Pear: planting and care, pruning, grafting, description of varieties, photos, diseases and pests
Fruit and berry plants
Pear (Latin Pyrus) - a genus of ornamental and fruit deciduous shrubs and trees of the Pink family. About 60 species of this genus are known. The pear was cultivated in Ancient Greece, Rome and Persia. In the wild, the pear grows in the warm zone of Eurasia, as well as in areas with a temperate climate. Today, thanks to the work of breeders, this crop, numbering more than one thousand varieties, is grown in cooler regions - in the Moscow region, in the Urals and in Western Siberia.
The pear is a relative of such plants as apple, almond, plum, cherry plum, hawthorn, wild rose, rose, irga, chokeberry, quince, cotoneaster, medlar, mountain ash and spirea.
The topic of this article is planting and caring for a pear. We will tell you how to grow a pear in your garden, how to treat a pear from diseases and pests, how to feed a pear, and we will give you a lot of other interesting and important information that will definitely come in handy.
Planting and caring for a pear
- Landing: in early spring (before the start of sap flow) or at the end of September.
- Bloom: in May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: black earth or gray forest with loamy subsoil, preferably in an elevated area with deep groundwater.
- Watering: on average, twice a season: before and after flowering. Water consumption - 2 buckets for each m² of near-trunk area: the soil should be soaked to a depth of 80 cm.
- Top dressing: before the start of sap flow, the pear is sprayed with a 7% urea solution or urea, ammonium nitrate or a solution of chicken droppings are added to the near-stem circle. After flowering, the soil is dug to a depth of 8-10 cm with green fertilizer or the near-stem circle is watered with a solution of Nitroammofoski. In the second half of June and in July, the pear is treated with a nitrogen solution on the leaves, and two weeks after the July feeding, potassium-phosphorus fertilizers are applied to the soil under adult trees. From the beginning to the middle of September, the pear is fed with nitrogen for the last time, and in October - with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers.
- Cropping: in spring, before bud break, or in autumn, during leaf fall. If necessary, you can also prune in the summer.
- Reproduction: by layering, cuttings and grafting, much less often by seeds.
- Pests: moth, apple and green aphid, gall mite, pear honeydew, red apple mite, subcrustal leafworm, apple glass bowl, blue-head scoop, peppered moth and winter moth, fruit moth, unpaired, oak-leaved and ringed silkworms, western miner , sapwood, pear and apple flower beetles, pear pipe-worm, pear sawfly, leaf and fruit gall midges, pear pruritus, hawthorn.
- Diseases: subcutaneous viral spot, black cancer (antonov fire), black fungus, powdery mildew, fire blight, viral mosaic, rust, cytosporosis (stem rot), scab, moniliosis (fruit rot), rubberiness, dying off of branches, common cancer, fly-eater, mosaic ringed, false tinder fungus, white spot (septoria).
Read more about growing pears below.
The shape of the crown of a pear is round or pyramidal, the tree can reach 25 meters in height with a crown diameter of up to 5 meters. The leaves of the pear are broadly ovate, shortly pointed, 2.5 to 10 cm long. The upper side of the leaf plate is shiny, dark green, the lower side is bluish-green. In autumn, the foliage takes on a golden orange hue. In April or May, the tree blooms, and it must be said that the flowering pear is very beautiful: white fragrant five-petal flowers up to 3 cm in diameter are collected in 3-9 pieces in umbrella-shaped brushes.
The pear fruit is usually elongated, although there are varieties with ball-shaped fruits. A pear is grown for the sake of its fruits - both tasty and healthy, consumed not only fresh, but also in the form of jam, compote, jam, juice and dried fruits.
When to plant
A pear is planted in early spring, before sap flow begins, or at the end of September, when sap flow in plants slows down. For spring planting, the pit must be prepared in the fall, but professionals believe that the autumn planting of pears is safer. It is best to place the pear on the western, southern or southwestern side of the site, in a sunny, but not very hot place. The plant prefers black soil or gray forest soil with a loamy subsoil. Poor, sandy or heavy clayey soils will not work for the pear.
Do not plant the pear in places where groundwater is high, as the powerful roots of an adult tree can penetrate 6-8 meters deep. The best place to plant is on a slope or high ground.
Pear trees planted in autumn show a much higher survival rate, they are more resistant to climatic disasters, diseases and pests. The disadvantage of an autumn planting is that in winter, the bark of a pear becomes food for rodents, in addition, a young tree, not having time to root properly, can freeze in cold weather.
When buying a two-year-old seedling, pay attention to the fact that its roots should not be dry or rotten, and the tree trunk should be elastic, without flaws. If it seems to you that the roots of the seedling are dehydrated, immerse them in water for 12 hours before planting so that they restore elasticity.
If the soil in your area is suitable for a pear, you can dig a small planting hole - a little more than the volume of the root system of the seedling. But if the soil does not meet the requirements of the culture, then you will have to dig a hole measuring 70x70 cm and up to 1 m deep. Dig a hole for a pear 3-4 weeks before planting so that the soil can settle in it. A strong peg is driven into the center of the hole, which should protrude at least half a meter above the surface. 30 kg of compost, peat or rotted manure, as well as a kilogram of superphosphate, one and a half kilograms of lime and 100 g of potassium chloride are added to the top fertile soil layer removed from the pit - all this is thoroughly mixed, half of the mixture is filled into the hole and lightly tamped, the second part is poured with a mound around peg.
Before planting, the roots of the seedling are dipped into a clay mash, then the seedling is placed on a hill on the north side of the peg, carefully spread its roots and covered with fertile soil, shaking the seedling from time to time so that the soil fills all the voids. Having filled up the hole, the soil in the near-trunk circle is trampled from the tree to the edges. The root collar should rise 4-5 cm above the surface.
Water the seedling with 2-3 buckets of water, wait until the water is absorbed, the soil settles and the root collar is at the level of the surface of the site, then mulch the near-trunk circle with a layer of peat, sawdust or humus 5-10 cm thick, and tie the seedling to a support.
How to plant in spring
Spring planting of pears is carried out according to the same principle as planting in September, only a pit for a seedling is prepared not in a month, but in the fall. After planting a pear seedling, make a roller of soil around the perimeter of the near-stem circle so that water does not spread beyond its borders during irrigation, and pour 2-3 buckets of water over the tree, regardless of the weather.
