bush) or just earth. Next spring, this mulch must be raked off and embedded in the soil at a distance of 0.5 m from the neck of the bush.
Shelter for the winter
To prepare the plant for winter and ripen their wood in August, watering is stopped. Dead branches are cut off at the beginning of the awakening of the buds with the obligatory putty of the cuts with garden pitch.
Tree peonies are winter-hardy, but they cannot stand strong snowless frosts, and in the Leningrad region they are not rare. Therefore, young bushes should be sheltered... In late autumn, they need to be pulled together with twine, covered with a box without a bottom according to the size of a bush, or a box should be made of boards. Then loosely cover the bush with dry woody leaves. From above it is covered with a film or roofing felt to prevent moisture from entering the box.
You can cover the bush with paper bags, matting, mats. With such a shelter, the plants overwinter perfectly. In the spring, when the sun warms up, do not rush to remove the shelter. We must wait until stable positive temperatures are established. Return frosts are not terrible for these peonies. Adult bushes tolerate the winter well, with the exception of varieties with double flowers. These bushes should be covered by hilling in the fall.
Reproduction of tree peonies
Tree peonies reproduce rather difficult and slowly. And the older the bush, the more difficult it is to do this. The timing and reproduction technique of bushes are the same as for herbaceous peonies. Tree peonies are propagated by dividing rhizomes, layering, inoculation, cuttings and seeds. It is rational to start dividing bushes at the age of 4-5 years, since older bushes have many large roots, division is difficult, and many roots are damaged. And the cuttings from old plants do not take root well. Therefore, after the earth has settled, the upper buds on the root collar of the delenka should be buried no more than 5 -6 cm.
Reproduction by layering: on a one-year-old healthy shoot, a shallow incision should be made from below, the branch should be bent and pinned to the ground. Cover the incision with loose, nutritious moist soil with a layer of 10-12 cm. Constant moisture is required. After rooting, the shoot must be cut off and planted, preferably in a permanent place, since the plant is sick during transplantation. Four-year and five-year-old shrubs can be used for vertical propagation.
To do this, hilling plants is carried out 2-3 times during the summer. In the first year by 20 cm. In the second year - to a height of 25 cm. Hilling in the second year promotes the formation of roots on the shoots of the previous year. Layers that have a good root system are separated at the end of the second year, having unlocked the plant. The rest are left to grow for another year. Sections are disinfected with charcoal powder with sulfur.
Grafting on the roots of herbaceous peonies is done at the end of summer, in August. The cut roots (stock) should be 10-15 cm long and twice as thick as the grafted cutting. A stalk of a treelike peony should have two or three developed buds. Leaves must be removed from it. Vaccination is done either in butt or in cleavage. The vaccination site must be wrapped with insulating tape and coated with garden varnish. The grafted plants are planted in loose fertile soil so that the lower bud is at a depth of 5-7 cm.
Shelter is required for the winter - to spud and cover with leaves, coniferous legs. With a successful operation, the scion forms roots and young shoots by the end of the second year. After good fusion, the harness is removed. Grafted peonies usually bloom one year after grafting.
Reproduction green cuttings produced in July - early August, when ripe shoots with formed axillary buds of renewal begin to lignify.
Up to 20% of the stems can be removed from each 6-7-year-old bush without prejudice to flowering. Shoots can be plucked with a quick movement or cut off one bud with a "shield". Shoots without buds do not take root. Before planting in the cuttings, the upper part of the stem is removed by one third or half, leaving 2-3 leaves. The leaves are also cut in half.
To stimulate root formation, cuttings are immersed for 6 hours in a solution of growth stimulants, for example, heteroauxin (1 tablet per 1 liter of water), before planting. Then they are planted in boxes 20-25 cm high, filled with a moist substrate, a mixture of sand and well-decomposed peat (1:10), no deeper than 1.5-2 cm. The cutting hole should be filled with clean river sand. Then the boxes are placed in a shady place. To prevent rotting of seedlings during the first days, water the substrate daily with a solution of boric acid (0.5 g per 1 l of water) or succinic acid (0.1 g per 1 l of water), and then with clean water.
The cuttings must be kept moist at all times. By autumn, the strongest cuttings take root, the buds noticeably increase - up to 1-2 cm in length. Weaker shoots form callus by autumn. In spring, they develop 2-3 filamentous roots. All rooted cuttings germinate next year, shoots with 1-2 leaves appear. In the first winter, it is better to place the cuttings in a basement with a temperature of up to + 5 ° C. In the spring, cuttings should be planted in a school, and in September - in a permanent place or for growing. The distance between plants is 40-50 cm.
