Growing tomatoes: planting, shaping and feeding
Read part 1. What is a vegetable hybrid and where does it come from
What is a heterotic tomato hybrid
It probably makes sense to dwell a little on the explanation of such a concept as a heterotic hybrid. Gardeners often ask questions about him. When crossing some varieties of any culture, F1 hybrids often differ from the parental forms by more vigorous growth, better vitality, higher productivity, resistance to diseases and to sharp weather fluctuations. This property of the first generation hybrids is called heterosis.
Heterosis is the property of the first generation hybrids to surpass the parents or the best of the parental forms in terms of certain biological and economically valuable traits and properties, in terms of their severity. The phenomenon of heterosis (heterozygosis, hybrid vigor, hybrid vigor) was discovered in 1770 by the associate botanist of the Russian Academy of Sciences Josef Gottlit Kelreiter.
We will not go into the theory of this phenomenon, only for ourselves we will draw the following conclusions: heterosis enhances the stability of genetic systems in changing environmental conditions. Heterosis can manifest itself according to one or several traits, often in one way or another, determining the viability of a plant or its accelerated development.
Thus, heterosis can manifest itself both in the general habit of a plant and in the formation of individual organs - roots, root crops, leaves, inflorescences, flowers and fruits. Sometimes it manifests itself in biochemical characteristics (content of dry substances, sugars, fats, vitamins, etc.), often in changes in physiological characteristics (increased cold resistance, drought resistance, improved keeping quality during storage, general resistance to diseases, etc.).
It is clear that heterotic F1 hybrids will better withstand stress. The question is often asked: “Why does the same hybrid in different years have different properties”. From what I have said above, the answer suggests itself: different weather (external conditions) affect. Note that plants of the same variety, grown in different light zones, may differ from each other in morphological characteristics and biological properties.
True, sometimes it also depends on the quality of the hybrid itself, when the breeder did not succeed in everything. Typically, world-class breeding companies have ten to two dozen competitive, reliable hybrids with a good reputation for reliability in their product range. I have already noted that each summer cottage has its own microclimate, which means that the selection of reliable hybrids should take into account their own capabilities. It is necessary to create appropriate conditions for plants. It has now been proven that tomato plants of various varieties have features of growth and development in conditions of long daylight hours, which is important for our light zone.
I will show this by the example of growing cluster-type tomatoes, their reaction to external conditions. Now the most popular types of tomatoes among summer residents: beef, cluster, cherry - Dutch, Japanese and Israeli selection - these are the most reliable and high-quality hybrids. Growing each type of tomato has its own characteristics. Within the framework of one article, I do not have the opportunity to dwell on the features of all types of tomatoes, especially since there are also varietal differences, and this is sometimes very important when you choose a hybrid. I will only note that the cluster type of tomatoes is cluster tomatoes. And now, briefly about their features, although, of course, there are general principles in tomato agricultural technology.
If the soil in the greenhouse is not warmed up well enough, then the fruiting of the tomato is shifted by a week or more - this applies to all types of tomato. The soil warms up very slowly in spring, and even when the air temperature in the greenhouse in March in sunny weather reaches 30 ° C, the soil temperature in the root layer barely reaches 15 ... 16 ° C, which negatively affects the development of the plant. A favorable soil temperature for plants allows the formation of ridges to be maintained.
Timely warmed-up soil avoids a number of diseasesassociated with root and root rot. Gardeners should be aware that freezing the greenhouse soil in winter only helps in the fight against pests (whitefly, aphids), but does not destroy fungal spores in the soil and on plant debris. Nematodes, hibernating tick females and some other pests also remain unharmed. In the spring in the greenhouse, the most reliable means is steaming, while all types of pathogens are destroyed. And do not forget to steam the seedling soil - it is not difficult, but the effect will be good.