How to groom in spring
Growing a pear involves caring for it at all seasons. In the spring, they remove the insulation from the pear trees, loosen the soil in the near-trunk circles, and apply nitrogen fertilizers to the site, which activate vegetative processes. Before the start of sap flow, branches and shoots damaged during the winter and diseased are cut off. The pear in the spring, like other garden trees, needs preventive treatment against pests and pathogens that hibernated in the soil or in cracks in the bark.
Summer pear care
During the hot season, the most important point of pear care is watering. If there is a drought, then the pear is watered in the evening, after the heat subsides, spending up to 3 buckets of water per tree. Since the crop tends to thicken its crown, it is possible that you will need to do thinning pruning in the summer so that the fruiting pear gets plenty of sunshine. In the summer, some varieties of pears begin to ripen, and you need to be ready to harvest.
The measures for caring for a pear in autumn are the same as in spring: sanitary pruning, preventive treatment against pests and diseases lurking in the soil of the trunk circle and in the bark of a tree, autumn feeding, but not with nitrogen fertilizers, but with phosphorus and potassium ... And, of course, the preparation of trees for wintering: the obligatory whitewashing of boles and the bases of skeletal branches with lime so that the bright spring sun does not burn the bark. The trunk circles must be dug up shallowly and watered well, and then covered with a layer of peat or sawdust 15-25 cm thick.
Everyone knows a simple truth: it is better to avoid a problem than to get rid of it. That is why experienced gardeners prefer to carry out preventive treatments of garden trees from diseases and harmful insects from year to year, especially since sometimes they are easily combined with top dressing. For example, the very first treatment of trees in early spring can be carried out with a solution of 700 g of urea in 10 liters of water - this measure will help to destroy the pests that have appeared from the ground in the spring and at the same time feed the pears with nitrogen.
However, you need to have time to spray the trees before the buds begin to swell, otherwise urea can cause them to burn. If you are late and the buds begin to open, you will have to use biological preparations such as Fitoverma, Agravertin, Akarin, Iskra-bio for treating trees instead of urea.
In order to increase the resistance of trees to unfavorable conditions and diseases, pears are prophylactically treated with a solution of Zircon or Ekoberin.
Before the onset of frost, it is necessary to protect the dormant trees from unwanted neighbors - beetle larvae that have settled down to winter in the upper soil layer and in damage in the bark. The causative agents of fungal diseases, which lurk for the winter in cracks in the bark or in the soil of the trunk circle, are also dangerous. They use the treatment of trees and areas under them with Nitrafen or one percent Bordeaux liquid.
We have already described the first feeding - spraying pears with a urea solution before the start of sap flow. If it turned out that you did not have time to carry out this treatment before the buds swell, you will have to apply nitrogen fertilizers to the soil. It can be all the same solution of urea or saltpeter, or it can be a solution of chicken manure. Saltpeter, for example, is added at the rate of 30 g per m² of the trunk circle, and the solution is prepared in a ratio of 1:50. Urea (urea) will need from 80 to 120 g per tree, and 5 liters of water will be needed to prepare the solution.
The next top dressing is carried out in May, after flowering, in order to improve the quality of the fruit. During this period, it is advisable to apply the so-called green fertilizer for digging to a depth of 8-10 cm, which saturates the plants with organic matter and activates vegetative processes. If there is no organic matter, feeding is carried out with a solution of Nitroammofoska in a ratio of 1: 200 at the rate of 3 buckets of water per tree.
In the second half of June foliar feeding of pears with nitrogen is carried out because in a hot, dry season, trace elements from the soil to the roots are transported very slowly, and through the foliage this process passes much faster. In July, one more foliar feeding of pears with nitrogen is carried out, and two weeks later mineral fertilizers - phosphorus and potassium - are introduced into the soil under adult trees. For young pears, only nitrogen fertilizers are enough, and only planted pear trees do not feed at all for the first two years - they have enough fertilizers that were introduced into the planting pit.
A pear in August does not need feeding. Until mid-September, you can apply nitrogen for the last time - treat the trees and the soil under them with urea, as was done in the spring. Root feeding with nitrogen is undesirable. In autumn, pears need mineral fertilizers, which are applied in liquid form to the trunk circle. Here is an approximate recipe for such a top dressing: 1 tablespoon of potassium chloride and 2 tablespoons of granular superphosphate are dissolved in 10 liters of water. The ingredients are mixed and the solution is added to the tree trunk circle.
Young plants can be fed with wood ash, which is scattered under the digging to a depth of 10 cm in the trunk circle in the amount of 150 g per 1 m².
Young pear seedlings need protection from frost. At the end of autumn, they are tied with pine spruce branches, placing it with the needles down, and wrapped with burlap on top. Mature trees hibernate without shelter, but in winter they often become victims of rodents, and in order to protect the trunks of pears from the sharp teeth of mice and hares, tree trunks are wrapped in thick paper or cloth soaked in a special agent that repels rodents.
When snow falls, throw snowdrifts into the tree trunk circles. During thaws, heavy snow caps on trees, melting, can easily break branches, so in the fall, pull the branches of young trees with twine, pressing them to the trunk, and shake off the snow that has adhered in winter from the branches of adult pears.
When to trim
It is most advisable to prune pears in the spring, before the start of sap flow. The tree tolerates the procedure normally if the air temperature is not lower than -8 ºC.
In summer, the pear is pruned only in the case of a strong thickening of the crown, which interferes with the ripening of the fruits, however, pinching, or pinching of the shoots growing on the top, is carried out precisely in the summer - in June.
In autumn, the pear is pruned before the onset of frost, otherwise the cut sites become very sensitive and do not have time to heal before frost. Autumn pruning has a mostly sanitary function. In winter, the pear is not pruned.
How to trim
Pear trees begin to be cut immediately after planting: skeletal branches are determined on them, and the rest are cut out. The center conductor is shortened by a quarter. The trunk of the pear is cleared of branches below the beginning of the first tier of skeletal branches. In the second year, the conductor is shortened by 25 cm, and the crown is formed by shortening the skeletal branches by 5-7 cm, and the upper branches should be shorter than the lower ones.
