Cherry plum and plum - what's the difference?
Amateur gardeners agree that cherry plum is the same plum. But this opinion is erroneous.
Plum and cherry plum - fruits that differ by nutritional value, taste and other indicators.
How to distinguish plum from cherry plum: a noticeable difference
Gardeners note the following differences between plum and cherry plum:
- Fruit color... Cherry plum in most cases is presented in yellow-red color, and plum in dark blue.
- Differ chemical composition and nutritional value. Plums contain more sugars and less calcium.
- Place of growth... Cherry plum is common in the southern regions and especially in the Caucasus. This is due to its low winter hardiness. Plum can be found in all countries with a temperate climate and even in the north.
- Different ripening times... The cherry plum is harvested in late summer and early autumn, the plum ripens earlier. Cherry plum seedlings begin to bear fruit 2 years earlier than plum saplings.
- Bloom... The velvety pink inflorescences of the cherry plum appear simultaneously with the blooming of the foliage. They tolerate cold snaps better than others. For its tendency to early awakening, cherry plum is also used for decorative purposes. Plum flower buds produce 1 to 3 white flowers.
- Plums are easier to dry, as a result of which prunes are obtained.
- The stone in all varieties of cherry plum is not separated... This is a biological feature that cannot be called a significant drawback.
- The annual yield of cherry plum is higher than that of plum and reaches up to 40 kilograms per tree.
- Cherry plum is less susceptible to pests and numerous diseases, undemanding to the composition of the soil. In our natural conditions, cherry plum is grown without special means of protection. Because of this, it is called an environmentally friendly culture. Plum is susceptible to disease and is not resistant to pests.
- Cherry plum is indispensable in the preparation of the famous Georgian tkemali sauce. The seasoning goes well with meat, fish, poultry or a side dish of potatoes, pasta. In the original recipe, the sauce does not contain sugar, salt.
Buying plum or cherry pluminitially evaluate their appearance. The fruit should not be wrinkled, crackled or rotten. It is normal to have a white coating on the surface.
Russian plum, aka cherry plum
Nutritional value and chemical composition
Cherry plum is usually called one of the original forms of home plum... Its fruits are loved by many for their unique sweet and sour taste and juiciness. They are used both fresh and in the preparation of desserts, preserves, sauces, jams.
Recently Russian scientists have identified the fruit as a separate botanical species - "Russian plum"... The calorie content of cherry plum averages 27 kcal per 100 grams of product.
Most of the varieties are self-fertile... In this regard, several varieties of cherry plum are planted on the garden plot at once, which are necessary for mutual pollination.
Ripe fruits contain:
- vitamins of group B, E, PP, C, provitamin A;
- iron, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium;
- pectin substances;
- ascorbic acid.
Cherry plum is combined with various productssuch as meat, poultry, vegetables, cheese, cottage cheese. It can be frozen and dried.
Among the popular varieties of cherry plum it is customary to distinguish: Tent, Bounty, Granite, Kuban comet, Nesmeyana.
Useful properties and harm to the body
Cherry plum is not only a delicious fruit. It has many beneficial properties.
Cherry plum fruits are used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in prolonged constipation, vitamin deficiency, metabolic disorders.
Diet product used by people who want to lose weight. Regular use of ripe fruits is an effective measure for the prevention of cataracts.
Water tinctures of flowers have shown effectiveness in the treatment of kidney and liver diseases, disorders of the reproductive system in men.
Cherry plum juice helps with colds, refreshes and tones the body, has a beneficial effect on the nervous system.
The seed shells are used in the production of activated carbon.
Dried pulp retains taste, is included in the daily diet as an antiscorbutic agent.
The greatest benefit can be obtained eating fresh cherry plum... Ripe fruit has a characteristic aroma and a dense skin without damage. All useful properties are preserved in full after freezing.
Especially tasty cherry plum juicewhen it is blended with other berries and fruits. It is often used as a filler for yoghurt.
The fruit is recommended for children, pregnant women, elderly people, athletes. Perfectly quenches thirst and fills with vitality.
Cherry plum is recognized by official medicine as a useful fruit, but consumption should be monitored... Otherwise, there is a high probability of poisoning the body, the appearance of heartburn, nausea and gastrointestinal upset.
Up to 5 fruits can be eaten without harm to health.
Contraindications for cherry plum include children's age up to a year, individual intolerance, increased acidity of gastric juice. The fruit should also be abandoned for people with diseases accompanied by diarrhea.
The benefits and harms of plums, chemical composition
Many people like juicy plums, but the fruit is valuable not only for its taste. The composition of the fruit includes a large number of useful substances are vitamins C, A, B, PP, as well as potassium, phosphorus, iron and others.
Calorie content of plum the average is 42 kcal. Regardless of the variety, the fruit has a number of beneficial properties:
- reduction of puffiness;
- getting rid of constipation, atony;
- cleansing the intestines, the body from toxins;
- elimination of the accumulation of bile;
- strengthening the walls of blood vessels, muscles of the heart and nerve cells;
- normalization of liver function;
- stabilization of blood pressure levels;
- antipyretic effect for colds and infectious diseases, which are accompanied by an increase in human body temperature.
Along with the fruits fruit plum leaves are also useful... They contain coumarin, which prevents blood clots and thins the blood. Rinsing the mouth with a decoction of the leaves is used at the first symptoms of stomatitis.
To avoid harm to the body, care should be taken when consuming plums.
The fruit is dangerous for diabetics, nursing mothers, in the presence of stones in the gallbladder, gout and rheumatism, individual intolerance.
To popular varieties of plums among gardeners include: Mirabelle, Honey White, Tula Black, Alyonushka.
