Planting and forming grapes
Read the previous part. ← Growing grapes in the Leningrad region: greenhouse or open ground?
Choice of shaping
In the Leningrad region, you can get a good grape harvest with minimal maintenance. I was convinced of this from my own experience. In addition, all care for frost-resistant grape bushes in the open field is mainly reduced to its correct pruning.
There are many forms of grapes, but many of them are not applicable in our region. A significant difference is that a bole is formed in the south, and all future brushes will go at a great height from the ground. If we used such a shaping, then for wintering grapes in case of frosts down to -40 ° C, every autumn we would have to press the perennial whips to the ground. Of course, the first few years of the life of grapes is quite possible, but when the lashes become as thick as an arm, this cannot be done. Therefore, they apply stampless formations, there are also a large number of them.
I tried several and stopped, in my opinion, at the simplest formation in terms of understanding and care. This is a fan cut in four sleeves, on which I apply the formation of a fruit link with a knot and without a knot replacement. I did not notice much difference with or without a knot, I use both depending on the specific grape bush, I see which is more convenient.
Formation of grapes in a knot-free manner
In this article we will look at the option of forming grapes without knot substitution, as it is easier to understand. All this is no more difficult than removing stepchildren from tomatoes. All these agrotechnical techniques have long been described, and they can be found in the literature, I will try to state everything in my own words, based on personal experience.
Consider the care and shaping of grapes starting from the first year. Seedlings with a closed root system are usually purchased (see photo 1) long before planting, just like any seedling. Plant grapes it is possible only at the beginning of June, when the threat of return frosts has passed. Until this moment, it is better to keep the seedlings on the windowsill, where the battery heats from below. Due to the dry air in city apartments, it is advisable to put on a transparent, thin plastic bag on the seedling, but it must be periodically removed for a while and the seedling must be ventilated so that it does not mace.
The most important thing is very careful watering, do not overfill the seedling! This is the only reason why he can die. If you see that the leaves suddenly start to wither, try to spray the seedling with a growth stimulant ("Epin", "Zircon" and others), and also treat ("Akarin", "Aktelik") from spider mites and other possible pests as a preventive measure. In no case should the soil be kept moist at all times. Watering should be top and only when the ground becomes completely dry.
The choice of a landing site must be approached thoroughly. First, it should be the sunniest place on your site. It is desirable that the sun was there all daylight hours. If it is possible to plant vines next to the building, this is a big plus, because when grown in a wall culture, a wall heated during the day will give off heat to the grapes at night. One bush will require two running meters of land from west to east. The width of the seat is half a meter.
At our latitude, when planting grapes in several rows, it is more convenient to place the whips from west to east, so that the rows do not shade each other. If you are planting a few bushes or just one grape bush, then place it as you see fit. It is advisable that the site be closed from cold prevailing winds. True, my site is located in an open place, the windproof trees planted to create a shelter have not yet grown to the height of the fence, and the neighboring village of Razmetelevo, alas, fully justifies its name.
Since you are planting grapes in a permanent place not for a year or two, but for many decades to come, it is necessary to prepare a cube pit with fertile soil. Of course, everyone's plots are different. And if you have fertile soil just on the bayonet of a shovel, and then there is clay or there is water, then in this case it is not worth digging such a deep hole, but drainage must be laid on the bottom. In addition to compost, humus, mineral fertilizers need to add ash and dolomite flour, 1 kg is enough for a cube pit. In the Leningrad region, mainly very acidic soils, while grapes prefer slightly alkaline ones.
Since the volume of the soil is large, it is necessary to shed the soil very strongly and let it settle, it will take at least a day. After that, fill up the earth and plant the seedling so that the lignified stalk is completely underground and only a small green shoot sticks out.