Pruning an old pear is a much more serious procedure, since you have to remove not only shoots, but also whole branches, brightening and rejuvenating the crown of the tree.
Beginning in the second year of life, watch for the appearance of competing branches and cut them into a ring, leaving no stumps. The formation of the pear is carried out in such a way that there are several fruit branches on each skeletal branch. Shoots growing horizontally should be supported and those growing vertically should be discarded. Treat the cut sites with garden varnish or Ranet. During the pruning period, do not apply nitrogen fertilizing, do it when the sections are tightened.
Pruning in the fall
Autumn pruning occurs from late August to the second half of September. At this time, dry, broken and diseased branches are removed, which, after pruning, are necessarily burned. Annual shoots are shortened by no more than a third of their length, leaving several buds on them, from which new branches are formed.For the convenience of harvesting, the most successful is the pyramidal shape of the crown, which also contributes to abundant fruiting. It makes sense to form such a crown, starting from the second year of the pear's life.
Reproduction of pear
The pear reproduces both generatively (by seeds) and vegetatively. The seed method of reproduction is used to develop new varieties by artificial crossing of different species, varieties and hybrids, as well as to grow rootstocks of wild and cultivated pear species, on which cultivars are then grafted.
From vegetative methods for propagation of pears, layering, cuttings and grafting are used.
Reproduction by layering
It is unlikely that it will be possible to bend a pear branch to the ground, as is done with shrubs. But you can try this method: a box filled with fertile soil is placed under the branch, the walls of which are lined with polyethylene in order to reduce the evaporation of moisture from the soil. The branch of the pear bends down to the box, and in the place where it comes into contact with the ground, several transverse cuts are made on its bark, after which the branch is pinned and buried in the ground of the box.
In order to speed up the process of root formation, the layers are watered with Kornevin's solution or the cuts on the branch are powdered with a root former before digging in. After that, the surface of the soil in the box is covered with roofing material, foil or mulched with a layer of compost. The soil is kept slightly moist. The process of root formation lasts until the end of the season, but the roots at this time are still very weak, so it is too early to transplant the cuttings.
For the winter, the branch is covered with spruce branches, then a snowdrift is thrown onto the box. In general, the cultivation of the cut lasts two years, after which it is separated from the mother tree and, with a lump of earth, transplanted into the planting pit, like a normal seedling. Interestingly, the cuttings begin to bloom and bear fruit earlier than the seedlings. This method of reproduction is good for the simplicity of implementation and the fact that the seedlings bred with its help fully retain the varietal characteristics of the mother plant.
Growing from seeds
In order to grow seedlings that can be used as rootstocks, it is better to take seeds of winter-hardy, zoned varieties. They are sown in the ground in the fall. Seeds of late varieties ripen in fruits by mid-winter, already during storage.
When the seeds are ripe, they are removed from the fruits, poured into a gauze bag and lowered for 2-3 days into the toilet bowl, so that the water flushes out inhibitors from the seeds every time they are drained, which slow down their development. The swollen seeds are mixed with a moisture-absorbing substrate (sand, sawdust, expanded clay or peat crumbs) in a ratio of 1: 3, moistened, this mixture is poured into a plastic bag, which is placed in a box and stored in an open bag at a temperature of 3 to 5 ºC until sprouts appear stirring every two weeks and moisturizing if necessary.
As soon as sprouts appear, the storage temperature is lowered to -1-0 ºC and the seeds are kept in these conditions until sowing.
Seeds are sown in early spring to a depth of 3-4 cm at a distance of 8-10 cm from each other with the same row spacing. Seedlings are watered, weeded, fed several times during the summer. If the thickness of their trunks reaches 1 cm, it is possible to graft varietal cuttings on them already in August, which, with normal development, can be planted in a permanent place in two years.
As a rootstock, not only pear seedlings are used, but also seedlings of quince, apple, irgi, hawthorn, chokeberry, cotoneaster and forest pear. On the rootstocks of quince, pear trees grow low, quickly enter fruiting, their fruits have excellent taste, but, unfortunately, such pears live and bear fruit no longer than 25 years. On apple rootstocks, the graft takes root quickly and without complications.
Grafting on mountain ash is much less popular: due to the fact that the trunk of the pear thickens faster than the trunk of the mountain ash, an influx forms on the grafted tree, which negatively affects the strength of the trunk, and, consequently, the life of the tree. Pear fruits on mountain ash rootstocks acquire astringency and are characterized by insufficient juiciness and low sugar content. As for the hawthorn, grafting a pear onto its seedling is problematic, since accretion is very rare.
Before planting a pear, prepare the stock for the procedure: a month before copulation, spud it to a height of 15-20 cm, and a few days before the procedure, remove the soil from its stem, clean the seedling from overgrowth and water.
There are several ways of vaccination:
- simple copulation, or grafting "in the butt": this method is used when the thickness of the scion and the stock are the same. This is the easiest grafting to perform, in which an oblique cut of the scion is applied to the oblique cut of the rootstock and the place of grafting is tightly fixed with a film;
- improved copulation, or copulation "with a tongue": on the oblique cuts of the rootstock and scion, deep serifs are made - "tongues", and then both parts are applied to each other so that the tongue of the scion goes over the tongue of the rootstock, after which the grafting site is tightly pulled together with tape or scotch tape;
- grafting "under the bark": this method is used when the diameter of the rootstock is greater than the diameter of the scion. This grafting is carried out after the start of sap flow, because at this time the bark is easier to separate from the wood. The scion is cut horizontally, the cut is cleaned, a longitudinal cut of the bark is made with a sharp knife to a depth of 25-35 mm, the bark is turned off and the scion stalk is inserted into the cut with an oblique lower cut of the same length to the rootstock wood. The entire section of the scion cuttings, which will be under the bark of the scion, must be cleared of bark. The grafting site is tightly fixed, and the rootstock cut and the upper cut of the scion are treated with garden pitch. In order for the graft site to grow together faster, put a transparent plastic bag on the seedling and fix it tightly below the graft site;
- grafting "in the split": the stock is shortened with a horizontal cut, and then the remaining stem is split in the center of the cut to a depth of 4-5 cm, and a temporary wedge is inserted into this split. On scion cuttings with 2-4 buds, the lower cut is made on both sides - with a wedge 4-5 cm long.A wedge of the scion cut is lowered into the rootstock cuttings, after which the temporary wedge is removed from the split, the grafting site is tightened with a film, and the open section of the rootstock cut and the top cut of the scion is covered with garden var.