Use in cosmetology
Rich vitamin composition of cherry plum and plum allows the use of fruits in cosmetology. Regular application of masks will slow down the aging process, moisturize the skin, and also tighten pores.
Cherry plum and plum seed extract widely used in perfumery, in the production of medical soap.
In practice, the following recipes of traditional medicine are used:
- A mask based on softened plums and sour cream. Moisturizes the skin and gives it a healthy look.
- Cherry plum seed oil is used in the fight against stretch marks in pregnant women.
- Nourishing cream with cherry plum, egg white and starch.
- A decoction of plum or cherry-plum fruits will allow your hair to return to its natural shine.
- Cherry plum juice with chamomile infusion and baby cream. Recommended by dermatologists for dry, flaky skin.
Plum face mask:
Possibility of transportation
Harvesting time depends on the timing of the ripening of the fruit in a particular variety. The most important thing is not to delay the collection. Overripe fruits will quickly begin to crumble on their own. In this case, they will be poorly stored.
Cherry plum is much easier to transport than plum... If it is supposed to move the fruit for a long distance, the fruit is harvested 5-7 days before full ripening. Boxes with small openings are suitable for transportation.
Cherry plum and plum are removed from the stalk. Harvesting is carried out in dry weather. This will avoid rapid decay. The fruits are removed in 2-3 doses, as their ripening on the tree is gradual.
If the gardener decides to grow plum or cherry plum on his site, you should carefully consider the choice of a particular variety. The final result depends on this.
Plum and cherry plum are two closest relativesthat belong to the same botanical genus, you can distinguish them.
Difference between plum and cherry plum
It would seem that what is the problem - plum or cherry plum in front of you, eat and enjoy. However, if they are actually different fruits, they may have different nutritional values, and their beneficial properties may also differ. Therefore, you need to figure out what is plum, what is cherry plum and how they differ.
Plum Is a fruit tree that grows well even in the northern hemisphere. Everyone is familiar with its fruits, which can be yellow, purple, crimson. The fact is that there are more than a hundred species of plum (Prunus in Latin), one of which is cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera in Latin), along with apricot and sweet cherry. So, the concept of "plum" is broader, it includes the concept of "cherry plum".
Often, the word "plum" is not understood as a genus of plants, but a certain type of the genus of plum, which is called "home plum". Therefore, we all know plums (growing mainly in the gardens of the northern part of Russia) - this is the result of crossing cherry plums with blackthorns. Therefore, plum and cherry plum are also two different species of the same genus, which did not appear at the same time.
Cherry plum as a species has a specific sweet and sour taste, therefore it is she who is used to make tkemali sauce.
The ripening time of cherry plum and plum is different. Cherry plum ripens in late summer or early autumn, while plum ripens earlier. At the same time, the plum fruits are dark, and the cherry plum fruits are bright, yellow-red.
Taste qualities of plum and cherry plum
Of course, many gardeners are wondering what is more delicious - cherry plum or plum. As a rule, the size of the fruits, their number, taste and external properties entirely depend on which variety they belong to. Usually homemade plums produce fruits that can weigh up to 50 grams. Large varieties give fruits weighing 70 grams, and this, you see, is very large fruits.
Plum usually gives fruits of different colors: purple, light green or yellow, red or dark blue, again, it all depends on the type of plum. There is usually a waxy coating on the skin, which can be removed by rinsing the drain more thoroughly with water. The plum pits are flattened, pointed towards the edges, easily detached from the pulp if the plum has reached full ripeness and is ready to be eaten fresh.
Cherry plum fruits are much smaller - the maximum weight of one fruit is about 35 grams. Most often these are fruits of a round and flattened shape, when ripe they can acquire a pink, red or purple, less often a yellow tint. Again, these are the features of the variety that the gardener grows on his site. The seed does not separate from the pulp, even if the fruit is fully ripe and ready to eat.
The fruits also differ from each other in terms of shelf life. For example, a plum can be stored for up to four weeks, and after that the fruits begin to gradually stale, foulbrood appears, which is a sign that the fruits should either be processed faster or discarded altogether. Cherry plum is more loyal to transportation over long distances, can ripen after the fruits have been harvested, and is stored in favorable conditions for more than three months.
Both cherry plum and plum are used to prepare sauces for fish and meat dishes, as well as for poultry dishes. In order to get candied fruits or dried fruits, it is nevertheless necessary to use plum for this than cherry plum, since it contains more water, which will prevent successful drying and separation of seeds from pulp, which will cause a lot of trouble for the gardener himself.
Thus, both cherry plum and plum today are becoming crops that are very similar to each other, and are popular for growing on plots. It is important to remember that cherry plum is most often grown in warmer regions, and plums take root faster in cooler climates. The resistance of plants to external factors depends entirely on the variety that the gardener has chosen for planting.
Cherry plum, after planting a seedling, very quickly adapts to the environment, it is better to purchase materials for planting in nurseries and from professional gardeners, since in nurseries the plant is grown taking into account its adaptability to a particular region, and this is extremely important. The zoned seedlings then grow stronger, stronger, fruiting also becomes a more guaranteed fact.
Plum has low immunity, so it must be constantly processed so that diseases and parasites do not destroy the shrub. For the prevention of diseases, special attention is paid to caring for the tree, basically removing root shoots, digging up the soil.
Both cultures are very positive about watering and feeding. Under the right conditions, fruiting will not be long in coming, the harvest will be plentiful and rich and, most importantly, tasty. As we have already noted, both cherry plum and plum have very similar characteristics in general, but there are still differences that should be taken into account when choosing a culture, when planting it further and when caring for it. Not all problems can be solved only with a successful variety - it is extremely important to be attentive to the plant, to its features and initial characteristics.
