Rosehip: cultivation and use
Little secrets of the beloved rosehip plant
Rosehip is a culture that has long attracted attention. The beauty of a flowering rose hip bush is difficult to convey in words - you need to see it! But this beauty is complemented by abundant, juicy bright green leaves.
Features of culture
The wild rose genus belongs to the Rosaceae family, and today it has over 380 species. In Russia, there are about 60 species growing both as separate plantings and in mixed forests. Rosehip can be found both in Western and Eastern Siberia, in the Far East and even on the Kuril Islands.
Rosehip is a perennial shrub, the stem of which is densely covered with thorns. Leaves are alternate, pinnate with elliptical and ovate sharp-serrate leaves. The flowers are large, fragrant, single or in inflorescences 2-3 at the ends of the branches. Corolla has six lobes, depending on the species. The fruit is false, juicy, berry-shaped, spherical or elliptical, orange or brownish-red in color. Inside it has numerous light yellow nuts.
Over the years of breeding work, varieties have been created that have an increased content of biologically active substances, resistance to abiotic and biotic environmental factors, high productivity and a small number of thorns. Three main types of rose hips took part in the origin of most varieties - Webb rose, cinnamon rose and rose wrinkled... Due to the fact that the history of dog rose breeding is only a few decades old, the number of created varieties is still small.
The main, most frequently propagated varieties are rose hips of the VNIVI selection: Vitamin VNIVI, Vorontsovsky No. 1, Vorontsovsky No. 3, Russian No. 1, Russian No. 2, Besshipny, as well as selected forms from Rosa wrinkled (Yubileiny, Large-fruited). In recent years, this list has been supplemented with new varieties of the YNIIPOK selection: Ural Champion, Rumyany, Bagryany, Bokal, Luch. Here it is especially worth noting the variety Luch, the fruit yield from its bush reaches 4.2 kg, while the weight of the fruit reaches up to 5 g. The fruits of this rosehip variety contain up to 2400 mg / 100 g of vitamin C, over 25% of soluble solids, about 1% organic acids and up to 5.5% sugars.
Agrotechnics of cultivation of rose hips
Naturally, it all starts with choosing a site. It is worth noting that the rose hip is a light-loving plant pollinated by insects. And naturally, good harvests are possible only in well-lit areas.
The harsh climate will help to transfer the planting of rose hips on the slopes of the northeastern exposure, with a good outflow of cold air from the site. It is not recommended to plant plants in lowlands, microdepressions. The soil composition of the site plays a significant role in obtaining high yields of rose hips. Plants grow better on fertile chernozems with good aeration and moisture capacity, they do not tolerate swampy soils and soils with a close groundwater table. Preparing the soil for planting rosehip plants consists in deep digging without everting out the subsoil horizons, the depth of the layer should be at least 40 cm.
Rosehip is very responsive to fertilization. Spring application is usually carried out organic (up to 15 kg / m2) and mineral (up to 20 g / m2 of the active substance of phosphorus and up to 15 g / m2 of potash) fertilizers. Rosehips are usually planted in spring (before bud break) or in autumn. After planting, the plants are provided with abundant watering, at least 1 bucket per bush. For spring planting in dry weather, 2-3 watering is required. The shaping of the rose hips consists in the removal of dry, broken, diseased and old branches, while leaving 3-5 young, strong shoots.
Harvesting and using fruits
Rosehip begins to bear fruit very early - as early as 2-3 years after planting. Harvested fruits during their full ripeness. But it is also impossible to allow them to overripe, since vitamins are destroyed in overripe fruits. Immediately after harvesting the fruits, you can start drying them.
To do this, sprinkle the rosehip in a thin layer and place in the oven. They should be kept there at a temperature not higher than 80 ... 90 ° С for at least 2-3 hours. It is necessary to store dried fruits in dry rooms, without access to light, preferably in paper bags, it is also allowed to use cardboard boxes or fabric bags as containers. The shelf life of dried fruits should not exceed two years.
A few words about the chemical composition and the use of rose hips. They represent a whole pantry of biologically active substances... Among them are flavonoids, tannins and pectin substances, organic acids. There are oils and trace elements of the hematopoietic complex (iron, manganese, magnesium, calcium, potassium, copper, cobalt, zinc, chromium). Especially a lot of vitamin C in rose hips - up to 6%. This is 40-50 times more than in black currant and 100 times more than in lemon. V.E. Huseynova, Candidate of Pharmaceutical Sciences show that the consumption of 5-8 rose hips per day fully satisfies the body's need for vitamin C.