When the two parts grow together, and growths appear on the scion, the fixing film and the plastic bag are removed, all the shoots formed below the inoculation site are removed.
Pear cuttings need to be harvested in winter: choose a mature branch with two-year-old wood and break it without breaking the bark. A long branch can be broken in several places - the ideal length of the cuttings is 15-20 cm. Wrap the break points in a semi-bent form with eyepiece tape, plaster or tape, and then tie the branch to a stick or wire - fix it in this form. Until spring, the plant will concentrate growth substances in the places of fractures for connecting tissues. At the end of March, the retainer and dressing material are removed, and the branch is cut into cuttings in the places of breaks.
A two-liter bottle made of dark plastic with a cut-off neck is filled with melt water to a height of 5-7 cm, a couple of activated carbon tablets are dissolved in it and 10-12 cuttings are lowered into it with lower slices. The bottle is placed on a light-colored windowsill. After three to four weeks, callus cones form on the lower cuts of the cuttings and roots begin to grow. When the roots reach 5-7 cm in length, they are planted in open ground, in nutrient soil, shading them from bright light for the first time. Cuttings need regular watering, feeding and weeding, and with good care, by the fall they will look like two- or three-year-old seedlings.
Pear diseases and their treatment
A pear in the garden can get sick with such diseases: scab, fire blight, fruit rot, subcutaneous viral spot, mosaic disease, rust, powdery mildew, black cancer, sooty fungus and cytosporosis.
Black cancer, or Antonov fire, affects the bark, leaves, fruits and skeletal branches of trees. The process begins with the appearance of small wounds, which grow with the course of the disease, and brown spots appear along their edges. Red spots form on fruits and leaves, black rot affects the fruits - they dry out and mummify.
Ways to fight: it is necessary every spring and every autumn to carry out preventive treatments of the garden against diseases and pests. In the fall, after the leaves fall off, they are raked up and burned. The areas of the trees affected by cancer are cleaned with a sharp knife, capturing healthy tissue to a depth of 2 cm, after which the wounds are disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate or a mixture of clay and mullein.
Fruit rot, or moniliosis, manifests itself on pear fruits in small brown spots, which, with the course of the disease, spread throughout the entire area of the fruit. At the same time, the fruits do not crumble, contributing to the spread of the disease.
Ways to fight. Affected fruits are harvested from trees and from the ground, destroyed, and trees are treated with chlorine copper or Bordeaux liquid.
Scab - the most insidious enemy of fruit trees, affecting fruits, leaves, shoots and flowers: first, specks of 2-4 mm appear on the leaves, gradually increasing to 2-3 cm.The fruits become small, hard, crack, their number decreases, appear on their skin dark spots gradually merging into a velvety spot.
Ways to fight. In the fall, remove fallen leaves from under the trees, burn it, in the spring treat trees and tree-trunk circles with Bordeaux liquid and urea solution.
Cytosporosis, or stem rot, dangerous primarily for old or weakened trees affected by sun or frostburn, exhausted by drought and improper or insufficient care. The bark of trees infected with cytosporosis gradually turns dark red, and the pear dries up.
Ways to fight. At the very beginning of the disease, it is necessary to remove the lesions with a sharp knife, and then treat the wounds with a solution of copper sulfate and garden varnish. In autumn, the trunks and bases of skeletal branches are whitewashed with lime. Sick branches should be pruned in a timely manner.
Rust - also a fungal disease, manifested by bright orange spots on the leaves. The disease reduces the immunity of the plant, weakens it. Most often, the disease affects trees in those gardens that are located nearby with juniper plantings.
The way to fight. Fruits and leaves with signs of the disease must be destroyed, and trees should be treated with colloidal sulfur or Bordeaux liquid for preventive purposes in autumn and spring every year.
Powdery mildew - one of the most dangerous fungal diseases of plants, from which flowers, shoots and leaves are covered with a whitish bloom - spores of a fungus that deforms all affected parts. The ovary falls off on diseased trees.
Ways to fight. Destroy fallen leaves, and treat trees several times with Sulfite or Fundazol before and after flowering.
Bacterial burn develops rapidly, spreading pathogenic bacteria with sap through the vessels of plants, which accelerates the process of tissue death. As a result of the development of the disease, the plant dies, and it must be removed from the site.
The way to fight. Once you have diagnosed the disease, spray the leaves and flowers of the plant with antibiotics several times at intervals of 5 days. In order to prevent the spread of the disease, during the subsequent pruning of the pear, the instrument is disinfected in boric acid.
Mosaic disease - severe viral disease. It is dangerous, first of all, because the treatment of a pear from a mosaic does not give a result. Its symptoms look like pale green or light yellow angular spots on the leaves. Infection usually occurs during vaccination.
Ways to fight. Diseased trees cannot be saved - they are removed from the site and burned so that the virus does not spread throughout the garden. You can prevent infection by carefully selecting seedlings in the nursery and reacting in a timely manner to the slightest changes in the color of pear leaves.
Sooty fungus. In the second half of summer, a dark bloom of sooty fungus appears on the green parts of the pear. Most often, the disease is a consequence of the vital activity of aphids or other pests.
Ways to fight. First you need to exterminate the insects that caused the disease with an insecticide. After that, the tree is treated with Fitoverm or copper-soap solution.
Subcutaneous viral spotting manifested by the accumulation of hard, tasteless cells in the pulp of the fruit. In these places, the development of the fruit stops, dents are formed, which make the fruits ugly, as a result of which the quality and quantity of the harvest is noticeably reduced, the leaves acquire a mosaic color, and cracks appear on the bark. Trees weaken and can freeze in winter.
Ways to fight. The disease is spread by sucking insects, infection can occur during vaccination or when pruning a pear with a non-sterile tool. Do not allow harmful insects to parasitize trees; when buying, carefully inspect the seedlings, when you are going to do pruning or grafting, thoroughly disinfect the tools.