H. V. Kovalev in 1955 singled out not one, but several types of cherry plum, combined into a cycle Cerasiferae.
- Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. - cherry plum
- Prunus caspica Kovalev & Ekimov - Caspian cherry plum
- Prunus iranica Kovalev - Iranian cherry plum
- Prunus ursina Kotschy - Syrian cherry plum
- Prunus sogdiana Vassilcz. - Fergana cherry plum.
These five species of cherry plum differ well among themselves and occupy certain geographic areas in Central and Western Asia .
According to The Plant List database, currently only Prunus sogdiana  .
What is the difference between plum and cherry plum?
Some inexperienced gardeners believe that plum and cherry plum are the same thing. But such a statement is erroneous. These fruit trees are indeed the closest botanical relatives, so what is the difference between plum and cherry plum? These fruits differ from each other in size, color, taste.
Differences between plum and cherry plum
Gardeners distinguish the fundamental differences between plums and cherry plums by:
- the color of the fruit. Cherry plum has a yellowish-red hue of the fruit, and plum, for the most part, is dark blue
- a set of chemical elements. Plums contain more sugar, while cherry plums are rich in calcium
- habitat. Cherry plum grows in milder climates and is afraid of severe frosty winters. Plum can be found in the temperate zone and even in the northern latitudes.
- ripening time of fruits. Cherry plum is harvested in early autumn. Plum ripens two weeks earlier.
- flowering method.A plum bud has 2-3 white flowers. Cherry plum flowers appear together with the first leaves. Due to its early flowering, its velvety pink flowers are sometimes used for decorative purposes.
- the way of processing. Jam and compotes are made from these fruits, but the plum is also dried to obtain prunes.
- separation from the bone. Absolutely all varieties of cherry plum are poorly separated from the stone, this is their feature, which the plum does not have
- yield. Experts have calculated that cherry plum will give birth better than plum
- resistance to pests and diseases. Cherry plum is unpretentious to the growing soil and is not afraid of pests and diseases, therefore it is unnecessary to treat it with special protective equipment. Plum has a variety of pests and requires constant care.
Useful properties of cherry plum
Cherry plum, in addition to excellent taste, has other useful properties. It is used in the treatment of prolonged constipation, metabolic disorders, lack of vitamins and minerals. In addition, cherry plum is considered a dietary product and is suitable for people who want to lose weight.
Useful properties of plums
There are many varieties of this fruit, which contains many vitamins and useful minerals. In folk medicine, plums are used for: relieving swelling, cleansing the intestines, normalizing liver function, stabilizing blood pressure, lowering the temperature for colds and infections.
Despite. That plum and cherry plum are outwardly similar, they have different properties.
Relax and don't let the snake break?
Use the arrows on your keyboard to control ⌨
Why is cherry plum better than plum?
Gardeners note the following differences between plum and cherry plum: Fruit color. Cherry plum in most cases is presented in yellow-red color, and plum in dark blue. The chemical composition and nutritional value differ. Plums contain more sugars and less calcium.
Place of growth. Cherry plum is common in the southern regions and especially in the Caucasus. This is due to its low winter hardiness. Plum can be found in all countries with a temperate climate and even in the north.
Different ripening times. The cherry plum is harvested in late summer and early autumn, the plum ripens earlier. Cherry plum seedlings begin to bear fruit 2 years earlier than plum saplings.
Bloom. The velvety pink inflorescences of cherry plum appear simultaneously with the blooming of the foliage. They tolerate cold snaps better than others. For its tendency to early awakening, cherry plum is also used for decorative purposes. Plum flower buds produce 1 to 3 white flowers.
Plums are easier to dry, resulting in prunes. The stone in all varieties of cherry plum is not separated. This is a biological feature that cannot be called a significant drawback.
There are several differences between plum and cherry plum: from fruit color to resistance to diseases and pests
The annual yield of cherry plum is higher than that of plum and reaches up to 40 kilograms per tree. Cherry plum is less susceptible to pests and numerous diseases, undemanding to the composition of the soil.
In our natural conditions, cherry plum is grown without special means of protection. Because of this, it is called an environmentally friendly culture. Plum is susceptible to disease and pest resistant.
Cherry plum is indispensable in the preparation of the famous Georgian tkemali sauce. The seasoning goes well with meat, fish, poultry or a side dish of potatoes, pasta. In the original recipe, the sauce does not contain sugar, salt. Plum and cherry plum in the process of their growth need regular cyclic pruning. Improper care leads to a transition to periodic fruiting.
When buying a plum or cherry plum, they initially evaluate their appearance. The fruit should not be wrinkled, crackled or rotten. It is normal to have a white coating on the surface.
A LITTLE ABOUT THE PLUM AND PLUM SYSTEM
Many people ask questions: Russian plum and homemade plum are the same thing? And why is the Russian plum called cherry plum, because it does not look like a real wild cherry plum with small fruits? To answer these questions, let's compare how the most common representatives of the genus Prunus, or simply plums, differ from each other.
1. Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) is a small thorny shrub, rarely a tree 4-8 m high. It grows in the Volga region, the European part of Russia, the Caucasus and Western Siberia. It has small, black-blue fruits with a strong waxy coating, tart taste. Also, there are many hybrids obtained from crossing the blackthorn with a domestic plum and called the thorny plum.
2. Cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) Distributed in the southern regions of Europe, including the Caucasus. These are highly thorny, branched, multi-stemmed trees, sometimes a shrub, with thin brownish-green shoots, 3-10 m high. Fruits are usually red, yellow or almost black with a slight waxy coating, oval, medium-sized. Cherry plum is distinguished by high resistance to diseases, as well as high polymorphism (external signs vary greatly) of fruits. Its significant drawback is its low winter hardiness.
