Planting tomato seedlings. Tomato care
Features of growing tomatoes in open and closed ground. Part 3
Read the previous part: Preparing soil and seeds, growing tomato seedlings
Planting time of tomato seedlings
It is very important to correctly determine the time of planting tomato seedlings in the ground. It is known that not planted plants on time sharply reduce the yield. It is customary to plant seedlings in open ground at the end of the night frosts - this is in our area on June 10, or even later. However, June frosts occur in our region 2-3 times a decade. And to plant at such a late date means to lose the crop. Therefore, to get an early harvest, you can take a chance and plant part of the seedlings on May 20-25, leave the rest in case of death for re-planting.
If you are constantly in the country, then you can plant all the seedlings at once, and in case of frost, just cover it. There is a popular way to determine the time of planting seedlings in open ground or under temporary film shelters - this is when the buds begin to bloom on fruit trees. True, in our area, trees can be wrong.
Better still, when planting seedlings, focus on temperature. So, at 10 ° C, the tomato does not grow, which means that the seedlings will not take root. When frozen at -3 ° C, the plants are severely damaged, at -4 ° C, the seedlings completely die. Some varieties of tomato can withstand frosts down to -2 ° C, but then yield a low-quality crop. Plants, after a prolonged depression from freezing, begin to grow, but lag far behind with flowering and form fruits when the season is over.
Frosts down to -1 ° C may not externally damage the plants, but they delay the onset of fruit formation by 10-15 days. Moreover, the yield drops by 70-75% compared to plants that have not been frozen. Consequently, the planted seedlings should not fall even under a slight frost.
Planting seedlings in the early stages is dangerous not only because of frost, but also because of the low temperature of the soil. A sign of hypothermia in plants is a purple tint of the stems. Such tomatoes are far behind in growth.
For example, scientists give the following results: when planting seedlings, when the soil temperature was 10-15 ° C, 132 grams of fruits were obtained from a plant of the Gruntovy Gribovsky variety, of which not a single ripe one. At a soil temperature of 15-20 ° C, 379 grams of fruits were already obtained, of which 318 were fully ripe on the bush. Impressive results.
Moreover, it was found that with a lack of heat, stems, leaves, roots grow, but tomatoes do not bloom, do not set fruits. Therefore, there is no need to rush to planting seedlings in the ground or in a greenhouse, just as it is impossible to be late. After all, the most useful and delicious fruits are those that ripen on the plant, and not in the plucked form in the room.
Therefore, you need to try to pre-insulate the greenhouse and garden beds in the open field, covering them with a film.
Seedlings are usually planted in a greenhouse two weeks earlier than in open ground. In case of freezing, it is covered inside the greenhouse with additional film or covering material - now the gardeners have such an excellent help.
If you have resorted to using biofuels, then the seedlings can be planted even earlier, according to the soil temperature at the root depth, which must be measured before planting. It should be above 10 ° C.
Methods for planting tomato seedlings
When planting seedlings, one should not forget that tomato is one of the most light-loving plants, so one of the main rules must be followed - not to thicken the planting. So, on a ridge with a width of 90-100 cm, it is better to plant plants in one row with a distance between them of at least 45 cm. With denser plantings, it will not be possible to grow large fruits.
It is necessary to plant tomato seedlings in such a way that the root system is in the ground no deeper than 20 cm. If the seedlings are strong and stocky, then they are planted vertically. If it is elongated, ankle, then on the eve of planting, you will have to tear off all excess leaves so that the wounds dry out, and plant it in trenches in a reclining position. In this case, the crown with leaves should look south so that the stem, protected by the leaves, does not get sunburn.
The stem without leaves will be covered with earth, and in the future, new roots will grow from it. For each plant, a hole or trench is dug, which must be quickly filled with warm water, into which the root system of the plant is lowered. Fall asleep with earth. That's all - the tomato is planted.
It is better to plant tomatoes not at the soil level, but on elevated ridges, let them be at least 15-20 cm higher than it to improve the air regime of the soil. If the weather is hot and sunny, the plants can be covered with newspaper for several days until they take root. Then the newspapers must be gradually removed, first at night, and then during the day.
It is better not to water the tomatoes for the first 10-15 days after planting, so that the roots that form in the plant grow in depth, and not at the surface.
The gardener who thinks that a new variety or hybrid will give him a high yield is mistaken without any trouble on his part, the gardener. You still have to work hard.