Growing tomato seedlings
What should you pay attention to when growing seedlings? Seeds should be sown to a depth of 0.5-1 cm in boxes or cassettes filled with nutrient mixture. To get friendly, uniform shoots, the seeds are sprinkled on top with a thin layer of light porous material (perlite, peat, vermiculite). For friendly germination of seeds, it is necessary to maintain the soil temperature around 23 ... 24 ° C around the clock. After the emergence of seedlings, the air temperature during the day should be at the level of 22 ... 23 ° С.
Seedlings dive into pots with peat or sod land after 12-14 days, while at the same time they discard weak plants. The pick should be carried out in a well-moistened, warm substrate (18 ... 20 ° С). The optimum size for a tomato seedling pot is 0.6–0.8 liters. There is no consensus on hardening seedlings. It is known that hardening shifts the fruiting period by two weeks, but the seedlings are more resistant to adverse environmental conditions. This technique is necessary only in the case of planting tomatoes in unheated greenhouses, when the probability of frost after planting seedlings is high.
If hardened, then it is better to do it according to the following technique. Hardening of seedlings should be done in order to reduce the risk of damage to the plant by low temperatures. Hardening is carried out in two stages: first, the seedlings are hardened, and then the seedlings. The air temperature for 5-7 days after the emergence of seedlings is maintained at the level of 13 ... 15 ° C during the day, and 7 ... 9 ° C at night. Soil temperature should not fall below 12 ... 14 ° С.
After hardening the seedlings and before hardening the seedlings, the temperature is maintained at 21 ... 23 ° C on a sunny day, 17 ... 19 ° C on a cloudy day, and at night 10 ... 12 ° C. Seedlings are hardened at a temperature not lower than 10 ... 12 ° С during the day and 4-5 ° С at night. For heated film greenhouses, the age of seedlings can vary within 35-45 days, and for unheated greenhouses - 50-60 days. On cloudy days in the greenhouse, it is necessary to maintain the air temperature at 20 ° C during the day and 17 ° C at night, on sunny days, respectively, 22 ° C and 18 ° C.
The planting scheme of seedlings is as follows: in a row between plants, the distance is 50-55 cm, and between rows - 80 cm. From the moment of fruit setting to harvest, 55-60 days pass. The optimal conditions for the pollination process are a temperature of 25 ° C and a humidity of 65-75%. Pollination needs help: industrial greenhouses use bumblebees, mechanical vibrators, hormones. In amateur greenhouses, gardeners usually tap the stem of the plant in the morning during flowering. True, hormonal preparations have already appeared on the market.
However, I want to note that not all hybrids are resistant to hormone treatment and do not change the shape of the fetus, by the way, perhaps some amateur experimenters changed the shape of the fetus for this reason, and not only because of the abnormal weather. Some gardeners are faced with the "problem" of pinching, and for this reason they buy dwarf plants, which are planted in a good tall greenhouse, and the result is often negative. I must say right away: indeterminate or semi-indeterminate hybrids should be planted in a normal greenhouse (2-2.5 m tall).
No need to choose varieties by height - a tomato is not a fishing rod. Its height depends on the number of brushes on the plant. In our seasonal greenhouses when maintaining a tomato culture in a short turnover, you can count on getting 6-7 brushes. Formation of plants into one stem with the removal of lateral shoots allows obtaining high-quality products with a high yield of excellent fruits.
When growing tomatoes on a plant, you can leave up to 18 leaves in the spring and up to 24 in the summer. At one time, it is necessary to remove no more than 2-3 leaves. Leaves must be removed completely, without leaving "hemp" on the plant. Removing the leaves contributes to better ventilation of the plants, which means that the risk of fungal infection is reduced, as well as the stimulation of fruit ripening. Leaves should be removed weekly, preferably in sunny weather. Twisting the tops of the plants is best done in the second half of the day, when the plants lose their turgor and the likelihood of plant breakage is reduced. As with leaf removal, clockwise winding of the tops should be done weekly.