3. Domestic plum (Prunus domestica) Distributed in almost all countries with a temperate climate. Most of the pages of any catalog are devoted to its varieties. The domestic plum is a tree 6-15 m high. The branches sometimes form a few thorns. Home plum appeared as a result of natural crossing of two wild species - cherry plum and blackthorn and combines the features of both parents: cold hardiness of blackthorn and taste of cherry plum. Not found in the wild. The fruits are large, of good taste, of various shapes, more often oval, with a large bone separating from the pulp, varied, from dark blue to bright yellow, in color (depending on the variety).
4. Chinese plum (Prunus salicina). Widespread in China. This tree reaches a height of 10 m. It blooms very profusely. Fruits of various sizes and shapes, but more often round or conical, bright yellow or bright red, and fruits with a blue or purple color are never found. The pulp is juicy, sourish in taste. The disadvantage of this species is the low winter hardiness of plants.
5. Ussuri plum (Prunus ussuriensis). It grows in the Far East, in the Primorsky Territory. Many taxonomists consider the Ussuri plum to be a subspecies of the Chinese plum. It does not occur in the wild. Represents trees, reaching a height of 5-6 m, often forms numerous root shoots. The fruits are usually small, yellow, bright red or brown in color. The undoubted advantages of the Ussuri plum are its winter hardiness (withstands frosts down to minus 55 ° C), early maturity and high quality of fruits (the pulp is tender, tasty, juicy). The disadvantages include a short dormant period and early flowering.
6. Hybrid cherry plum, it is also Russian plum A new culture obtained from crossing cherry plum with other types of plum, primarily with varieties of Chinese plum. In terms of morphological features, it occupies an intermediate position between the parental forms. Differs in very high early maturity, average winter hardiness (withstands frosts down to minus 25 ° C), productivity, as well as excellent fruit quality. Usually they are juicy, tasty, sweet. The popularity of the Russian plum is growing rapidly, as well as the number of varieties.
This fruit has a wide range of uses in health food. It helps to normalize blood pressure, maintain the normal structure of blood vessel walls and restore heart rate. It should be used in patients with arrhythmia and hypertension. Microelements and macronutrients contribute to increased hematopoiesis and an increase in the number of red blood cells, increase the level of hemoglobin in the blood in case of its deficiency, therefore, improve the quality of nails and hair.
They also regulate the work of the heart muscle. Thanks to the tannins in the composition, the product has a natural antiseptic effect. It is used for coughs, sore throat, promotes the discharge of phlegm. Therefore, it plays an important role in diseases of the upper respiratory tract. It also prevents the development of putrefactive bacteria in the intestines. The use of the fruit gives a mild laxative effect due to the fiber it contains, so it is good to use it for persons with stool retention.
Cherry plum supports the immune system. Therefore, it is good to use it for colds. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. Vitamin C also prevents the development of scurvy, all those who eat this fruit are insured against it. One of the properties of this product is to restore male potency. Pregnant women are also advised to eat cherry plum as it contains a lot of nutrients. All these medicinal properties allow everyone to use the fruit in small quantities. Those who are prone to allergies, diabetics and the elderly should not be afraid to use this product.
These fruit trees are not self-fertile, that is, they are not capable of self-pollination. This information requires gardeners to comply with some rules: planting seedlings should be done next to other fruit trees that have the same flowering period of plum and cherry plum, they perfectly take root on each other when grafted, several different varieties can be planted on the stock, choosing a seedling, you should pay attention to leaves: in cherry plum, they are less dense and do not have a cannon root characteristic of plum, regardless of the type of tree, must have a closed shape, since the correct cultivation of seedlings should take place in pots, the seedling must have a strong root and branched, shoots at least 20 centimeters long when grown in a pot, the root is protected from external factors such as too much humidity, strong wind gusts or direct sunlight, which helps it to form better.
After selecting and planting a seedling, the gardener must closely look after it in the first two years of development. During this period, a young tree is formed, its active growth. For everything to go right, you need to carry out preventive pruning of excess branches and timely treatment from pests. It is important to feed the plant. Do not forget about the root system. Its correct formation is a guarantee of the tree's longevity. Root formation is carried out in the first year of the tree's life in the open ground.
To protect against frost, it is imperative to mulch the soil. The described trees will begin to delight the owners with fruits at different times. Cherry plum bears fruit for the third year after planting. You will have to wait as much as 5 years from the plum harvest.
This is a delicious fruit. It is often used by traditional healers. Cherry plum has a beneficial effect on overall well-being. It is part of many diets.
The described fruit is a source of calcium, phosphorus, iron, carotene, ascorbic acid, B vitamins and other useful substances. Many housewives add cherry plum to desserts and salads. It helps the body absorb fatty foods without any problems. Thanks to her, you can forget what constipation is. Your bowel movements will improve. The iron in the fruit will increase the level of hemoglobin in the blood. If you consume the described fruit, then your hair will acquire a natural shine. In addition, it relieves the feeling of thirst. Cherry plum gives diuretic and choleretic effects.
It frees the body from harmful substances. If you include this fruit in your menu, then it will be easier for you to overcome negative emotions. The citric acid it contains is a powerful antioxidant. If you are often tormented by migraines, then cherry plum will relieve you of it. It stabilizes blood pressure. Doctors recommend consuming it for colds. After all, it gives an expectorant effect. If you are carrying a child, then cherry plum compensates the body for the lack of minerals and vitamins. Despite the fact that the described fruit has many useful properties, all the same, when consuming it, you need to remember about the sense of proportion.
Otherwise, your blood sugar levels may rise or you may develop diarrhea.