After 10-14 days, when the tomatoes take root (the leaves on the crown turn dark green, new leaves begin to appear), the plants are watered for the first time. After watering, it is imperative to loosen the soil around them. In the future, it is necessary to water as little as possible, until the fruits begin to form. Frequent watering compacts the soil, worsens its air regime, which has a bad effect on the growth of the root system. There is an important rule here: water only with warm water. In the open field, watering is less frequent than in greenhouses.
Top dressing of tomatoes
When feeding tomatoes, you need to learn an important principle: increased doses of nitrogen lead to fattening of plants, the fruits are tasteless, they may be cracked, ugly. Nitrogen fertilizers should only be added during poor growth at the beginning of the growing season.
It is necessary to feed tomatoes with mullein or bird droppings no more than 2-3 times per summer. Never put urea in the ground or feed it. Only with a special need to do foliar feeding on the leaves - 1 tbsp. spoon on a bucket of water - usually in early June, at the beginning of the rapid development of plants.
The first feeding of plants is given when ovaries are formed on the first inflorescence. They are fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers - superphosphate 20-25 g and potassium sulfate - 15-20 g per square meter of the garden. With mass fruit formation, in order to more intensively pouring fruits, it is useful to feed the plants with ammonium nitrate - 15-20 g - and potassium sulfate 20-35 g per square meter.
In the future, it is useful to feed tomatoes twice a month, alternating complex mineral fertilizers, the dose of which is increased to 50-70 g per 10 liters of water, and ash. The dressings should contain trace elements that ash will provide. From the second decade of July, feeding and watering should be stopped so as not to provoke an increase in leaf mass, in which the ripening of fruits is delayed. Mass ripening of tomatoes works best on lean rather than oily soil.
Formation of tomatoes
In the Leningrad Region, almost all tomato plants need to be pinned, otherwise the crop will not have time to ripen. Stepchildren should be removed without waiting for them to grow more than 4-5 cm. At this time, they easily break out without leaving a large wound, and the wounds quickly heal. Removing stepchildren of greater length is less useful, because these stepsons have already managed to draw strength from the mother plant. Leaving the hemp with the stepsons is also a useless business, because a new stepson can appear near the hemp with the same success as without the hemp.
By pinching, plants can be formed into one stem or into two. It is not recommended to form three stems with us, because some of the fruits on such a plant will not only not ripen, but will not even reach normal size. The fewer stems on a plant, the earlier the fruits will ripen on it.
When formed into two stems, a lateral shoot is left under the first brush as the second stem, all the rest are subsequently removed. When growing indeterminate plants, and determinant ones too, one more technique is used - pinching the top of the main stem. The purpose of this technique is to stop the growth of the main stem to accelerate fruit ripening. This technique is best done in early August. At the same time, 2 - 3 leaves should be left above the uppermost flower brush to feed the fruits in this brush.
At the same time, you need to cut off all the buds and flowers that did not have time to set fruit. With such techniques, there will be no small green fruits on the bush by the time of harvest, all tomatoes will grow to the size inherent in this variety. And the number of brushes on the bush - how many will turn out, as much will turn out. Not necessarily 8 brushes, maybe 5-6, but full-fledged. On plants in the open field, I usually cut all the buds in inflorescences in the first decade of July. This helps the remaining fruit grow to its normal size. Let them be fewer in number, but they will be larger.
Removing leaves is a technique that accelerates the ripening of fruits. Here you can not get carried away, tearing off all the leaves in a row, because they provide food for the fruits. During the period of fruit growth, only diseased and yellow leaves should be removed. And only when the fruits on the first lower brush are completely poured, the leaves under it can be removed, and not all at once, but on the leaf every 3-4 days, so that the plant gradually gets used to the changes. Then do the same with the leaves under the rest of the brushes as they pour. Very large, powerful leaves can be shortened by a third or half their length if they obscure the fruit or nearby bushes.
About tomato flowers
Tomato inflorescences - flower and fruit - are of three types: simple, complex and intermediate. The flowers are bisexual, so they self-pollinate. For more reliable pollination, the plants are usually shaken and aired more in the greenhouse. The flower remains open for 2-3 days. Flowering starts from the base of the brush. In complex brushes, there are a lot of flowers, some of them are very late in flowering compared to the bulk of flowers in this brush. I remove such lagging flowers.
Often the flowers of modern hybrids are an inflorescence of several accrete simple flowers. Some of them are especially large and complex. This is usually the first flower in the cluster. Such flowers must also be removed, because they do not form normal fruits. If the weather is cloudy during flowering, the fruits usually do not set well, because the pollen becomes heavy and sticky. To improve fruit set, the plants are sprayed with a 0.02% boric acid solution (2 g per 10 l of water).