Formation of a bush of grapes
In the first year of life the grapes will grow the root system, so do not expect a large increase from it - 15-30 cm will be quite enough. If you have it before planting or in the summer it stretches out more - pin the top of your head. Throughout the summer, the vine does not require special care. Watering is necessary only in case of dry summers when all plants require watering. For the winter you will need light dry shelter... It will be enough to cover the grape bush with a pair of spruce branches or a box.
Read the next part. Outdoor grape care →
Planting and forming grapes - garden and vegetable garden
In the spring of the second year, in the second half of April or early May, if the spring is late and cold, the bush must be opened, carefully cleaned from the ground so as not to damage the eyes. Remember, they were left in the fall when pruning four on each shoot. After airing and drying, the bushes must be covered with a film cover (we talked about this in the fifth lesson). The earlier the bush starts active life, the more chances it is to form the basis of the bush of four strong shoots - this is the main task of the second year.
On two last year's shoots, if our young seedling endured the winter well and all the eyes remained alive, eight green shoots begin to develop, i.e. four each.
At the very beginning of the development of young shoots, the seedling is cut into two buds at each shoot (Fig. 1).
To eliminate the negative influence of transverse polarity on each shoot, the buds should be located either side by side, or one even, the other odd (see lesson seven). In our example, 1 and 2 buds are left on the left shoot, and 1 and 3, 2 and 4 buds on the right.
In the process of development of the main shoots on the seedling, all shoots developing from the replacement buds are removed, the stepsons are pinched over the second or third leaf, all inflorescences are removed.
In the fall of the second year, only the unripe part of the seedling is cut off.
In the spring of the third year, each of the shoots of the seedling is again cut into 2 healthy eyes. In total, eight shoots need to be grown in the third year. When pruning, it is again necessary to exclude the negative influence of the transverse polarity, and the lower peephole on each shoot must necessarily look outward from the bush, and the upper one - inside the bush (see Fig. 2, spring of the 3rd year).
Care for the seedling during the summer is carried out most thoroughly with the pinching of the stepsons, a fragment of shoots from replacement buds, from dormant buds and from an underground trunk. You can leave one inflorescence on the strongest shoots and give them the opportunity to ripen.
In the fall of the third year, the unripe part of the vine is cut off from all eight shoots.
In the spring of the fourth year, the final fan formation of the bush is carried out, as shown in Fig. 3.
The upper vines on the arms (fruiting vines) are cut into 5-8-12 eyes. The number of eyes left is determined by the permissible eye load for each grape variety and bush individually. When determining the load with the eyes, the condition of the bush is taken into account - the number of strong young vines.
The lower vines are cut into 2 healthy eyes: thus four replacement knots are formed. Do not forget that the first (lower) peephole on the replacement knots must necessarily look outside the bush, and the second (upper) inward, this ensures a strict order of annual pruning of the bush and eliminates the influence of transverse polarity.
The final shaping of the bush is best done not in the spring of the 4th, but in the fall of the 3rd year. Autumn pruning is less painful during the spring "cry" of the grapes. But during autumn pruning on replacement knots, it is necessary to leave an additional one or two spare eyes in case of possible damage during shelter for the winter, wintering or when opening after wintering.
So, in the fourth year, a four-armed fan-shaped grape bush with four fruit links, consisting of a fertile vine (arrows) and a replacement knot, was formed. Now, every year in the fall, we will remove the fruiting vines before the replacement knots, and from the positions on the replacement knots we will form new fruitful arrows and new replacement knots. If you wish, you can make the grape bush multi-armed, adding in the described way one new sleeve annually. To do this, you can use strong shoots from dormant buds or overgrowth shoots from an underground trunk, or additional replacement knots formed from fertile vines.
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My name is Tamara Yashchenko, for more than 15 years I have been professionally growing grapes on my site in the city of Biysk, Altai Territory.
For the last nine years I have been holding the position of Deputy Chairman of the Center for Siberian Viticulture, I participate in international exhibitions and conferences, wrote a book and took off
4-hour educational film about growing grapes in harsh climatic conditions "Grapes grow in Siberia." , author of numerous publications and articles.