It is necessary to pinch the tops of the main tomato stem 40-50 days before the liquidation of the culture, in this case, you can get very large fruits from the upper brushes. During the entire growing season, it is necessary to systematically remove side shoots (stepchildren) with a length of no more than 5-7 cm, since their strong growth leads to significant crop losses. An important factor in the microclimate is the relative humidity of the air. Its optimal range for tomato is 70-75%. Gardeners should remember this rule: the air temperature in the greenhouse can drop sharply, but in no case should it rise sharply, as this is more stressful for the plants.
Fertilizers and fertilizing for tomatoes
When maintaining a tomato culture, to obtain 6-7 brushes, it is enough to add humus and mineral fertilizers to the main dressing during soil preparation, but the quality of the resulting product will not be high. What mistakes should you avoid? Making all the necessary nutrition for the entire period at one time. The fact is that fertilizers create too high a concentration of the solution in the initial period of growth and harm the young roots of plants.
As a rule, fertilizers are required to the maximum extent for cluster tomatoes at a time when flowering begins on 7 brushes and fruits are poured on the first 2-3 brushes, and there are not enough nutrients for the upper brushes. As a result, there is an abortion of flowers, poor fruit set and their crushing on the upper brushes. Such fruits do not reach their optimal weight by the time of harvest. To avoid this situation, it is necessary to carry out regular root dressing.
The composition of the fertilizing solution recommended for growing hybrids is interesting, starting from the flowering of the third cluster and almost to the end of the cultivation of the crop, proposed by the Dutch company "Rijk Zwaan". The composition of such a nutrient solution is as follows: potassium nitrate - 700 g, calcium nitrate - 500 g, magnesium nitrate - 500 g, potassium monophosphate - 250 g. Total fertilizers 1950
This amount of fertilizer (in total 1.95 kg) must be dissolved in 1 m? water (1 ton) with only one condition: dissolve potassium monophosphate separately in warm water and then add to the container for irrigation water filled to 2/3. You can calculate the amount of fertilizer per 10 liter bucket of water, reducing it by a factor of 100. It is clear that the Dutch use this solution for drip irrigation. In amateur plantings, they can water the plants in the usual way based on the usual watering rate (according to the weather), but not more than 4 liters per plant. To maximize your yield, you need to constantly monitor plant development and maintain a balance between vegetative and generative growth. It is easier to grow those hybrids where this balance is fixed at the genetic level.
The main conclusion from the article is the same as that made long ago by the famous breeder Ivan Michurin, who said: "Variety is everything"... And if you make the right choice for your site, then you will not be afraid of abnormal phenomena of any year. I will not recommend any specific hybrids, I think the readers will draw their own conclusion and find for themselves exactly what they need.
Vladimir Stepanov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, head of the farm "Elita", Pskov region
Growing tomatoes: planting, shaping and feeding - garden and vegetable garden
Tomato - a perennial plant, but cultivated as an annual vegetable crop. Tomato is a heat demanding crop. The optimum temperature for plant growth and development is 22-25 ° C. Demanding on light and soil moisture, but does not tolerate high air humidity. It can grow on any fertile soil, except for very acidic ones. Responsive to the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers. Tomato also necessary microelements (manganese, boron, copper, etc.), they are introduced in the form of micronutrient fertilizers.
Grow tomatoes seedling method. For getting early tomatoes seeds for seedlings are sown in early March, to obtain mid-season and late tomatoes - from 1 to 5 April. The seeds are sown directly into pots or seed boxes. The seeds of many varieties of tomatoes germinate after 2-3 days.
However, hybrid varieties of tomatoes with small seeds, as well as varieties of foreign selection, germinate only on the 7th and even 10th day. This must be taken into account and do not throw out the soaked seeds ahead of time. Dry, long-stored seeds also show low germination energy. therefore when storing seeds paper bags are best placed in plastic bags or glass jars with a lid.