If the weather does not want to improve, it is necessary to repeat the spraying after 2-3 days. You can use the drug "Ovary" - according to the instructions. If, on the contrary, the weather is hot, dry, the pollen caught on the pistil of the flower may not germinate. Therefore, after shaking the plants, you need to water the soil under them a little to increase the humidity in the greenhouse. In the greenhouse, a thermometer must be hung at a level of about 1 m from the ground in order to monitor the temperature using it. If it turns out to be above 32 ° C, then it makes the pollen sterile. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to reduce the temperature: airing, shading, etc.
Prevention of tomato diseases
The most dangerous and constantly occurring disease of tomatoes is late blight. There are currently no varieties completely resistant to late blight. There are varieties that suffer from late blight to a greater or lesser extent. Everything else is advertising. Therefore, the best remedy for this disease is prevention, which will reduce the risk of the disease. Phytophthora appears in wet and cold weather. This usually happens in late July and early August. The first signal for its march is the appearance of phytophthora on potato bushes, and not necessarily in your garden, but more often on the surrounding large potato fields.
Here you need to immediately take action: protect your potato plantation, and greenhouses need to be closed during the day, during windy weather, and not ventilated. Let the greenhouse be very hot during the day. Indeed, in August, when all the fruits in the greenhouse have set, the heat is even useful for them for ripening. Let's remember in what heat tomatoes grow in the south of the country. So many of our gardeners use this technique with success. And it is better to ventilate in the early morning, while the dew lies on the grass, and late blight does not walk with air currents. From the end of July, you need to start spraying plants with copper-containing preparations every 5-7 days: for example, a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture or copper sulfate (10 g per liter of water) or oxychom and other preparations.
It is necessary to carefully cut off the slices of the first diseased leaves, burn them. There is information from gardeners that this technique helps: in the last decade of July, a copper wire 3-4 cm long with a surface cleaned of oxides and with a pointed end must be pierced through the stem of the plant at a height of 20 cm from the soil surface (this figure is different for different gardeners) ... With the second wire, pierce the same stem 3-4 cm higher at a right angle to the first. Leave them until the end of the growing season. The wires are practically dissolved by the plant sap. Phytophthora on such plants seems to be observed much less. For other specific diseases, tomato disease specialists should be consulted.
Planting tomato seedlings in open ground
Hello dear friends!
Many gardeners have already started growing tomato seedlings at home and the time is not far off when they will have to be planted in a permanent place - in a greenhouse or in open ground. Today I want to devote an article to the topic of Planting tomato seedlings in open ground in a permanent place.
For tomatoes on the site, you need to choose a sunny place that is protected from cold winds. The sun is paramount for tomatoes and in the shade you will never get a decent tomato crop. Damp, low areas, where groundwater is close, are absolutely unsuitable for tomatoes. The root system of tomatoes literally suffers if the groundwater is high.
Now I want to say about predecessors and anti predecessors. Feel free to plant tomatoes after legumes, green crops and root crops. True, it is not recommended to plant tomatoes after potatoes in order to avoid infection with late blight. Also, you should not plant tomatoes in the place where they were grown last year, for the same reason.
The soil into which the tomato seedlings will be planted should preferably be loamy, with the addition of mineral and organic fertilizers.
Tomato beds should be prepared 5 - 6 days before planting. Before starting digging, the soil must be treated with a solution of copper sulfate (75 - 80 grams per bucket of water) or a solution of copper oxychloride (40 grams per bucket of water). Spend for processing 1 - 1.5 liters of solution per 1 sq. meter. Then mineral and organic fertilizers should be sprinkled on loamy and clayey soils, namely: 3-4 kilograms of peat, manure humus, old (not fresh) sawdust, 1 glass of ash, 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate, 1 tablespoon of superphosphate per 1 square meter.
After that, the bed must be dug to a depth of 25 - 30 centimeters, leveled with a rake, and watered with warm (40 - 45 degrees) water. Next, you need to make holes and before planting seedlings, pour them with a solution (1 glass per 10 liters of water) of the "Effecton" preparation at the rate of half a liter per 1 hole.
The term for planting tomato seedlings in open ground is different, depending on the climatic zones. The approximate landing time, in relation to the conditions of central Russia, is the second and third ten days of May. Planting should be done in the morning, preferably in cloudy weather, and in sunny weather - in the late afternoon. Seedlings at the time of planting should be fresh, because even a slight wilting of the seedlings will lead to a slowdown in growth and partial fall of the first flowers and, as a result, to the loss of an early harvest.
