Features of growing Amur grapes: watering, feeding, pest control
Amur grapes in natural conditions feel great in the forests of the Amur region. The unpretentious tall liana has taken root in garden plots in many regions. An ornamental vine with beautiful leaves and edible fruits tolerates cold winters well. Wine is prepared from its berries, the seeds are rich in oil. Amur grapes will annually delight with the harvest, without imposing high requirements for care.
The history of growing the Amur grape variety
Vitis Amuretis, an ancient grape variety, grows wild in China, Korea and the Far East in dense forests, on mountain slopes, in river valleys. Lianas up to 30 meters long are able to braid trees and, rising to their tops, provide the plant with sufficient illumination. Surviving in harsh conditions, grapes are highly frost-resistant and can withstand temperatures as low as -40 ° C.
Amur grapes in Primorye grows in the forest
The high yield of Amur grapes and its hardiness attracted the attention of breeders. For cultivation in the northern regions IV Michurin created hybrids of the savage with cultivars: Korinka Michurin, Northern Black, Northern Blue and others. Since the 1950s, active work has been carried out on intraspecific hybridization of Vitis Amuretis by the Volgograd breeder A.I. Potapenko. He created varieties with high taste, complex resistance to diseases and unpretentious care: Amur Potapenko 1 (2,3,4,5), Triumph, Amur Proryv, Neretinsky. Ural breeder F. Shatilov has developed a collection of varieties based on the Amur grapes, capable of withstanding the most severe climatic conditions, they have been grown for a long time in the northern regions.
Wild grape varieties lend themselves to cultivation if properly cared for. The taste of the berries depends on the growing conditions; with proper pruning, the berries of the Amur grapes will be larger and sweeter.
Video: grapes are grown in the Urals
Description of the Amur grape variety
This plant is dioecious; at least one male plant should be planted on the site for two female ones. Wild grapes also have bisexual forms.
If only female plants are planted, they will yield a harvest. The berries will be small, pitted.
The plant blooms in early May. Nondescript yellowish flowers, collected in a brush, have a pleasant aroma and attract bees. Grapes bloom profusely, several inflorescences can form on one shoot.
Nondescript flowers of Amur grapes have a pleasant smell
Bunches of slightly conical shape with loosely spaced berries reach 15 cm in length. The grapes are small, black with a blue tint. The skin is dense, the pulp is light in color and sweet and sour taste. Berries can be eaten and made into wine. The taste of the fruit is influenced by the composition of the soil, its acidity, moisture. Grape seeds contain a lot of oil.
Berries of Amur grapes blue
A vine can be as thick as a human hand. Its bark is dark brown, peeling off in stripes. Leaves are often five-lobed, large, dark green in color. In the fall, they turn red. The grapes grow very quickly, and can grow up to 3 meters in a year. The plant will begin to bear fruit from 6 to 8 years.
Amur grapes are able to braid a high fence
The growing season for grapes is short, it begins at t = 5 ° C (from the beginning or mid-May). In August, the growth of shoots ends, the harvest is removed in early September.
The grapes withstand frosts well down to -40 ° C, its roots do not freeze even in a snowless winter. The berries become sweeter after the first frost.
Scientists have recently discovered that the Amur grape is a valuable medicinal plant. Callus, an influx of growth tissue at the end of the cutting, contains a large amount of the natural antioxidant resveratrol.
Characteristics of the Amur grape variety
This is a high-yielding variety, up to 80 centners of berries can be harvested from one hectare. It is not cultivated for industrial cultivation, although as a technical variety it justifies itself, it makes good wine.
Unpretentious grapes will decorate the site and feed with delicious berries
- The main advantage of the variety is its high frost resistance. Without shelter, an adult vine can withstand frosts down to -40 ° C, bunches are not afraid of the first frosts in autumn. Grapes thrive in different climates.
- The short growing season allows the young shoots of the vines to mature before the onset of frost.
- The culture is resistant to diseases and pests.
- The thick skins of the grapes make it easier to transport them to the processing site.
- Berries can be eaten fresh and processed.
- High growth rates make it easy to form a hedge from grapes. It is often used by landscape designers to create pergolas, mask walls and fences.
Mildew, downy mildew, does not have time to develop on the plant due to its short growing season. Amur grapes are moderately resistant to phylloxera. The pest can damage the root system of the plant.
Features of planting and growing the Amur grape variety
This grape variety is unpretentious. The implementation of simple agrotechnical measures will not take much time, and the grapes will thank you with a good harvest.
In the wild, grapes are easily propagated by layering and seeds, forming impenetrable thickets. It is impractical to grow a plant from seeds at home, they have low germination and it is difficult to get high-quality seedlings. For reproduction, cuttings and layering are used. Lignified cuttings do not take root well, so green cuttings are used.