Seed germination can be accelerated. For example, if you warm them up in a thermos at 45 ° C for 2 hours (check with a thermometer) and then pickle for 20 minutes in dark purple potassium permanganate, rinse and soak in a cloth - accelerated germination will be ensured. The germination of seeds is also accelerated by such a technique as bubbling - an increased supply of the solution with atmospheric oxygen. To do this, take an aquarium compressor and a jar of water, lower the tip to the bottom, put the seeds in gauze bags and pass air through the hose for 2-4 hours. Do not dry the seeds in the attic, oven or on a battery - hasty drying is harmful. Dry the seeds on the window in the room. 10-15 days after the emergence of seedlings in the phase of cotyledons or 1-2 true leaves are transplanted into pots with a nutrient mixture.
Sow to a depth of 1–2 cm. Then the soil is watered with warm water, the boxes are covered with foil and placed in a dark, warm (20–25 ° C) place. After the emergence of seedlings, the film is removed, the boxes are rearranged for 1-7 days to a cooler place (12-15 ° C). In the future, the air temperature is maintained at 18-22 ° C during the day, 15-16 ° C at night, if the seedlings are stretched out, it is necessary to reduce watering, reduce the air temperature to 12 ° C, then sprinkle the seedlings with a superphosphate solution. Stop feeding with organic and mineral fertilizers, pour ash into the soil.
Sometimes seed-poisonous leaves pull the "skin" of seeds from the soil during germination. Rather, this is due to the fact that the seeds are sown too shallowly (planting depth - 1 in a place of 1.5-2 cm).
In several days before planting seedlings the temperature in the rooms is brought to a level close to the outside temperature. The first time the garden races are fed 8-12 days after picking (for 10 liters of water 5 g of ammonium nitrate, 15 g of potassium chloride and 40 g of superphosphate).If necessary, additional feeding is carried out after 8-12 days. Seedlings are watered vigorously one day before planting. It is planted in open ground on June 5-10 (50-60 days after sowing the seeds), under film shelters - on May 15-20. To protect the planted garden from frost, you need to put arcs (in those plates, and in the open ground - a double film) and cover them with additional film. With frosty weather, heating under a film with simple incandescent bulbs (3 pcs. 60 W per bed 5-6 m) gives a good result, cover the film with stitched strips of newspapers on top. Thus, the air temperature can be raised by 6-7 ° C. And the seedlings will not freeze. If the ridge is frozen, pour water over it. To increase the frost resistance of tomatoes, it is necessary to harden the seeds (they bury them in the snow for 3-4 hours), accustom the seedlings 2 weeks before planting to lower temperatures, taking them out to the balcony or street (gradually increasing the time spent in the air).
After planting, the seedlings are watered not earlier than after 10-12 days, and they are watered not at the root, but at a distance of 5 cm from the stem, without wetting the leaves with water. Watering is done in the morning.
Low-growing compact plants that form few stepsons may not be pinned.
Place tomatoes in the open field away from potato planting. In autumn, in infertile areas, up to 6 kg / m 2 of organic fertilizers are applied for digging. In the spring, before planting, mineral fertilizers are applied or used for dressing. For film greenhouses and greenhouses, the soil is also prepared in autumn or spring, enriching it with humus or compost and digging it up. Sometimes the soil is made in bulk, consisting of turf, humus, peat, sawdust, sand, etc. In greenhouses, seedlings are planted with double-row ribbons, the distance between plants in a row is 25-40 cm. 10-12 days after planting, the plants are tied up with twine.
The condition of tomatoes can be judged by their appearance. If the leaves curl, exclude superphosphate from the dressings and increase the amount of potassium chloride and urea.
If flowering and fruiting is delayed, nitrogen fertilizers are excluded when feeding. When the flowers fall off, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of boric acid (1 g per 1 liter of water).
When the ovaries fall off fed with a solution of mullein (1:10), adding a matchbox of ammonium nitrate or urea to it.