It is necessary to plant seedlings vertically and deepen only the soil pot or roots into the soil, leaving the stem not covered with soil. It is possible to spud the plant only after 15 days to a stem height of up to 12 centimeters.
It is preferable to plant seedlings in 2 rows. The row spacings are made 50 - 60 centimeters wide for medium-sized varieties, the height of which at maturity is 60 - 70 centimeters (in a row, the distance between plants is 40 - 45 centimeters). Row spacing for low-growing boles is enough to make a width of 45 - 50 centimeters, and in a row between plants - 40 centimeters.
Immediately after planting tomato seedlings in open ground, you need to put pegs from 50 to 80 centimeters in height, depending on the height of the variety, but it is better not to use pegs, but to tie the plants with synthetic twine to a stretched wire or to arcs, at a height of 1 - 1.3 meters. At the same time, tomatoes are better ventilated and illuminated and, therefore, grow better and get sick less.
There is no need to water the plants for 8 - 10 days after planting. Until they take root. You must always be prepared for frost, which is not uncommon at this time of the year. With the expected cold snap, tomatoes need additional shelter, especially at night. After planting in the garden, the seedlings should be covered with a transparent film and left under it until the threat of frost passes. In the middle lane, it is usually June 5 - 10. The film can not be removed at all, but holes with a diameter of 10 centimeters can be made in it. This will help to get an earlier harvest and reduce the risk of late blight disease in tomatoes.
I would like to draw your attention to such moments when planting tomato seedlings in this article. If you liked my articles, subscribe to the release of new materials.
Reviews about growing tomato Sheep
I wrote out this variety from a collector, I really wanted to grow large pink tomatoes. There were bushes (5 pieces) in the garden, looked after very carefully. She fed, watered regularly, as I read somewhere on the forums that the rams can crack the fruits.
Tomatoes have grown over 200 grams, heart-shaped and beautiful. All were ripe in the bushes, I did not take pictures of green ones. The color was pink, there were such yellow strokes on the shoulders. The yield is excellent, and the taste of the tomatoes themselves is also very good. I collected my seeds, I will grow again.
Svetlana, Leningrad region
I received the seeds by mail, subscribed from Yashchenko. My tomatoes grew in a greenhouse, they measured in height, they were about 180 cm.Very spreading. Fruits in the form of hearts, large, bright pink with a red tint. Some tomatoes bent slightly to the side, resembling a ram's horn (maybe that's why the name is). The weight of the fruit was about 300 grams; there were few tomatoes on such bushes. But where the fruits are smaller, about 200 grams, there is a larger quantity. The taste is pleasant, but this variety cannot be stored for a long time. After a week, my skin became soft, and I let them all (which ripe) for juice.
Terms of planting seedlings in a greenhouse by region
The time limits for transferring seedlings to protected ground in each region are different, but depend on the specific season. The earlier the stable heat comes, the sooner tomatoes are planted in greenhouses. Plants under cover are more likely to survive late frosts. With the threat of a sharp cold snap, some gardeners install heaters so that the seedlings do not die.
The southerners are the first to start the landing. In warm areas, tomatoes ripen well in the open field. But planting tomatoes in a greenhouse gives the earliest harvest: by the May holidays, fresh vegetables are on the table, if you sow seeds in January, and plant the bushes under carbonate in March.
- In general, across the regions, the picture is as follows:
- Caucasus, Crimea, Krasnodar Territory, Stavropol Territory - March, April
- Middle lane, Moscow region - second half of April - mid-May
- Ural, Western Siberia - second half of May
- Siberia - last days of May-first decade of June.
They are guided by these periods in order to sow seeds on time: 60 days for the development of seedlings + 5-7 for shoots. And the exact time is determined according to forecasts of weather forecasters.
Tomato growing technology. Planting and grooming secrets
Different plants have their own characteristics of growing, their predilections for climate, weather, soil, humidity, heat or coolness, etc. The same applies to horticultural crops, in particular - tomatoes. To grow healthy and strong plants, to get a rich harvest of delicious tomatoes, you need to try, make some effort. But, most importantly, you should study and know: what tomatoes love and do not tolerate.
As in any other business, the agricultural technology of growing this crop, popular among summer residents, gardeners, has its own nuances, secrets, techniques that help the owners of plots to successfully cope with all sorts of unfavorable conditions, diseases, pests, but grow beautiful bushes and collect and feast on delicious a wide variety of tomatoes.