In addition to the diseases described, the danger to the pear is represented by such diseases as rubberiness, dying off of branches, common cancer, fly-eaters, mosaic ringlets, false tinder fungus, white spot, or septoria.
Pear pests and control
There are as many insects that can harm pear trees as there are diseases affecting this genus, so we will soon publish on the site a voluminous and detailed article entitled "Diseases and Pests of the Pear". Today we offer you only an overview of some of the most common pests on pear trees.
Leaf roll - a small mobile caterpillar, affecting only pear leaves, which is why they curl up into a tube and become smaller. As a preventive measure, trees are treated with a solution of the Tsimbush preparation.
Subcrustal leaf roll damages the bark of trees at a height of about half a meter from ground level. As a result of this damage, gum begins to flow from the cracks in the bark, and if you do not take action, the trees dry up and die. The trunks must be cleaned of the dead layer of bark, and the stripping sites must be treated with a strong solution of chlorophos.
Pear Copper sucks out cell juice and, as a result of vital activity, produces substances favorable for the development of a sooty fungus. Due to the lack of juice, young buds, leaves and buds wrinkle and fall off, the fruits are deformed, the quality and quantity of the crop decreases. Treatment of pears from sucker punch is carried out by using Iskra and Agravertin preparations in accordance with the instructions. Folk remedies are also used - decoctions of tobacco dust, pharmacy chamomile, dandelion or yarrow.
Mites, gallic or apple red, also feed on plant juices. Gallic feeds on the juice of the buds, and the red apple prefers to settle on the leaves, from which they turn red. As a preventive measure, pears are treated in early spring with acaricides - a ten percent solution of colloidal sulfur or Fufanon. The next treatment session is carried out after flowering. If necessary, another spraying is possible, which is carried out no later than a month before harvesting. Alternate remedies, as ticks develop immunity when they are repeated.
Moth - a butterfly laying eggs on a pear, from which caterpillars appear, affecting the pulp of the fruit.As a preventive measure, trees are treated before and after flowering with Agravertin, and three weeks after flowering, the tree is sprayed with Kinmix, and another week with Iskra. If you find a moth in the shoots, then the treatment against it continues after the harvest - late varieties of apple trees are processed up to seven times per season. Do not forget to collect and burn fallen leaves after falling leaves, as well as dig up the soil in the trunk circle.
Aphid, blood or green apple, damages many types of trees - the tops of their shoots and leaves curl and dry. A preventive measure that gives a good result is the treatment of trees in early spring, before budding, at an air temperature of at least 5 ºC with Nitrafen, Oleocobrite, Karbofos or Kemifos, and during the period from budding to pear blossoming, it is sprayed with Phosphamide, Antio, Karbofos, Cyanox, Decis or Metaphos. In the summer, the treatment with the listed drugs is repeated. If you are an adherent of gentle remedies, use a soap solution (300 g of soap per 10 l of water) or herbal preparations to combat aphids - a two-day infusion of 10 g of white mustard powder in a liter of water, for example, adding 200 g of infusion to a volume of 1 l before processing.
In addition to the described pests, the following insects can parasitize the pear: apple glass, blue-headed scoop, peppered moth and winter moth, fruit moth, unpaired, oak-leaved and ringed silkworms, miner moth, western unpaired bark beetle, sapwood, pear and apple blossom trubovert, pear sawfly, leaf and fruit gall midges, pear pruritus, hawthorn.
Varieties for the Moscow region
Thanks to the work of breeders, today there are many varieties of pears that are successfully grown in areas with cold and long winters:
- Lada - an early summer, winter-hardy, drought-resistant variety, rarely affected by fungal diseases. These are medium-sized trees with a pyramidal crown and yellow fruits weighing up to 150 g, with a blurred reddish blush. The fruit has a sweet and sour taste, hardish pulp, rich in fructose. The fruits of this variety are poorly stored;
- Cathedral - a popular medium-summer variety in the Moscow region with yellowish-green fruits, as if oily on the surface, weighing up to 100 g with a sour taste. The variety is early ripening, resistant to frost and infections, well transported and well stored;
- Prominent, or Lumpy - late summer winter-hardy and resistant to fungi variety, ripening by September. The fruits are uneven, yellowish-green with orange streaks, can hang on the tree for a long time, but they are poorly transported and stored;
- Chizhovskaya - also a late summer, frost and fungus resistant self-fertile variety with greenish-yellow fruits with pink blush with whitish friable flesh of sweet and sour taste. A rich harvest of Chizhovskaya pear can be obtained if a tree of the Lada variety grows in the immediate vicinity;
- Tenderness - the best pear of the late summer variety, bred by crossing the varieties Tema and Lyubimitsa Klappa. The color of sweet and sour fruits, reaching 200 g in weight, is two-thirds red and one green. The variety is very productive and cold-resistant;
- Muscovite - early autumn variety with light yellow fruits interspersed with green. The pulp is fragrant, juicy, slightly oily;
- Fabulous - tall trees with large fruits up to 250 g in weight. The color of the fruits is greenish-yellow, the pulp is juicy, tasty. The variety is intended for fresh consumption or for processing, since the fruits are not stored for a long time;
- Varieties Pervomaisky and Petrova so similar that there is no point in separating them. These are winter varieties that ripen by mid-October and are stored under certain conditions until spring. The fruits are harvested green, but over time, Pervomaysky pears turn yellow, and their flesh becomes creamy. The fruits of the Petrova variety do not change during storage.