The most famous varieties and their brief description
Early comet - the first to open the season in mid-July, presenting large (up to 42 grams), dark red juicy fruits with a sweet and sour taste. This is the best variety for central and southern Russia. Regular plant care (watering, pruning and fertilizing the soil) will provide fruits with a stable shape-weight. Does not require pollination. The pulp is yellow, fleshy with a hard-to-separate bone. The taste is sweet and sour.
Cherry plum Tsarskaya is a widespread species with medium fruits (about 22 grams). The peel is sandy in color with a waxy coating. The flesh is yellow with sourness, pleasant to the taste. The tree is prized for its exceptional frost resistance and immune characteristics. Bears fruit abundantly and actively in the third year.
Gold of the Scythians - fruits are large enough (up to 37 grams), round in shape, yellow in color. The tree is of medium height, tolerates frost well and is immune to many garden diseases. The pulp is firm, juicy and fleshy. This is the best variety for the Moscow region, the middle zone and north-west of Russia, for the Urals and Ukraine, which has won wide popularity there.
Lama - ripens in mid-August. It requires pollination and produces a stable high yield. Fruits are juicy with a raspberry hue (up to 42 grams), the bone is easily separated. Hardy and immune to most diseases.
Watermelon is a sweet and sour variety with fruits (up to 45 grams) of dark red color with a bluish tint. The pulp is dense and juicy - easily separated from the stone. The trees are slightly above average growth, yielding up to 40 kg of a stable harvest. Pollination required.
Mara is a medium-sized plant with the same fruits (up to 23 grams), which are very juicy and have a sweet rich taste, easily tolerates frost and is immune to pests and diseases.
Cleopatra - ripens late, has a sparse crown of a wide-conical shape, only with pollination, it stably yields a high yield; red-violet fruits are sweet and crunchy with a hard-to-extract seed, the variety is not afraid of frost and is unpretentious to weather conditions.
Huck is the best variety for central Russia, since it has high immunity and frost-resistant fruits are large (up to 42 grams), egg-shaped with a yellow lemon-colored peel, there is little juice in the pale yellow pulp and the stone does not separate, the taste is pleasant and refined.
Both plum and cherry plum contain the whole range of vitamins. The southern yellow fruit is an excellent antioxidant due to vitamin E. It is not lagging behind in the amount of nutrients. It contains carotene, which is very useful for maintaining vision for many years.
Dark blue fruits contain such a set of vitamins and trace elements, which is indispensable for: tachycardia, myopia or hyperopia: constant consumption of the fruit is a good prevention of glaucoma and cataracts at a more mature age; will protect them from colds in winter; it is recommended to use plums during pregnancy, this fruit has a large amount of vitamins that will help the fetus develop according to normal indicators: it should be taken with caution during lactation, since it has laxative properties in children prone to to allergies, can cause a profuse rash.
Both the large plum and the small cherry plum are low-calorie foods, so they are widely used by those who want to lose weight. The tkemali fruit has long been used for chronic constipation, bile stasis and persistent viral infections. These fruits have a difference in preparation methods. Dark fruits are perfectly susceptible to drying and smoking. Very fleshy and sweet prunes are obtained from large blue fruits.Due to their small size, yellow fruits cannot undergo such processing methods, but a very tasty and healthy tkemali sauce is prepared from it, which is best suited to meat.
This sauce is a hallmark of Georgian cuisine, especially if it is prepared according to the national recipe, so you should choose between these fruits based on your preferences in cooking.
This tree-like, multi-stemmed plant can grow in height from 1.5 to 10 meters, which is why it is called both a tree and a shrub, depending on its height. It has a very powerful branched root system underground.
Thin stems have a green-brown tint, the leaves are close to an ellipse in shape and are pointed at the end. Flowers are solitary, several centimeters in diameter, can be white or pink. The flowering process for these trees begins in May, usually in the first days of the month. During this period, the plant looks like a flowering plum, they are almost impossible to distinguish.
The fruit has a single bone, which is characterized by a rounded shape; in some varieties, the fruit may be flattened or slightly oblong. Fruits come in a variety of colors: green (already ripe), yellow, pink, there are purple varieties, red. There is a light waxy coating on the surface - this is a normal natural phenomenon. Ripening also depends on the variety, usually from July to September. There is a single bone inside the fetus.
It is round or slightly elongated, flat. It is quite difficult to completely separate it from the fruit pulp. The kernel contains oil similar in properties to almond oil. Most varieties of cherry plum are self-fertile in their ability to pollinate, which means that to set fruits, you need to plant at least two different plants on the site, blooming at about the same time.
Neighbors will not damage self-fertile trees either - this will help increase the yield. Depending on the type of cherry plum, it can live for about 30-50 years, and it begins to bear fruit the next year after planting. In folk medicine The beneficial properties of cherry plum are confirmed by the abundance of recipes for traditional medicine: It is recommended to eat fruits with increased pressure, 200 g fresh daily. However, if the pressure is higher than 180/120, then it is better to consult a doctor for prescribing medications, not limited to self-medication.
The fruits can be considered as a strengthening complex, they will be useful for problems associated with vitamin deficiency in the body. Due to the abundance of potassium in the cherry plum, it helps to improve the condition in case of arrhythmias and has a good effect on the cardiovascular system. The flowers of the plant can be infused with water. Such a liquid has a choleretic effect, is useful in diseases of the kidneys and liver, and has a beneficial effect on the male reproductive system. 30-50 ml of cherry plum juice can be drunk with a cold, if the patient suffers from a severe cough.
For this, the roots are also used, which are slightly dried, and then brewed in boiling water. Several times a day you need to drink 100 ml of infusion, which helps to get rid of cold symptoms and has a fairly pronounced anti-inflammatory effect. A decoction of fruits or unsweetened compote can be drunk with gastritis, when there is a decreased acidity of gastric juice. A decoction of dried cherry plum will help with constipation.