Often in the reviews of gardeners about different varieties of tomatoes, there are very useful and practical tips, tips based on personal practical experience of growing your favorite vegetable. There are also recommendations from breeders, agronomists, who significantly help summer residents to properly care for tomatoes.
Growing tomato seedlings
For the successful cultivation of a tomato the technology of obtaining strong and healthy seedlings is of great importance.
This is especially important for our country, because the peculiarities of the climate in the middle lane and colder regions (and tomatoes are successfully moving further and further north) require growing tomatoes through seedlings in order to obtain a rich and quick harvest.
In the south, this stage of crop cultivation is less acute. However, even in warm regions of the Russian Federation, many, in order to feast on their favorite tomatoes early, also try to sow seeds first in boxes (or another container), and then transplant the sprouts into the ground.
Preparing soil for tomato seedlings
Seedlings usually begin to grow one and a half to two months before transplanting them to a garden bed or indoors. You should take care of high-quality, safe, nutritious soil in which the seeds will germinate. The sprouts need to create comfortable conditions for growth.
Now on sale you can find any kind of soil: for every taste and for all occasions. An experienced gardener knows perfectly well: the land of which company can be safely used, and in which one you need to add at least part of the garden soil. It happens that the manufacturer indicates the composition on the package, but in fact it turns out that there is only peat inside, and even, it happens, sour, which is completely contraindicated for tomatoes. It is clear that it is impossible to obtain high-quality seedlings on such an alleged soil.
If you are not sure of the honesty of the manufacturer, the purchased soil should be diluted with earth taken from your site.
Prompt! Some experienced gardeners successfully use the so-called mole soil. It should be taken only from freshly made mounds, not overgrown with grass.
The composition of the soil for seedlings:
- base (2/3 or 1/2 of the total): purchased soil, leaf, sod, garden, mole soil.,
- baking powder: perlite, river sand, expanded clay, crushed foam plastic, small bentonite (can be made from cat litter),
- top dressing: organic matter and mineral fertilizers (the main thing is not to overdo it with them, better less, but better).
You can also take the land where nettle grows (on the advice of E.P. Lisavenko, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences): this grass is a good indicator of soil quality - it grows exclusively on fertile, non-acidic, healthy land.
What kind of soil should be:
- air and water permeable
- fertile (in moderation, there should not be an excess of food)
- neutral acidity or slightly acidic
- healthy: must not contain harmful microorganisms, toxic substances, weed seeds, fungal spores, larvae, eggs of insect pests, worms.
Several soil recipes for tomato seedlings:
Recipe 1 (simplest)
- sod land - 1 tsp.
- river sand - 1 tsp;
- humus - 2 tsp
Recipe 2 (universal + fertilizer)
- river sand - 1 tsp;
- low peat - 1 tsp
- rotted compost - 1 tsp
- garden land - 2 tsp.
40-70 g of any complex fertilizer (Agricola, Kemir, nitrophoska, azofosk) - per 10 liters of prepared soil mixture. To neutralize the acidity of lowland peat, it is useful to add lime (100-200 g) to the soil mixture (10 l).
Recipe 3 (for tomatoes and peppers)
- rotted humus - 1 tsp
- garden land - 1 tsp.
- river sand (washed) - 1 tsp;
Mix all ingredients, sift through a coarse sieve (d - 5-6 mm). The resulting soil mixture should be steamed for 2 hours in a water bath, then it should be put into a clean container to cool. Then add sifted ash (200 g) and crushed egg shell (100 g) to the resulting substrate (10 l).
Prompt! Any soil mixture is most useful to prepare in the fall. By spring, the resulting substrate will “mature”, the ash will be neutralized, and will have time to saturate the soil with useful substances.
The most beneficial organic matter for the soil (for tomatoes and peppers):
- meadow and (or) sod land
- peat (better - low-lying, you can - high or medium)
- leaf humus (fallen leaves of fruit trees, ash, birch, oak, poplar, willow, chopped coniferous litter are perfect, but, for example, walnut foliage is not at all suitable)
- humus from cattle (well frozen and rotted)
- sphagnum (moss)
- coconut fiber or sawdust (rotted).
Attention! You can not use poultry and horse droppings (the first contains too much nitrogen, and the second makes tomatoes absolutely tasteless).
There are many components for the soil mixture. It is possible to find many different recipes on the Internet besides those presented here. Everyone empirically selects the most suitable option for himself.
Seed preparation for sowing
The quality and condition of the seeds significantly affects how the seedlings will turn out, what the tomatoes will be in the end. Therefore, it is extremely important to properly process the seeds before sowing.