Throughout the entire period, continue pinching. At the end of the first month, the tops of the plants are pinched to stop their growth.
To protect tomatoes from late blight disease, use a weak solution of copper sulfate (1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water) and 1% Bordeaux liquid or copper-soap emulsion.
Prepare it as follows: dissolve 200 g of laundry or green soap in warm or rain water. Separately, a teaspoon of copper sulfate is poured into a half-liter jar of water, and then mixed with a soapy solution.
The bushes are sprayed once a week, preferably after rain.
The fruits are thoroughly washed before use.
Tomatoes watered abundantly twice a week. With irregular watering, their fruits crack. The same can happen with carrots.
Every 10 days tomato it is recommended to feed with mineral fertilizers: a solution of raspberry-colored potassium permanganate or urea, potassium chloride and superphosphate. However, it is best to alternate an aqueous solution of mullein (1:10) and an infusion of ash (1 glass of ash per 1 liter of water).
Flowers fall off at very high temperatures (above 30 ° C in the greenhouse), high humidity or extreme dryness of the air and soil. Desirable temperature during the day is about 22-25 ° C, at night 18 ° C in the daytime the greenhouse is well ventilated, creating even a draft. Tomatoes are a self-pollinated crop; they do not need bees and other insects. But to improve pollination, they tap the stem once every 3-4 days so that the heavy pollen spills out onto the flowers below. To avoid cross-pollination, make sure that the brush of plants of one variety is not located under the brush of another (plant less often). In the open field, cross-pollination is observed more often. And double flowers appear in plants of some varieties (a certain percentage). Terry flowers give gnarled fruits. They must be plucked faster, as they retard the growth of other fruits.
To get larger fruits, pluck out some of the flowers in the brush. But in general, large-fruited varieties have only a salad purpose. Moreover, they keep up quite late. To tomatoes did not get sick with late blight and brown spot, they should not be planted after potatoes and peppers, as well as with these crops. For prevention, water the soil with pink potassium permanganate once a week and sprinkle with ash. 2-8 days before planting, sprinkle the seedlings with teboric acid (1.5 g of powder per 3 l of water) and copper sulfate (3 g per 3 l), diluting them in hot water. When the ovary reaches the size of a walnut, sprinkle the plants with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid, copper oxychloride or copper sulfate (40-60 g per 10 liters of water). You can also spray with garlic infusion (mince 1.5-13 cups of garlic, dilute with hot water, put a few grains of potassium permanganate, add up to 10 liters, mix without insisting, drain and use). Repeat all treatments for late blight after 5-7 days (4 treatments in total). It is useful to spray the plant with an infusion of ash (200-300 g per 10 l), water the soil every 10-15 days with an infusion of superphosphate (40-50 g / 10 l). Cover tomato bushes in the open field at the end of July - beginning of August at night with a film. If late blight is noticed (brown leaves, brown dry spots on the fruits), collect all the fruits immediately. You cut the sore spots and destroy them, salt the rest, since the fruits cannot be stored. And put all healthy large fruits in a metal mesh for eggs or in a gauze bag in hot water at a temperature of 60 ° C for 1 min, dry well and put in a warm place for dosing.
In the first decade of August, remove all the brushes with unblown flowers from a tomato and pinch the top after the fourth brush, and ripening fruits turn towards the sun. Place supports under the brushes of undersized plants so that the fruits do not come into contact with the ground and do not deteriorate. Continue to remove the stepsons as well as the lower yellowing leaves. On the stem, make a through longitudinal cut 5-6 cm long at a height of 12 cm from the soil and push it apart with a wooden stick.
Also, tear the roots to speed up the ripening of the fruit. To do this, grab the bottom of the stem with your hand and pull it up slightly. As a result, the smallest active roots will break off, the supply of nutrients from the soil to the plant will decrease, and it will have to use the substances deposited in the leaves. Watering should be stopped 7-10 days before the end of the growing season.