Early varieties of pear
Actually, pear varieties are usually divided into summer, autumn and winter according to ripening periods, from which it follows that the early varieties are summer ones, the middle ones are autumn ones, and the late ones are winter ones. So, early varieties of pears ripen from mid-July to late August. Popular early varieties are:
- Lipotics - the earliest variety of scab-resistant pears, the golden fruits of which with a ruddy side ripen by the end of June. The fragrant fruit pulp melts in your mouth. The variety was bred in Bulgaria, therefore it does not have winter hardiness, but it is extremely resistant to pests such as aphids;
- Early summer Is a medium-sized tree with a wide-pyramidal crown and straight branches. Fruits weighing only up to 120 g are yellowish-green with a slight pink blush and delicate white pulp of a sweet and sour taste do not crumble from the branches for a long time, but they can be stored for no longer than 10 days;
- Moldavian early - a hybrid between varieties Williams and Lyubimitsa Klappa. This is a tall tree with a compact crown of medium size and yellow-green fruits weighing up to 150 g. The pulp of the fruit is sweet and sour, oily, fragrant, creamy. The variety is frost-hardy, not affected by scab, self-fertile. A rich harvest is possible when grown near the Moldavian early pears of the Krasivaya, Swallow or Bere Giraffe varieties;
- July early - also an early summer winter-hardy variety with elongated yellow fruits with tender, juicy, sweet and sour pulp, ripening by mid-July;
- Mlievskaya early - this early maturing, cold-resistant and bacterial cancer variety obtained by crossing the Gliva Ukrainskaya and Esperen varieties. The fruits of this variety are wide pear-shaped, medium-sized, weighing no more than 100 g, with a thin skin, buttery juicy pulp of creamy sweet-sour taste. They ripen in early August and are stored in the refrigerator for no longer than 2 months;
- Refectory - an excellent variety, the only drawback of which is the impossibility of storing its fruits in the refrigerator for more than five days, so it is better to pick them slightly unripe.
In addition to those described, such summer pear varieties as Skorospelka from Michurinsk, Allegro, Severyanka red-cheeked, Pamyatnaya, Avgustovskaya dew, Rogneda, ELS-9-7 are popular.
Autumn pear varieties ripen in late September or early October. Unfortunately, their fruits are not stored for very long. The best of the autumn varieties of pears are considered to be the following:
- Veles - winter-hardy and disease-resistant variety with large greenish-yellow fruits weighing up to 200 g with creamy pulp of excellent taste;
- Thumbelina - winter-hardy pear variety with small fruits - only up to 80 g in weight. Fruit color is yellow-brown, creamy pulp is juicy, sweet, very tasty. Fruits are stored until December;
- Elegant Efimova - This early-growing, winter-hardy, scab-resistant variety ripens in September. Fruits are greenish-yellow with creamy pulp, weighing up to 120 g, it is better to pick them still green. Fruits are stored for 2-3 weeks.
Such autumn varieties of pears are widely known: Caucasus, Autumn Lyubimitsa, Margarita Marilya, Williams, Lyubimitsa Klappa, Otradnenskaya, Cheremshina, Admiral Gervais, Pamyat Zhegalova, Duchess and others.
Winter varieties ripen in October, but this does not mean that they can be eaten right away: they must hang on the tree before reaching biological maturity, but at the same time they must have time to be harvested before they crumble. The keeping quality of winter varieties is also different. The most famous winter pear varieties:
- Bere Bosc - the fruits of this variety are usually oblong, as if covered with rust in some places; in maturation they acquire a bronze tint. The flesh of the fruit is melting, tender, of pleasant taste. You can take them off closer to the end of September, but they will become suitable for food after another two to three weeks. Pears of this variety are stored for a month and a half;
- Belarusian late - a fast-growing, winter-hardy variety that begins to bear fruit as early as the third or fourth year of life. Green fruits weighing up to 120 g ripen by the end of September, but consumer ripeness occurs when they turn yellow-orange. The flesh of the fruit is white, sour-sweet. The fruits of this variety are stored until February and even until March;
- Rossoshanskaya late - frost-resistant variety with fruits weighing up to 350 g, which can be harvested green at the end of September, but consumer ripeness occurs when they turn yellow. The juicy, creamy pulp has a pleasant taste. The fruits of this variety are stored for 3-4 months;
- Bere Ardanpon - a pear with large bumpy greenish-yellow fruits up to 300 g in weight, similar to a quince. Their pulp is slightly tart, sweet, buttery. The fruits are removed at the very beginning of October, but they can be eaten only after a month and a half. The fruits of this variety are stored until January;
- Winter decan - a variety with barrel-shaped fruits weighing up to 300 g, green with a red blush when harvested in the second decade of October, but greenish-yellow after reaching consumer maturity in two months. The pulp of the fruit is fragrant, tender, with a barely noticeable sourness. The fruits of this variety are stored until March;
- Malyavskaya late - fruits weighing from 110 to 225 g of yellow color are covered with blush by a third. The color of the juicy, tart pulp is creamy;
- Winter Kubarevnaya - a hybrid between Bergamot, Duchess and Lyubimitsa Klappa varieties. Fruit weight is about 200 g, the color is light green with a reddish barrel after ripening it becomes golden yellow with a raspberry blush. The pulp is of medium density, white, juicy, sweet with barely noticeable sourness.
In addition to the described winter varieties of pears, such varieties as Gera, Bogataya, Dekabrinka, February souvenir, Wonderful, Late, Melting, Yuryevskaya, Yantarnaya, Elena, Nadezhda, Nika, Lyra, Paskhalnaya, Perun, Malvina winter, Kure, Etude are in demand in culture Kievsky, Kyrgyz winter, November and others.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Pink
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Fruit Crops
Sections: Fruit and berry plants Pink (Rosaceae) Fruit trees Plants on G
Features of nectarine
The height of the nectarine can vary from 4 to 7 meters, while the crown diameter can be 3-4 meters. The sheet plates have a serrated edge. Flowering begins before the leaves grow. The pink-flowered plant looks a lot like a flowering peach tree. The fruits of these two crops are also very similar in size and shape, however, the skin of the nectarine is slippery and smooth, while that of the peach is fleecy. Ripe nectarine fruit can be yellowish, yellow-red, cherry, yellow-green, red-yellow and red. The flesh of the peach is softer than that of the nectarine.
Fruit ripening lasts 3-5 months and at the same time they need warmth. In this regard, this tree is cultivated only in regions with a long and relatively warm summer period. An adult plant has high frost resistance, it can withstand frost down to minus 32 degrees, but it should be noted that the death of flower buds is observed already at minus 2 degrees.
In addition to peach, nectarine is considered a relative of the following fruit crops: almonds, plums, quince, apple, pear, apricot, irga, cherry plum, hawthorn, mountain ash, chokeberry, cotoneaster, wild rose and medlar. Nectarine is planted in open ground and looked after in almost the same way as when cultivating a peach, but there are still differences.
Similarities between pear varieties Dikanka and Tavricheskaya
If we compare the Tavricheskaya variety with the Dikanka pear, then you can notice some similarities:
- Trees of medium vigor, well leafy.