And here there are several useful recipes, a few tricky tricks to increase seed germination and to get healthy seedlings from them, as well as a higher yield in the end:
- The classic way of processing: soaking seeds in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes, then the seeds are soaked in clean water for a day (it must be changed every 3-4 hours so that the seeds do not suffocate). Then the seeds are lightly dried on a paper towel (you can use napkins or toilet paper). Now they can be sown.
- Before sowing seeds soaked in growth stimulants (see instructions for drugs).
- Seeds treated with hydrogen peroxide before sowing (accelerates the germination process, disinfects, nourishes).
- Disinfection: used mainly for seeds obtained from questionable sources.
- Biologicals (Fitosporin, Baikal M, etc.) can be applied to Zircon, Epin, Potassium humate.
There are a lot of recipes for seed treatment, you can find any on the Internet.
This is, for example, the method of prof. A.V. Alpatiev, who hardened the soaked seeds (he kept them in the refrigerator for about 2.5 days at t 3o-5oC) then about a day at room temperature. Then the seeds are kept in a nutrient solution for a day (the professor has it rather complicated).
You can proceed as follows: after cold treatment, the seeds are immersed for half an hour in a solution of potassium permanganate (1%), washed with clean water and immersed in a nutrient solution for two days.
- copper sulfate - 2 g
- boric acid - 2 g
add preparations to 10 liters of water.
To disinfect the seeds, you can use a 1% iodine solution: immerse the seeds in it for 20 minutes.
A container with soil should also be prepared for sowing: the soil should be loose, moderately moist, but not flooded with water.
The soil should be lightly compacted so that the seeds do not sink into the depths.
- Spread the seeds on the soil surface (more conveniently in a square-nesting way), you can 2-3 seeds together at a distance of at least 2.5 cm from each other.
- Gently sprinkle on top with the same slightly damp earth to a height of 1.5 cm, no more.
- The container is covered with foil or placed in a plastic bag until shoots appear.
- Once or twice a day, you should open the shelter for 5-10 minutes so that the soil "breathes" and does not form moss or mold.
- After the emergence of seedlings, the shelter must be removed, and the container must be placed closer to the light (on the windowsill).
- Young sprouts need to be provided with good lighting. It is useful to supplement them with phytolamps or fluorescent lamps (no more than 14-15 hours per day).
Attention! It should be borne in mind that plants also need sleep: they cannot be supplemented around the clock (in this case, chemical and metabolic processes in the stems and leaves are disrupted).
Gardeners are still arguing about picking. Some argue that it is necessary to dive tomatoes, because in this procedure, the sprouts deepen and form additional roots.
Others authoritatively argue that, in principle, the sprouts do not dive, but simply sprinkle the earth between them close to the stems. And there is only one transplant: from the seedling container into the ground. The bushes take root well, because when they are planted, they are still buried in the soil in the garden, and also with one transplant, the plant begins to grow and bear fruit faster.
The sprouts dive as soon as two real leaves appear on them. The ground should be moist, stick to the roots. In fact, picking is a transfer from one container to another, larger. In this case, one should try not to disturb the roots especially, and slightly burrow the sprouts into the soil.
Hardening of seedlings
In order for the seedlings to take root faster and better in a new place, especially if it is open ground, it must be hardened, accustomed to fresh air, direct sunlight, etc.
This procedure is started a couple of weeks before disembarking on an open bed. On relatively warm, cloudy days, containers with sprouts are taken out into the fresh air, first for a couple of hours, then the time spent outdoors is gradually increased. Cloudy days are needed so that the sprouts gradually get used to the open light and do not get sunburn. If the weather is clear, the boxes with seedlings should be shaded first. A few days before planting, the seedlings should be in the open air not only during the day, but also at night.
High-quality tomato seedlings should be about 25-30 cm in height, the trunks should not be thinner than 5 mm, with a slight purple tint, each sprout should have 5-7 leaves (real). Tomatoes usually start flowering about 45 days after germination. By this time, buds may appear on the sprouts. This is a sign that it is time to plant tomatoes in the garden.
Prompt! If the seedlings are stretched, it is useful to pinch them. Most likely she lacks light.
Preparing the soil. Soil for tomatoes
Tomato beds are best prepared in autumn.
If the acidity level of the soil is exceeded, during the autumn digging into the ground, it is necessary to add to 1 m2:
- lime (0.5-0.9 kg)
- superphosphate (40-60 g)
- organic matter (bird droppings, compost, manure or peat - 5-7 kg).