Growing grapes is not just a hobby for me, but the main business of my life at the moment. It is interesting for me to conduct experiments and experiments to improve the quality of varieties, to try new ones, to select the best ones. Read more about me here.
It is not for nothing that Rizamat receives high marks from specialists - he has undeniable advantages:
- high taste, excellent appearance
- high yield (20–30 kg per bush, with good care, a 15–20-year-old bush can yield up to 70 kg).
Amateurs growing Rizamat believe that these advantages completely atone for the disadvantages of the variety, of which, unfortunately, there are many:
- low frost resistance (up to -17 ... -18 o C), requiring obligatory shelter of bushes for the winter
- susceptibility to powdery mildew
- cracking of berries in rainy weather during ripening:
- tendency to peel berries
- poor combination with rootstocks
- exactingness to care.
How to create a phoRmu girlish grapes?
As soon as young shoots appear, fix them on a special support, directing them immediately in the right direction. If shoots begin to grow in the wrong direction, remove them immediately. Initially, tie the young lashes of the maiden grapes to the supports.
As soon as the grapes begin to fix themselves, they do not have to be tied up. Once the maiden grapes are sufficiently mature, restraining and sanitary pruning will remain necessary to remove thickening, weak and damaged shoots. If sanitary pruning is performed, the cut is made just above the healthy kidney. If the growth of the grapes is out of control, it will be enough to return it to the desired length, and then cut off all thickened and woven lashes, and the dormant buds will give a new growth.
Girlish grapes are able to create their own beneficial microclimate on your site. It will absorb dust, gases and noise while purifying the air at the same time. It is quite unpretentious in care, is able to withstand frost, after which it continues to grow even better, but requires careful attention to the regulation of its growth. Maiden grapes have the ability to inhibit the growth of microbes, protect the house from overheating in summer, and reduce dampness in the room.
One of the main advantages of maiden grapes is its use for decorating ugly places in a garden or a house. It will help create shade, plant a hedge or fence, close the attic or veranda from rain. Possessing undeniable advantages, maiden grapes are the best suited for decoration and vertical gardening of your home.
Especially for LadySpecial.ru - Yulia
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Planting a grape seedling
- To plant a one-two-year-old seedling, they dig a hole 50-60 cm deep and of the same width and length.
- A drainage layer of expanded clay or broken brick 20–25 cm thick is placed on the bottom if the area is elevated and melt and rainwater does not stagnate on it, drainage can be omitted.
- On top of the drainage, a soil mixture is poured from garden soil, sand, peat and humus, taken in equal parts.
- 2 tablespoons of superphosphate or complex fertilizer and several shovels of wood ash are added to each pit.
- Before planting, the seedling is thoroughly watered, then removed from the pot and placed in a prepared hole, which is also spilled with water.
- Sprinkle with soil, compacting it around, water it again and make a small mound 15–20 cm high around the root collar.
- The seedling must be tied to a support. When planting several grape bushes in a row, you need to dig not separate holes, but a trench of the same depth.
- Seedlings in a row are placed at a distance of 1–1.5 m from one another - this determines the length of the trench.
Planting grapes in spring with seedlings
1. In the planting hole, on the side, stick a plastic tube with a diameter of 5 cm. It will be convenient to water young grapes through it.
2. Add enough fertile soil to leave 50 cm to the edge of the hole and water well.
3. When the water is absorbed, plant the seedling, spreading its roots evenly.
4. Fill the planting hole with earth to the brim. To do this, you can use less fertile soil: the bottom layer of earth, which you dug out of the grape seedling hole in the fall, is suitable.
Shade the seedlings and water through a tube every day. It is also necessary to loosen the soil and mulch it with sawdust or straw. This will preserve the moisture that young grapes need so much in summer.
By the end of August, the vine should have grown by about 2 meters, and next year you will be able to enjoy the first harvest of berries.