You need to use it before meals three times a day for 1/3 cup. Cherry plum can be used as a useful food supplement, but it is worth remembering that this fruit is not a medicine, but only an additional remedy. Therefore, in case of serious health problems, it is imperative to consult a doctor, not being limited only to folk remedies for treatment.
Such an inoculation is done in order to make the cherry plum more frost-resistant, since the plum is characterized by increased winter hardiness. In addition, if several varieties of cherry plum are planted on a plum tree, they will pollinate each other, and the overall yield will only increase from this. For pollination, zoned varieties are selected that are suitable for cultivation in each specific region. If you select varieties with different periods of fruiting, you can significantly extend the harvest time for cherry plum.
The term of vaccination in the middle lane is March, the time before bud break on the scion and on the rootstock. The age of the rootstock tree should not exceed 5 years, and the branches on which the cutting will be grafted should not be older than a year. The best time for grafting is in the morning with its high humidity, since the air is drier in the evening and the plant sections quickly oxidize and dry, which reduces survival rate. The sequence of grafting in the split - the easiest way: Cut the stock with a pruner.
Make a cross section on it with a very sharp knife. Split the stem in the middle 3-4 cm deep. Sharpen the graft in the form of a wedge, starting from the lower bud. Insert the scion into the rootstock split with the narrowed part. Wrap up the place of the scion with electrical tape. Cut off the end of the scion with a pruner, leaving 3-4 buds. Cover the cut with garden pitch. Put a plastic bag over the new shoot to retain moisture. After the appearance of the first leaves on the scion, the package should be removed. The tape is removed from the vaccination site when the scion grows at least 25 cm long. During the summer, shoots appearing on the rootstock are removed to ensure maximum nutrition for the grafted cuttings. After a year, you can count on the appearance of the first harvest.
How to distinguish plum from cherry plum
Due to the abundant flowering of cherry plum, it has an increased yield. Up to 50 kg of fruits are removed from one tree. The average yield of plums is 20-30 kg. Cherry blossoms begin in the third decade of March at the same time as the leaves open. Plum buds bloom in April-mid-May, depending on the growing region. The timing of fruiting is determined by the crop variety. Early cherry plum bears fruit in late June, later varieties - in August and September. Plum ripens in mid-July, the latest varieties yield in the second decade of September. Cherry plum begins to bear fruit faster. The first crop is harvested 2 years after planting.
The culture looks like a shrub or multi-stemmed tree 3-10 m high. Life expectancy is from 30 to 50 years. After planting, the plum begins to bear fruit for 3-6 years. The tree grows up to 15 m. The lifespan of the culture is up to 25 years. Active fruiting lasts 10-15 years. Important! Plum is a more frost-resistant crop, capable of withstanding a decrease in temperature in winter to -30 ° C. However, cherry plum surpasses it in drought resistance .. Average frost resistance of cherry plum is -20 ° C. Some varieties can withstand up to -30 ° C. When grown in cold climates, roots and shoots often freeze out. The average frost resistance of cherry plum is -20 ° С. Certain varieties can withstand up to -30 ° C.
When grown in cold climates, roots and shoots often freeze out. Plum is considered to be more capricious due to its lower resistance to disease and drought. The culture needs increased care. In nature, cherry plum is found in Western and Central Asia, the Tien Shan, the Balkans, the North Caucasus, Moldova, Iran and southern Ukraine. Modern frost-resistant hybrids are grown in the middle lane and more northern regions. Ancient Persia is considered the birthplace of the plum. Over time, the culture spread throughout Eurasia.
In Russia, the culture has been cultivated since the 17th century. Her seedlings were brought to the village of Izmailovo near Moscow from Europe. The seedlings were characterized by low winter hardiness. Breeding work on the development of more frost-resistant varieties of plums was carried out in the XIX-XX centuries.
A stock and a scion are required beforehand. A plant should be prepared on which a varietal cutting will be grafted. A suitable seedling can be grown from the root cuttings. To obtain a rootstock, it will be possible to use the seeds of close crops - thorns or plums, which are planted in loose and moist soil in early autumn, leaving them to winter. At the end of spring, seedlings should appear, they must be regularly watered, weeded and do not forget to loosen the ground in order to facilitate germination. They can be used only next year, closer to the middle and end of summer, when there is an increased movement of sap in the plants.
On the day of vaccination, cut the scion. You can choose one of the existing methods for grafting: behind the bark, in a T-shaped cut, in the butt, in the cleft. First, you need to properly water the stock, this makes it possible to stimulate the movement of the juice, after which dust is removed from the stock with a damp sponge. All leaves are cut from the scion, leaving a stalk about half a centimeter. The bud with this petiole is cut off, leaving a strip of bark.
A T-shaped incision is made on the rootstock, then the separated bark is carefully folded back and a bud with a petiole is placed under it, after which everything is pressed very tightly and wrapped with tape or tape so that the bud on the petiole remains open.
Harvesting time depends on the ripening time of the particular variety. The most important thing is not to delay the collection. Overripe fruits will quickly begin to crumble on their own. In this case, they will be poorly stored. Cherry plum lends itself much better to transportation than plums. If it is supposed to move the fruit for a long distance, the collection of fruits is carried out 5-7 days before full ripening. Boxes with small openings are suitable for transportation. Cherry plum and plum are removed from the stalk. Harvesting is carried out in dry weather. This will avoid rapid decay. The fruits are removed in 2-3 doses, as their ripening on the tree is gradual.