If the soil has already been fertilized earlier (in the spring of the last season), it should only be carefully dug up in the fall.
In the spring, the following is introduced into the soil allocated for tomatoes (per 1 m2):
- superphosphate (30-40 g)
- potash fertilizers (25-30 g)
- nitrogen fertilizers (30-40 g).
The soil should be loose, crumbly, moderately moist.
The place for tomatoes should be sunny, quiet, protected from cold winds. If every season the soil for tomatoes is well (but not excessively!) Fertilized, they can be grown in one place for 2-3 years. This is possible even if the plants were not sick, were healthy.
Advice! Tomatoes are best planted where they grew before: zucchini, cabbage, cucumbers. onion. In the same place where other nightshades grew (eggplant, peppers, potatoes, physalis), tomatoes can be planted only after three years.
Growing tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse
It is very good if the greenhouse is located with its end from north to south, and its side walls are facing east and west. So the plants inside are better and longer illuminated by the sun.
Transplanting. Landing patterns
The place for tomatoes should be changed every year. If possible, it is advisable to follow the rules of crop rotation.
The earth should be disinfected in the fall - it is treated with a solution of copper sulfate (1 tablespoon of the preparation + 10 liters of water per 1 m2 - 1 liter of solution).
In the spring, organic matter and minerals are introduced into the soil:
- humus, peat, sawdust (1 bucket each)
- phosphates (2 tablespoons)
- ash (2 glasses).
The soil is carefully dug up, watered with bleach (warm solution) for disinfection (1 m2 2 liters).
The beds are best prepared about a week before transplanting. Plants are planted when the soil has warmed up to 14 ° C. If the seedlings are strongly elongated, they must be buried or even planted lying down: with their tops towards the north, part of the stem with ¼ roots must be dug in. After planting, water the plants abundantly.
The growth of tomato varieties when planted in a greenhouse also has its own characteristics.
- Indeterminate (tall) varieties: in two rows with a square-nesting method. Between bushes - at least 60 cm, between rows - about 85 cm
- Determinant (undersized)(in one stem): between bushes 25-30 cm, between rows - 50 cm or more.
- Stunted: in two rows between rows - 45 cm or more, in a checkerboard pattern.
- Mixed plantings: one row of low-growing and determinate tomatoes near the outer wall. The next row after 45 cm - here are indeterminate varieties.
Between the first and second rows, you can plant standard varieties (between the bushes 25 cm).
Adult plant care
The bushes are planted and growing. Now the main concerns are: watering (regular), feeding, loosening, and also forming the plants.
- Watering... It should be rare but abundant. It is better to water in the evening or in the afternoon under the root, slowly - the water should go to the full depth of the roots.
- Loosening... To prevent root decay, especially on heavy, excessively moist soil, the soil should be loosened, weed aisles over the entire area under the tomatoes. Loosening should not be deeper than 4-6 cm so as not to injure the roots. Loosening and weeding should be carried out every 10-12 days.
- Top dressing of tomatoes... Fertilizers for them. They are fed for the first time 10-12 days after planting with organic matter and minerals. The next (2nd and 3rd) - every two weeks, dry minerals are added either for hilling, or after loosening.
The ingredients are selected for specific varieties. The main thing is not to overfeed the plants to the detriment of the harvest. If there is too much dressing, the bushes begin to build up green mass, and not fruits.
Formation of bushes. Grassing tomatoes. Pinching tomatoes
To get a guaranteed yield of high-quality fruits, tomato bushes should be formed. This mainly applies to indeterminate varieties.
- Indeterminate varieties. It is better to form in one stem, in extreme cases in two. The lower leaves break off before the first fruit cluster. Stepchildren should be removed regularly. You can also remove the first two or three fruit clusters so that the next ones develop better and faster. The top should be pinched to limit the growth of these tall tomatoes. This also applies to tomatoes that are grown in the open field.
- Standard varieties the formation of the stem does not require pinching; it is extremely rare. Possible need for pinching and removal of lower leaves.
- Determinant and undersized varieties... The tops practically do not need to be pinched. Mainly pinching is carried out, breaking off the lower leaves.
If there is a desire to get larger fruits, part of the fruit brushes should be removed from the plant. It is best to form the bushes in the morning on sunny days, so that the resulting wounds dry out and heal by the evening. These rules also apply to tomatoes growing in the open field.
Prompt! In order not to injure the roots of the grown bushes, the supports for tying should be installed near the plants during their planting. In greenhouses, most often the supports are first installed, to which the sprouts are then planted.