Rooting by cuttings
Cuttings are best harvested during the flowering period, when the plant contains many elements that contribute to rooting. They are cut in the morning on a cloudy day. A straight cut is made under the lower knot. The shoot is shortened over the upper node, the leaf plate is cut off by 3/4. All stepsons are removed, the kidneys remain in the sinuses.
4-5 buds should remain on the handle
The shoot can be cut into a stalk if, when bent, the bast (the top layer of the twig) begins to crackle.
The cut branches are placed in a container with water and placed in a cool place. When callus forms and roots appear, the cutting is planted in a container with soil for growing. You can directly root the cuttings in a potting mix made up in equal parts of humus, sand and garden soil.
It is very easy to propagate grapes by layering. To do this, grooves up to 12 cm deep are pulled out at the base of the bush, they are filled with 1/3 of fertile soil. The vines are laid in grooves, secured with wooden pins and covered with earth. This operation is recommended in the spring, at the beginning of May.
Many strong and healthy seedlings can be obtained from one vine.
Video: an interesting way to grow seedlings from cuttings
The soil prefers grapes poor, loose, slightly acidic. On sandy soils, the plant is planted in a trench, on heavy loamy soils with a close occurrence of groundwater, grapes are planted on ridges. The height of the ridge should be at least 80 cm; it is advisable to lay a drainage groove 25 X 25 cm near it.
Photo gallery: planting grapes correctly
We choose a sunny, well-warmed place for landing. You can plant grapes on the south and southeast side of the house.
We dig a hole 70 x 70 x 70 cm, lay drainage on the bottom - a layer of brick, gravel, crushed stone, sand with a layer of at least 10 cm.To facilitate watering a young plant, it is advisable to place a plastic bottle with a cut bottom or a drainage pipe in the hole. They are covered with polyethylene for the winter.
We pour a layer of earth on the drainage, make a mound and place the seedling on it carefully at an angle. The top of the root system should be 30 cm below ground level. Carefully fill the plant with earth and water it.
Video: planting a grape seedling
Timely pinching and pruning is essential if we want to improve the quality of wild grapes. In the first year we form a bush in the shape of a heart, leaving two main shoots. The stepsons must be pinched after the second sheet. In early August, remove the underdeveloped tops of young shoots. In October we cut off the shoots, leaving 3-4 buds.
In the first year, we form a bush in the shape of a heart
In autumn second year on two shoots we choose one powerful vine, leaving 5 - 8 buds on them. Remove the rest of the shoots.
On the third year on each shoot, the most powerful shoot is left, cut into 5 - 6 buds (fruit arrow). In the fourth year, we will already have an adult bush ready to bear fruit.
It is desirable to form a powerful perennial bole. Old wood stores a supply of nutrients and creates a strong skeleton.
Video: pruning vines
Young plants up to two years old are watered in dry hot weather every other day; if it is cool and raining, watering once a week is enough. Adult plants do not need watering. Lack of moisture makes berries sweeter.
Young plants are not fed in the first two years. Then organic fertilizers (cow dung, compost) are applied annually in the spring. They are laid out on the ridges or around the bush, without burying, 1 bucket per bush.
In the fall, the plant is sprayed with an ash solution to prepare the plant for wintering. Insist day 2 liters of ash in 10 liters of water, then filter. For spraying on 10 liters of water, add half a liter of infusion.
Ash can be sprinkled on plant leaves to get rid of slugs. Excessive ash consumption can lead to chlorosis due to problems with the absorption of nitrogen by the plant.
This variety is quite resistant to pests and diseases; timely preventive measures will save the plant.
- Treatment with iron sulfate will help to fight phylloxera. In the spring after awakening, the plant is sprayed with a solution (300 g of FA per 10 l of water). Around the vine, grooves with a depth of 15 cm are dug and a solution (500 g of FA per 10 L of water) is poured into them, the grooves are buried.
- Cleaning and burning old foliage and dry vines will save you from the felt mite. Bushes can be treated with preparations containing colloidal sulfur.
- The use of insecticides - intavir, decis - will help from whitefly.
In order not to infect your site with phylloxera, purchase seedlings only from a reliable seller. This pest develops poorly in heavy clay soil; parsley phytoncides are detrimental to it.
Preparing for winter
In the period from October to November, we prepare a young plant for wintering. We bend the cut off shoots to the ground and cover with spunbond, spruce branches, corrugated cardboard. An adult vine does not need shelter. It is recommended to cover the hole under the bush with earth.
Wild Amur grapes can be successfully grown on personal plots in regions with different climatic conditions. In the south, he is unlikely to be comfortable; in the Moscow region, in the North-West, the Urals and in Siberia, he will not only decorate the garden, but also delight with delicious berries.
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