Treelike peonies are transplanted in the conditions of the Leningrad region at the end of August - early September... Seed propagation is possible and easy enough, but the process takes 6-8 years. At the same time, varietal characteristics are lost, but this method gives excellent seedlings adapted to local climatic conditions. The seeds are sown immediately after they are harvested to a depth of 2-3 cm. They are very hard, so their shells must be broken - filed with a file without touching the cotyledons. If this is not done, then germination can be delayed for a whole year.
Interesting varieties of tree peonies
Tree peonies, like herbaceous ones, are centenarians. With good care, they can live in one place for several decades. To preserve their decorative effect, support is required for almost every flowering stem. Several varieties of tree peonies are curious: Evening, Zarya, Carmen, Professor Verchinsky, Eureka, Reine, Elizabeth, Souvenir Maxim, Cornu and others.
Tree peonies are very effective in tapeworms, single and group plantings. They are a great dominant in mixed groups, borders, mixborders, in large tracts, in combination with bulbous - tulips at their bases. Give a top-notch transportable cut. The group of tree peonies also includes Delaway and Yellow peonies.
Delaway peony with brown-red cupped flowers. The diameter of the flowers does not exceed 10 cm, the leaves are three times dissected, dark green, large - up to 35 cm long. It is not very decorative because of its short, soft stems. The flowers are hidden among the leaves. It is mainly used for breeding work.
Peony Yellow has cupped yellow flowers up to 8 cm in diameter. Its leaves are double-dissected, gray-green in color with a leathery surface, large - up to 35 cm. For decorative purposes, it is practically not used, but is widely used in breeding for obtaining varieties of peonies with a yellow color.
Varieties of tree peonies
The selections were carried out on the basis of such natural species as: Potanin's peony, Delavey, Lemoine and yellow. Most of the varieties are registered in China.
All peonies are divided into three groups: Japanese, Sino-European and hybrid.
- The Japanese group of peonies includes plants with delicate flowers towering above the bush. They are small in size, have a delicate fragile appearance.
- The Sino-European group includes plants with large and heavy double-flowered flowers. Their color can be varied.
- Hybrid varieties include plants derived from yellow peony and Delaway peony.
Interesting varieties of treelike hybrid peonies are:
- "Sisters Kiao" - a bush with beautiful flowers, painted in a red and white tone. The flower is about 16 cm in diameter.
- Sapphire is a plant with pale pink petals and a bright crimson heart. The diameter of the blossoming bud is 18 cm. An adult bush can please 50 buds with simultaneous flowering.
- The "Coral Altar" is a peony with pale salmon petals. The blossoming flower is about 20 cm in diameter.
- "Green Jade" is a plant with very beautiful flowers of a pale green color.
Planting tree peonies in open ground
If there is groundwater near the site where the peony is planned to be grown, then the holes for the bushes must be dug in the form of a cone. The bottom is covered with drainage material, for example, broken brick, gravel or sand. Sour soil is diluted with bone meal or lime. A young bush is carefully placed in the hole and poured with water until the roots are properly straightened. When the water is completely absorbed, the hole is filled to the top with soil, leaving the root collar intact. The distance between the seedlings should be at least 1.5 m, since the bushes grow strongly over time.
Video about planting and growing peonies on the site
Reproduction of peonies is possible in several ways, but most often we use the simplest and most common - reproduction of peonies by division.
First of all, an adult white peony bush is pruned so that it can be dug up. The trunk with the stems is tied and, after carefully digging in so as not to damage the roots and buds, they are removed from the hole. Further, the root system is washed by a weak stream of water from a hose to make it easier for you to deal with the division.
Now, with the help of a wooden stake and a hammer, the bush is divided in two, then, each part is still in two, and already with garden shears for a full-fledged planting material. A high-quality division is formed, without old or spoiled roots, about 30 cm long, with 1-2 good roots and several buds.
The red peony plots are placed in prepared planting holes, after sprinkling with earth, the upper bud should be several centimeters under its layer.
After planting, you do not need to ram the ground around, it is important to water the peony seedling abundantly and mulch the soil around the future bush with peat or humus.
Tree peony care
Tree peonies are very unpretentious. They are not damaged by pests and rarely suffer from drought. In the middle lane, in case of late frosts, leaves are damaged. The most difficult period for them is the first years of life.
In early summer, after flowering, the plants are fed with liquid fertilizer with a low nitrogen content. Ash infusion can be used. In the second half of summer, top dressing is done with potassium monophosphate (40g per 1 square meter). The plantings are mulched with compost, without covering the base of the branches. Ash, bone meal and vermicompost can be added to the compost. You cannot use manure!
If there are prolonged rains in the summer, peonies can be struck by gray rot. Therefore, for prevention, they are treated with copper-containing (Bordeaux mixture, HOM) or systemic (Topaz) fungicides.