If the gardener decides to grow plum or cherry plum on his site, you should carefully consider the choice of a particular variety. The final result depends on this. Plum and cherry-plum are two closest relatives that belong to the same botanical genus, you can distinguish them. Date of publication: Cherry plum cosmetics at home So, at home it is not difficult to prepare several simple but effective means from cherry plum.
Recipe 1 From ripe cherry plum fruits, remove the skin, separate the stone, pass the pulp through a sieve. Add a little cottage cheese or sour cream. Apply to face for 20 minutes. Suitable for normal skin.
Recipe 2 Grate a few fruits, add raw yolk to the puree. Mix thoroughly and apply to face, neck and décolleté. This mask is designed to moisturize dry skin.
Recipe 3 To prepare this product, you will need about 20 ml of butter, the yolk of a chicken egg, about a tablespoon of cherry plum puree, a teaspoon of honey. Gently mix everything and apply on the face with light movements. Leave until absorbed into the skin. Remove residues with a napkin.
Recipe 4 Add a little cherry plum juice and chamomile (or calendula) infusion to the baby cream. Stir and apply to face. Hold for 15 minutes and rinse. Suitable for dry skin.
Recipe 5 For oily skin, a decoction for washing made from cherry plum is suitable. To do this, crush 50 g of ripe fruits and pour warm boiled water (100 ml). Let it infuse throughout the night. Use the filtered liquid for washing.
Recipe 6 And this remedy for acne is simple, but very effective. This time, you don't have to cook anything in advance. It is enough to take a ripe cherry plum fruit, cut it and wipe the pimple with the pulp. In the morning, there will be clear skin at the site of the pimple.
Prepare a decoction from about 100 g of cherry plum and 500 ml of water. Let it brew and cool. The finished, strained product is used to rinse the hair. Regular use of the decoction will make your hair strong and shiny. This tree can be seen in almost every garden. Cherry plum fruits are loved by children and adults. But most of them do not even know how useful these delicious fruits are and what benefits they can bring to humans. But if you remember the unique chemical composition of these fruits, then it becomes immediately clear where their miraculous power comes from.
CULTIVATION OF RUSSIAN CHARLET PLUM ON STAMP AND SKELETON PROCESSORS
Some promising varieties of Russian plum, for example, such as the Zlato of the Scythians, the July rose, the Seedian of Kakhenta, Cleopatra, are not hardy enough in the conditions of central Russia and are very freezing in severe winters. To increase their winter hardiness, I recommend growing hybrid cherry plum in culture on stem-or skeletal-forming trees - trees of highly winter-hardy varieties of plum or blackthorn. As such, we can recommend the plum Tula black, Skorospelka red, Eurasia-43, as well as other local highly winter-resistant varieties (and seedlings) of plums, blackthorns, cherry plums.
Our experience testifies to the effective influence of the stem-formers on the winter hardiness of the Russian plum. In the Michurinsky garden of the Moscow Agricultural Academy in the fall of 1997, 45 annual seedlings of Russian plum varieties Zlato of the Scythians, Cleopatra, Timiryazevskaya (control) and 45 annual seedlings of the Tulskaya black plum (stem former) were planted, on which after 2 years they were grafted (by the method of improved copulation) the same Russian plum varieties (experience). As a result, in the period from 1997 to 2007 (10 years), the cherry plum trees on the stem-formers froze 2.8 times less than the control ones, their condition was better, and the total yield is almost 2 times higher. It follows from this that the stem formers contribute to an increase in the winter hardiness and productivity of the Russian plum, therefore, in places with harsh natural conditions, I recommend using this particular cultivation method for the most promising varieties: early - July rose and middle Yarilo - Vladimirskaya comet and late Kakhenta Seed - Rocket Seed and Vaneta.
Russian plum trees, especially young ones, are distinguished by a greater shoot-forming ability and vigorous growth of shoots, therefore, with annual pruning, it is necessary to thin out mainly annual branches that thicken the crown, they are cut into a ring, and strong branches are shortened as early as possible.This is done very carefully, since it is too strong pruning can lead to even more shoot formation and, as a result, more thickening. With the help of annual competent pruning and shaping of trees, they try to create a small-sized crown up to 2.5-3 m high, up to 2-2.5 m wide.This crown shape will facilitate harvesting, tree care, and will also contribute to annual yield and fruit production good quality.
The flowers of the Russian plum appear 5-7 days earlier than the flowers of the home plum (at the beginning of May), so the danger of them falling under the spring frosts is greater. Recommendations for fuming gardens and spraying trees with water are ineffective, so I recommend using a covering system. To do this, at the beginning of flowering, you need to sprinkle the trees with honey (to attract pollinating insects), and before frost, first cover the crown of the tree with a cloth (burlap, sheet, spunbond, etc.), and then with an agril film. Just do not forget to leave a few slots on the sides for the arrival of insects. Such a shelter will not only save flowers from severe (up to minus 6 ° C) frosts, but also improve their pollination, since the air under it is warmer and more insects attracted by the smell of honey will fly in there. They remove the shelter at the beginning of the formation of a young ovary, when the danger of frost has passed.
Breeding Russian plums as a more hardy and less whimsical culture is more reliable and profitable than breeding domestic plums, therefore, in places with harsh climatic conditions, I recommend everyone to grow this particular crop. In conclusion In addition to the described varieties, thorns are also found in nature. Plum, cherry plum and thorn - what are their differences? That the third variety is wild.
Thorns grow on the thorny bush. It also has a small height. Trees rarely grow above 3 m. Ternoslum is closer to cherry plum, as it comes from the southern regions.The fruits of this shrub are rarely eaten, as they have a sour taste, are distinguished by large seeds, thick skin and a rather thick waxy coating. However, today there are varieties of blackthorn, which are bred by breeders for cultivation in suburban areas.