- The Dikanka variety with good winter hardiness, the same is noted in the description of the Tauric pear.
- Dikanka's fruits are large, even slightly larger than those of Tavricheskaya. With good care, they reach 700 g.
- Both trees bear fruit abundantly, but pears become smaller in a good year.
- The Dikanka and Tavricheskaya varieties are late summer varieties. Ripen in late September or early October.
- Trees are demanding on soil and growing conditions.
- The fruits of both varieties are well stored and transported.
Based on these characteristics, it can be concluded that the Dikanka variety transferred only its best qualities to the Tavricheskaya pear.
Planting and caring for a New Year's pear
Before you start planting a tree, you must choose the right place. It is preferable that the site be free of drafts, well lit by the sun. It is better to plant a New Year's pear from the south side. The groundwater depth should not exceed 2 m.
The site for planting is being prepared in the fall. Even if the planting will be carried out in the spring, site preparation should be done in advance. To do this, dig holes up to 50 cm deep, up to 1 m wide. A prepared soil mixture is laid on the bottom of the planting pit, consisting of: superphosphate, humus, fertile soil. All components are mixed in equal proportions.
After preparing the planting pit, a strong support should be installed. To do this, take a high wooden peg. The soil at the bottom of the planting hole is loosened well, small holes are made, which will improve the exchange of air, which will stimulate the active growth of the tree root.
Having performed the correct agricultural technique for planting New Year's pears, you can minimize the risk that the seedling will not take root.
- Prepare the seedling. In a young sprout, a small pruning of the roots and upper part is done. After that, the seedling is placed in water.
- Wood ash is poured into the ground dug from the hole, a little water is added.
- The root of the plant is placed in the prepared mixture.
- A dozen raw eggs are laid at the bottom of the planting pit, and a mixture of ash and earth is poured on top.
- Place the seedling in the hole, leaving the root collar above ground level.
- They fill the hole with soil with a slide, tamping well.
- A dozen raw eggs are laid around the trunk, covered with earth.
- The top of the cut is lubricated with a composition of earth with wood ash.
- Tie the seedling to the support.
- Watering is carried out (20 liters of water).
- Mulching is carried out with peat or sawdust.
Watering and feeding
After planting a young seedling, it is important to provide the plant with proper care.
Winter New Year's pear loves moisture, but without an overabundance. The best watering is rain. In the absence of precipitation for a long time, watering is carried out manually.
Experienced gardeners recommend digging a ditch (10 cm wide) near the pear, where water is poured if necessary. Thus, the root system of the tree will absorb as much moisture as it needs.
In order for the New Year's pear to bring a good harvest, top dressing is performed if necessary. You can determine what the plant needs by the appearance of the tree:
- with a lack of nitrogen, the green mass develops poorly
- an excess of nitrogen is indicated by a long ripening period of fruits and low frost resistance
- lack of phosphorus can be determined by breaking off branches at the bottom of the tree
- potassium deficiency is characterized by discoloration of the leaves and their drying out
- lack of calcium manifests itself in spots on the leaves and leads to early fall of foliage.
According to gardeners, the New Year's pear should be fed closer to autumn. The seedling will better tolerate frosts, and the soil will be saturated with useful substances. It is worth noting that feeding is performed after harvesting the fruits.
Trees are cut in autumn and spring. This activity improves the quality and quantity of the fruit. Regular pruning allows the green mass to receive more sunlight. Spring shoot removal is a good prevention of diseases and insect pests.
To properly trim, you must follow the instructions:
- Choose a garden tool according to the age of the plant. Young trees are cut with pruning shears, adults - with a hacksaw.
- The main trunk is shortened by ¼ part, poorly developed and dead shoots are removed.
- Pruning is carried out at a temperature not lower than 5-7 degrees Celsius.
- Places of cuts are treated with a special composition: oil paint, drying oil, garden varnish or the preparation "Rannet".
Whitewashing of New Year's pears is carried out annually in autumn and early spring. Autumn whitewashing helps to minimize the risk of damage to the main trunk, is the prevention of diseases. The trunk and main branches are subject to whitewashing.
To perform this event, use:
- lime powder - 2.5 kg
- copper sulfate 0.5 kg
- joiner's glue - 1 pack.
- any insecticide - 1 pack.
- water - 12 liters.
All components are mixed and left for several hours until complete dissolution.
Trees are treated with the prepared composition, with a deepening into the ground by 4-5 cm.
Preparing for winter
Main care measures: preventive pruning of old, damaged branches, whitewashing, fertilization.
Closer to winter, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied under the trees, and the area is cleared of weeds. It will be useful to add superphosphate and potassium sulfate to the soil. Such dressings will provide the pear with useful substances for the entire winter period.
Do not forget about protection from rodents. Mice and hares can damage the bark of young trees. To avoid unpleasant consequences, the trunk is wrapped in burlap. Experienced gardeners recommend lubricating the bark of a tree with clay mixed with mullein and plain water. In this case, you can do without shelter.
Collection and storage of fruits
Chizhovskaya is fast-growing, fruiting begins 3-4 years after vaccination. The tree bears fruit annually. Up to 50 kg of fruits are harvested from one adult pear. This is a late summer variety that ripens in the second half of August a week or two later than Lada. Fruits are of medium transportability. Stores well in the refrigerator - up to 2-4 months. Pears can be eaten fresh or used for home preservation (making jams, jams, compotes, juices). Summer pears are removed a little unripe and put into the refrigerator, where they will ripen in 1-2 weeks. Fruits overripe on the tree crack and are almost not stored.
Quince varieties with photos and names
The following varieties of quince are cultivated by gardeners: ordinary or oblong quince and Japanese quince. Such varieties belong to the pink family, but at the same time they are representatives of different genera. So, the Japanese quince is part of the genomeles genus, and therefore its varieties will not be described in this article. Such a monotypic genus as ordinary or oblong quince has many different varieties, which are divided by the ripening time into late, mid-maturing and early ones.
Early varieties of quince
The following early varieties are most popular:
- Early oil can... Fruit ripening is observed in the last days of September. Lemon-yellow large fruits weigh 190-350 grams, they are smooth, ribbed and have a conical-round shape. The yellowish-white fragrant pulp has an average density, it is juicy, fine-grained and sweet-sour. During storage, the astringent effect of the fruits disappears and they acquire a sweet taste.