Watch out for damaged branches, they need to be removed. Leaves with a disease are covered with small reddish spots. They need to be raked for the winter and burned. If the tree peony is seriously ill, you will have to process it repeatedly: when budding, after flowering, and then every month.
These adorable flowers are long-lived. There are plants in China that were planted over 800 (!) Years ago. In our harsh climate, they cannot hold out so much, but in order for their flowering to please not only you, but also your children and grandchildren, tree peonies must be planted correctly.
This plant does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil, therefore, its planting should provide for drainage, which is made from small stones or small pieces of brick.
With a high standing groundwater, plants are planted on high ridges.
Site and soil preparation
Tree peonies do not tolerate transplantation well, therefore, in order for planting and further care to lead to abundant flowering, you need to immediately determine their habitat.
It must meet the following conditions:
- be well lit throughout the day, a small lace shade in the hottest time is allowed and even desirable - this will prolong flowering
- be protected from strong winds - they interfere with the formation of flower buds
- do not have stagnant water - even a few days in the water during the melting of snow in spring is enough and the flowers may die
- remoteness from other plants - the roots of the tree peony react negatively to the presence of "neighbors"
- if several varieties are planted, the distance between plants should not be less than one and a half meters - the diameter of the crown of a tree-like peony is equal to its height, and this flower does not grow in cramped conditions.
Tree peonies do not like either heavy clay soils or too light sandy soils. The best option is loam, which has good moisture permeability and air saturation. Soil acidity is another important indicator, which should be in the range from 6.1 to 6.8.
If the soil does not meet the requirements of the plants, it has to be improved by adding the necessary components and liming. Sand is added to clay soil, and clay is added to sandy soil. It is always better to carry out liming in autumn and in no case should it be combined with the application of nitrogen fertilizers, since nitrogen is lost during the application of lime. If it was not possible to carry out such a procedure in the fall, when planting in a hole, ash must be added, which not only reduces the acidity of the soil, but also contains micro and macro elements necessary for plants.
How and when to plant?
The best time to plant a tree peony is from August to October. The warmer the region where the plant grows, the later it can be planted. The main rule that should be followed is that at least a month should pass from planting to the arrival of frost. The flower needs this time to take root well.
- A pit for planting a peony in the ground is prepared in advance so that the earth settles, the most correct thing is to do it in the spring. The land must be thoroughly cleared of weeds. The planting pit must have a depth and diameter of at least fifty centimeters.
- The lowest layer is drainage. Its thickness depends on the natural moisture content of the soil, but not less than twenty centimeters. If the soil is peaty, it is completely changed. Other types of soil are adjusted according to the requirements of the plant. In any case, the bottom layer should consist of humus or a mixture of bone meal and removed soil in a ratio of one to two with the addition of two hundred grams of superphosphate and one hundred and fifty grams of potassium sulfate. Bone meal will naturally enrich the soil with phosphorus. It is very good to add a glass of wood ash.Planting a tree peony is done so as to exclude contact of the roots with fertilizers - this can lead to their burns and further decay.
- A plant is placed in a plastic container, half covered with a prepared earthen mixture and watered, the bottom is carefully cut off along the perimeter and carefully pulled out from under the flower. Then the sides are cut and the container is completely removed. The pit is filled up to the top, controlling the location of the root collar - it should be at the level of the pit edges. It is better to carry out the last operation with an assistant.
- If a seedling with a closed root system, carefully remove it from the pot and then act as in the first case.
- The main condition for proper planting is to preserve the suction roots as much as possible. After the procedure, the plant is well watered, water needs five liters per bush. If you dissolve a root formation stimulator (heteroauxin, root) in water at the rate on the package, this will help the plant to root more successfully.
If there is a desire to make the grafted plant self-rooted, the root collar is deepened ten to fifteen centimeters. In this case, you will need to take care of the supply of additional heat to the roots. Not closer than fifteen centimeters from the plant, two or three bottles of dark glass are half buried in a circle with the neck down. You can moisten rags with kerosene and put them in bottles. The smell of kerosene will save the roots from damage by moles and bear.
In practice, the mass delivery of the roots of tree peonies occurs at the end of winter - beginning of spring. Nevertheless, it is better not to plant the plant during this period. Why is spring planting undesirable?
Seedlings with an open root system have practically no thin suction roots that feed the plant. If you plant peonies in the spring, they quickly start to grow under the influence of high temperature. This is facilitated by the reserves of nutrients in the rhizomes, which are quickly depleted. In warmth, the growth of suction roots is slow and the result is an imbalance between the underground and aboveground parts of the plant. From a lack of nutrition, the plants weaken, all the forces will go to their restoration, which means that you will not have to wait for flowering next year. Therefore, it is better to grow seedlings with an open root system by planting them in a plastic bottle with loose soil and holes made for water drainage. They keep her in a cold basement.