Pollination of tomatoes
Tomatoes, especially modern varieties, are self-pollinated. For your own peace of mind, it is useful to shake each bush every two to three days during the entire flowering period, carefully holding the plant by the main stem.
However, the best option would be to sow annual honey plants in the aisles: marigolds, basilicas, stunted calendula, mustard, etc., which attract butterflies and bees, drive away pests, and mustard also cleans the soil from wireworms, etc., serves as a good fertilizer ...
It will be useful to remind that it is very important to constantly monitor and maintain the necessary level of humidity and lighting, a favorable temperature regime.
Features of growing tomatoes in the open field
Among all the variety of varieties, some of them are more suitable for growing in greenhouses, and others in open beds.
The best varieties for open ground:
Betalux, Maksimka, Marisha, Sanka, Gina, Budenovka, Stolypin, Raspberry Giant, Stick, Mushroom Baskets, Puzata Khata, Flyashen.
In order to grow tomatoes in open areas and get the desired harvest, one should first of all observe, in general, not particularly complicated and low-burden agricultural techniques.
- The rows in the beds should be arranged from north to south.
- Strictly observe the distance between bushes and between rows prescribed for each variety.
- Seedlings are best planted outdoors when prolonged cloudy weather is predicted. If this is not expected, at first the tender sprouts should be shaded (by any means).
- It is good to immediately install tying supports in the planting holes and moisten the holes well.
- It is useful to mulch the row spacing almost immediately: this will prevent the soil from drying out quickly, prevent the growth of weeds, and increase the time between waterings.
It is useful to plant beds with tomatoes with nursery plants, which will scare off pests, which are also carriers of various viruses and diseases: spicy and green crops, tagetes, calendula, catnip, snakehead, cilantro, nasturtium, chives, mustard, garlic, etc. dr.
Before the final harvest, three weeks before it starts, all flowering brushes, shoots, and also buds should be removed from the bushes. This procedure will speed up the ripening of the remaining fruits.
The ugliest, even the ugliest, are removed first. In autumn, the brown fruits are harvested - these are the ones that are laid for ripening. Tomatoes are removed until the night temperature is not lower than 8 C. If it is already below eight, the risk of developing tomato diseases increases.
Watch the video! "10 mistakes when growing tomatoes."
The video clearly shows the most common 10 mistakes that inexperienced gardeners or beginners make most often. If these mistakes are not made, the bushes will grow healthy, and the harvest will be plentiful and of high quality.
As is clear from all of the above, there is nothing particularly difficult in growing tomatoes. The most important thing: follow the rules of agricultural technology, water, loosen, weed on time, carry out preventive treatments for diseases and pests with fungicides and insecticides, or it is possible to use folk recipes (herbal infusions, decoctions, solutions, etc.), do not forget to feed tomato bushes.
It is very important to remember! Do not get carried away with watering, dressing - everything is fine in moderation. With regard to tomatoes: it is better to under-water, especially under-feed, than over-water and over-feed too much.
To maintain moderate soil moisture and reduce weeds, mulching the row spacings, for example, will help. It is useful to observe crop rotation, symbiosis of useful plants and other secrets and techniques, which are described in the article. And the tomatoes will grow healthy, tasty, and the harvest will be plentiful.
Recommended tomato planting technology
2 weeks before planting tomato seedlings, you should thoroughly prepare the soil: dig up, fertilize the planting holes with universal BioHumatom and carry out treatment with the microbiological preparation BSka-3 (30 ml / m²) to improve the soil. If the soil is acidic, add a deoxidizer. Thanks to such a powerful feeding, the seedlings will receive all the nutrients necessary for growth and development, and will not suffer from the consequences of transplantation.
For transplant, you must choose a cloudy day or evening. The holes dug out on a bayonet are carefully watered. We plant tomato seedlings in open ground to a depth of 20-25 cm in a checkerboard pattern. The distance between the holes will depend on the variety - low-growing varieties can be planted at a distance of 40 cm, medium-sized ones - 45-50 cm, and tall ones - 60 cm.The planted plants need to be watered lightly, but not at the root, but at a distance of about 20 cm from the stem. Then stop watering for 4-5 days so that the seedlings have time to adapt in a new place. And to make it easier for future tomatoes to grow, next to each plant we drive a peg into the ground, to which new shoots are later tied. You can also use wire mesh or synthetic twine for the tie, stretched 1 m above the ground. After installing the supports, the planted seedling is covered with a transparent film for 3-5 days.