Plum, cherry-plum, thorn: what are their differences
Plum in our gardens it is a familiar, old plant - the genus of domestic plum was brought to Russia from Western Europe in the middle of the 17th century under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov. It is known that the tsar was fond of growing strange overseas plants in the Izmailovo estate near Moscow. Among them was the plum. Very soon, this exotic spread to other gardens near Moscow, and then throughout European Russia.
Genus Prúnus - plum - has more than 30 plant species, but only a few are of practical importance: homemade, Chinese, American, Canadian, cherry plum, blackthorn.
Plum Is a fruit tree that grows well even in the northern hemisphere. Everyone is familiar with its fruits, which can be yellow, purple, crimson. The fact is that there are more than a hundred species of plum, one of which is cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera in Latin), along with apricot and sweet cherry.
In the southern and middle regions of Europe of the continent, the well-known homemade plum... Most of the pages of any catalog are devoted to its varieties. Home plum mainly grows as a tree up to 5-8 m high, but in the northern regions it often looks like a multi-stemmed bush, not exceeding 3-4 m.Leaves are medium to large, ovoid, obovate or elliptical, rather thick, slightly wrinkled pubescent on the underside. The flowers are predominantly white, 1-2 (rarely 3) from one bud, five-petal, 15 to 40 mm in diameter. Fruits from small (6-10 g) to large (50-70 g), round to elongated ovate, from yellow to dark blue, with a more or less strong waxy bloom. The pulp is often yellow or greenish, rather dense, juicy, sweet and sour. The stone is detached or fused with the pulp, of various shapes and sizes.
Often, the word "plum" is not understood as a genus of plants, but a certain type of the genus of plum, which is called "home plum". We all know plums (growing mainly in the gardens of the northern part of Russia) - this is the result of crossing cherry plum with blackthorn.
Growing in the Volga region and Central Russia turn or blackthorn... Its plants are comparatively weak. More often it is a very thorny shrub, less often a small tree. It is distinguished by spines and small, dense, blue fruits with a strong waxy coating. The fruit is characteristically tart on the palate. The varieties are not common. In addition to the "pure" thorn, there are many hybrids of thorns with plums, which are something in between. The blackthorn is more winter-hardy than the home (European) plum itself. Her plants are relatively unpretentious. The thorns are less valuable than the homemade plums. Blackthorn is able to grow and bear fruit in more northern regions than varieties of other subspecies of domestic plum. The blackthorn is presumably a spontaneous hybrid of cherry plum with small-fruited cherry. The blackthorn is one of the types of plum that was involved in the origin of the primary forms of the domestic plum many thousands of years ago.
In Siberia and the Far East, as well as in Central Russia, in recent decades, more frost-resistant than domestic Chinese plum (Ussuriyskaya)... She has elongated, like willow or peach, leaves. It blooms very early, extremely beautiful and abundant. The fruits are often red or yellow, ripen earlier than home plums, they are more juicy, and the stone, as a rule, does not separate well from the pulp. There are many varieties of this plum. A well-known variety is Skoroplodnaya.
In the Non-Black Earth Region, they grow quite successfully cherry plum, or spread plum... In the wild, it mainly grows in the foothill and mountainous regions of Central and Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and the Crimea. There are 3 subspecies of it: typical cherry plum, oriental cherry plum and large-fruited cherry plum. The last subspecies includes all cultivated varieties of cherry plum. The cherry plum has "spread out" trees, and the leaves vaguely resemble birch in shape. The fruits are usually red or yellow, oval, medium-sized, very sour. The bones are smooth. In the south of Russia, all varieties of large-fruited cherry plum are represented by tall trees (up to 5-12 m in height), more often with an almost rounded or spreading crown. Leaves are broadly ovate, ovate, obovate or elongated, 20-40 mm long and 10-30 mm wide. The flowers are white, sometimes pinkish, 20-25 mm in diameter. Fruits are round to drop-shaped and elongated, up to 50 mm in diameter. The skin is light yellow or green to almost black, with a waxy coating. The stone is often small, from rounded to elongated, free or more or less fused with the pulp. The consistency of the pulp varies from watery to mealy and cartilaginous. Its color is green, yellow or pink. The taste is often sweet and sour.
The youngest of the plums - cherry plum hybrid, she Russian plum... A new culture that combines Chinese plum and cherry plum. As a rule, a "disheveled" tree, like cherry plum. The leaves are more like cherry plum, but the fruits are closer to the Chinese plum. Usually they are juicy, harmonious in taste, without excess acid. The popularity of Russian plums is growing rapidly, as is the number of varieties. It is grown in the southern regions and in Central Russia.
Cherry plum, until recently was known as a wild plant, mainly in the south. And few people know that the cultivated varieties of cherry plum are in many ways superior to the well-known plum, and this is all because the work of Russian breeders has created wonderful varieties of cherry plum, 10-20 times larger and much tastier than their wild counterparts. Relatively winter-hardy varieties have also been bred.
Cherry plum quickly begins to bear fruit - it gives the first fruits already in the second or third year. When compared, it turns out that it is precisely the cherry plum, which is not very common in our gardens, that has undoubted advantages over the traditional plum in that it is less susceptible to diseases and pests. While the plum gets sick and is unable to produce a crop, the cherry plum bears fruit steadily. Cherry plum is more viable, less demanding on soil conditions, its seedlings take root better and grow more actively. She starts bearing fruit a year after planting and never disappoints with her taste. But it must be remembered that in order to obtain a harvest, it is necessary to have two or three different varieties of cherry plum in the garden for pollination.
The best varieties of cherry plum are presented in our Catalog.