- Crimean aromatic... The winter-resistant variety is distinguished by its yield. Resistant to subcutaneous spotting. Fruit ripening is observed at the end of September. Medium smooth yellow-lemon fruits are apple-shaped. The slightly sour pale yellow pulp is juicy.
- Juicy... A productive variety resistant to drought and frost. The average size of the fruit weighs about 250 grams. The sweet-sour yellow flesh is very juicy.
- Harvest Kuban... This high-yielding variety is resistant to disease, frost and drought. Quite large fruits weigh up to 0.5 kg. The sweet-sour creamy pulp is juicy enough.
- Skorospelka... This high-yielding technical grade is disease resistant. The fruits are small, their sweet-sour flesh has a mediocre taste. Such fruits are not eaten fresh.
The following early varieties are still quite popular: Aurora, Anzherskaya, Zolotistaya, Gold of the Scythians, Rumo, Nikitskaya, Golden ball, Collective, Krasnoslobodskaya, Gift, etc.
Medium varieties of quince
Fruits of mid-season varieties ripen from early to mid-October. Varieties:
- Kaunchi 10... This is a high-yielding Central Asian variety that is distinguished by its drought resistance, average frost resistance. Medium pear-shaped fruits have a smooth, in some cases slightly ribbed surface, on which there is an easily erased gray tomentose pubescence. The orange-yellow fruit has a creamy, aromatic flesh that is sweet and firm.
- Kuban... This variety is fast-growing, it has medium resistance to drought and frost. Small, slightly ribbed cylindrical-rounded fruits weigh about 250 grams, on their surface there is a dense pubescence, consisting of gray felt pile. In ripe greenish-orange fruits, pubescence disappears. Juicy, sweet creamy pulp has low acidity and medium density, there are stony cells near the seed chamber.
- Astrakhan... The variety has a high yield. Medium pear-shaped, pale yellow fruits weigh about 200 grams. The yellow pulp with a creamy shade is dense, fine-grained, has a tart-sour taste.
- Golotlinskaya apple-shaped... This early ripening variety is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and productivity, it has a compact small crown. Medium pubescent ribbed fruits have a cylindrical or flat-spherical shape, they are colored yellow-golden with green and weigh about 280 grams. The juicy pulp is pale yellow tart, even after processing it is very fragrant.
- Beretsky... This partially self-fertile variety was born thanks to Hungarian breeders, it has a stable yield. For pollination, it is recommended to use the varieties Giant, Champion and Portuguese. The large pear-shaped fruits weigh about 270 grams, they are very aromatic and have a high taste. They can be eaten fresh, like apples. The juicy yellow pulp is very tasty.
- Trimontium... The variety is winter-hardy. Average fruits are of equal size, they are usually used for processing.
The following varieties are also quite popular among gardeners: Limonka, Excellent student, Leskovats, Shchuchinskaya, Persian, etc.
Late varieties of quince
Fruits of late varieties ripen in the last days of October or in November. Popular varieties:
- Zubutlinskaya... This Dagestan variety of folk selection is distinguished by its yield and resistance to wind, frost and diseases. The yellow-golden felt fruits are very large and weigh about 0.8 kg, they are obtuse ribbed, have a rounded shape. Juicy pale yellow flesh tastes very pleasant.
- Vraniska Denmark... This variety of Yugoslavian selection has a high yield, it is resistant to disease and wind. Yellow-green, slightly woolly pear-shaped truncated-rounded fruits weigh about 270 grams. Sweetish-sour, dense and juicy pulp is colored in a pale yellow color.
- Buinakskaya large-fruited... The Dagestan early-growing and self-fertile variety is distinguished by high productivity and resistance to diseases and frost. Cylindrical or pear-shaped pale yellow fruits are rather large, in some cases their weight reaches 0.7 kg.
- Ktyun-Zhum (winter quince)... A strongly late variety is zoned for the Middle Caucasus. Smooth yellow fruits with a golden hue are wide-ribbed, often weighing about 0.8 kg. The pale yellow sweet-sour pulp has a high taste.
- Portuguese... This European variety is partially self-fertile and has medium frost resistance. Medium slightly pubescent fruits of short pear-shaped form are ribbed. The pale yellow fragrant pulp has a tart taste.
Still popular are such varieties as: Mir, Student, Gigantic, Champion, Victoria, etc.
Quince varieties for the Moscow region
Quince is excellent for cultivation in the Moscow region, because it has a very high resistance to frost, and tolerates winter better than sweet cherries, apricots, cherries and than certain varieties of apple and pear. For wintering, the quince must be covered, for this the bottom of the stem and the root zone are insulated. Recommended varieties:
- Muscat... This medium-sized early variety has a high yield and resistance to frost, drought and disease. This variety is best suited for the Moscow region, as it grows well on dense soil. Felt to the touch, fluffy fruits have a rough, pale creamy flesh.
- Firstborn... The moisture-loving early variety is distinguished by its yield and frost resistance. Begins to bear fruit from the fourth year. Rounded, non-pubescent smooth fruits are light yellow in color and weigh about 220 grams. The creamy, fragrant pulp is tender and juicy.
- Amber... The early-fruiting mid-season variety has an average frost resistance and is distinguished by its yield and high resistance to drought and fungal diseases. Slightly ribbed apple-shaped medium fruits can be colored from amber to deep yellow. Very fragrant coarse-grained pulp of yellow-orange or rich cream color, juicy and sweet-sour.
- Success... The late self-fertile variety is characterized by resistance to frost and drought and productivity. Slightly pubescent, smooth, rounded fruits have a pale yellow color and sweet flesh.
- Krasnodar... The mid-season variety is resistant to frost and drought. Medium weakly ribbed apple-shaped fruits weigh about 200 grams, they are colored in a rich yellow or orange-amber hue. The coarse-grained, very fragrant pulp is juicy, sweet-sour, yellow-orange or rich cream in color.
Also, for cultivation in the Moscow region, such varieties are recommended as: Fragrant, Steppe beauty, Dessertnaya, Excellent, Blagodatnaya, Ranetnaya and Gurdzhi.