It is advisable that all formed tomato fruit remove brown and even green bushes from bushes and lay them for dosing. This will greatly speed up the filling of the fruits remaining on the bush, which will increase the yield. Dosing is best done in a well-ventilated room at a temperature of 20-25 ° C. At a temperature of 12 ° C, ripening significantly slows down, at 10 ° C and below, many fruits rot.
Tomatoes put on the butt or in boxes in two or three layers. To speed up ripening, put a few red ones in boxes with green fruits. By the way, and if ripening needs to be delayed in order to prolong the consumption of fresh tomatoes, look through the boxes daily and take red fruits from them.
Once again, when it comes to feeding seedlings, I emphasize that I never feed mine with anything. Meanwhile, it turns out to be strong, takes root well in the open field, blooms quickly and gives a high yield. But if it seems that the seedlings were depleting, and you are determined to feed your seedlings, use biofertilizers. The preparations "GUMI" and "Baikal EM-1" received good reviews from vegetable growers-practitioners.
Various fertilizers for seedlings can be selected in our catalog, which contains the proposals of many large garden online stores. View a selection of fertilizers.
I talked about how I grow tomato seedlings at home. I don't know if I follow all the rules of agricultural technology or not - the end result is important to me: the seedlings turn into strong plants and give a good harvest.
How do you grow tomato seedlings? Do you do everything according to the rules or are you experimenting too?
Soil preparation and planting tomato seeds
For sowing tomato seeds, it is advisable to use a good potting soil mixture. In its composition you need: garden soil and humus (half a bucket of each component) and one glass of ash.
The soil should be poured into boxes prepared for seedling and watered with a light manganese solution heated to a hot state.
Tomato seeds in this method do not need any preparation - neither processing nor soaking. They must be sown dry.
For seeds, you need to prepare shallow holes (a little more than a centimeter) and put two seeds in them. From one hole to another should be at least 3-4 centimeters. The seeds are crushed with earth and sprayed with water.
After planting the seeds, the containers must be covered with a transparent film and, until the sprouts appear, keep them in a room with a temperature of about 25 degrees. The first shoots should appear in about 5 days.
Growing a tomato: preparing the soil, processing tomato seeds, caring for seedlings. Grassing and feeding tomatoes.
Tomatoes are annual plants from the nightshade family. Tomato fruits are tasty and healthy. They contain malic and citric acid, sugar, aromatic substances, vitamins C, A and provitamin D. The content of nutrients in fruits largely depends on the variety, place of cultivation, agricultural technology, weather conditions and other factors.
Garden bed preparation
The place for growing tomatoes is determined in the fall. It should be sunny and well protected from the wind. In addition, it is important that there is no closely spaced groundwater in this area.
They also take into account which plants used to grow in this place. The best predecessors of tomatoes are cabbage, cucumbers, onions, legumes, and green crops. But after potatoes, physalis, peppers and eggplants, you should not grow tomatoes.
The place of the tomato bed should be changed every year.
In the spring, when preparing the beds, the site is cleared of plant residues, the soil is dug up and at the same time fertilizers are applied: 5 kg of compost, 60-90 g of superphosphate and 50-60 g of potassium sulfate per 1 square meter.
If your soil is acidic, remember to add lime. The rate of lime fertilizers depends on the composition and acidity of the soil. For example, on sandy loam soil and light loams, 200-400 g of ground chalk are applied (per 1 sq. M), and on medium and heavy loams, 400-600 g are needed.
The beds are formed in the direction from east to west, so that the earth warms up faster. For convenience, they are made no more than 1 m wide and 20-25 cm high.
Before planting seedlings, the soil is loosened with a rake, and too heavy loams are dug up with a shovel to a depth of 20 cm.After that, the surface is leveled and planting holes are made, placing them in 2 rows at a distance of 60-70 cm (for tall tomatoes) or 20-30 cm (for undersized).
Also, the pits can be staggered. Then the plants will be better illuminated.