In addition to vitamin C, rose hips contain carotenoids (provitamin A), vitamins B1, IN2, P, PP, E (tocopherol) and vitamin K. All this wealth determines a wide spectrum of the pharmacological action of rose hips. The fruits are used for vitamin deficiencies, as well as as a general tonic that increases the body's defenses. Vitamins P and C have a capillary-strengthening effect, increase elasticity and reduce vascular permeability. Carotenoids help to increase the body's resistance, accelerate the recovery process after injuries.
Rosehips also have a choleretic and diuretic effect. They are used in diseases of the liver, gallbladder (hepatitis, cholecystitis), kidney and urinary bladder.
The antimicrobial activity of rose hips has been established. At home, an aqueous infusion can be prepared from rose hips. To do this, 10 grams of crushed fruits (about one tablespoon) must be placed in an enamel bowl and pour 200 milliliters (about one glass) of hot water, close the lid and heat in a water bath for 30 minutes. After that, the composition is left for 15 minutes at room temperature and filtered.
Take half a cup warm 2-3 times a day after meals. The infusion can also be prepared in a thermos, pouring 5-7 fruits overnight with boiling water. Currently, the pharmaceutical industry has launched the production of a number of preparations from rose hips.
Holosas prepared from fruit extract and used in the complex therapy of hepatitis and cholecystitis.
Carotolin - is an oil extract of carotenoids, used externally as a wound healing agent.
Rosehip oil, used externally, is used for trophic ulcers, dermatoses, inflammation of the gums.
Children's rosehip syrup is produced, which is a multivitamin mixture of rowanberry juice, chokeberry, viburnum, cranberry and, of course, rosehip fruit.
An infusion of rosehip petals is also recommended. N is used as a skin care cosmetic.
- Growing a rose
- Classification of roses
- Selection of varieties and planting of roses
- Types and rules for pruning roses
- Shelter roses for the winter
- Types of roses, their features, the choice of planting material
- Mallow - stock-rose: varieties, reproduction and cultivation
- Rules for grafting roses
- Growing indoor roses, preparing indoor roses for winter
- Miniature and indoor roses
- Pruning roses
Nikolay Maisky, Michurinsk
Growing rose hips at home, the healing properties of rose hips
Probably, during walks in the woods or groves, you have often come across thickets of wild rose. This thorny shrub with very beautiful flowers grows everywhere, sometimes on the most uncomfortable soils and places.
But this shrub attracts to itself not only with flowers, but with fruits, the healing properties of wild rose have been known for a long time and depend little on the habitat.
Rosehip berries are unmatched in terms of the content of substances useful to humans; indeed, they are a real natural storehouse of vitamins and microelements. Healing properties of rose hips In particular, vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in rose hips contains several times more than in lemon. But not only vitamin C is rich in rosehips, its fruits also contain vitamins A, K, P, E, as well as B vitamins.
Among the trace elements contained in rose hips, almost all that are necessary for normal human life are manganese, sodium, phosphorus, chromium, potassium, calcium, iron, etc. In addition, the healing properties of rose hips are complemented by pectins, tannins, organic acids and other beneficial substances contained in berries.
First of all, rose hips are useful as a tonic due to the high content of vitamin C in the form of ascorbic acid. In the cold season, it helps to increase immunity. For those suffering from disorders of the genitourinary system, rose hips will help alleviate your suffering. It is indispensable for high blood pressure and problems with the cardiovascular system. In addition, it can be used as a diuretic and choleretic agent. In general, the effect of rose hips on the body is quite diverse, it improves metabolism, promotes the activation of the hematopoietic organs in case of anemia, and much more.
In order for the healing properties of rose hips to be fully utilized, it must be properly prepared. Usually, the berries are crushed and poured with boiling water in a proportion of 1 part berries to 10 parts boiling water. The resulting mixture is poured into a thermos or other heat-resistant container and infused for 7 hours. After that, the tincture must be filtered and taken before meals in a glass, for children, half a glass.
Dog rose: description of the plant | prosad.ru everything about garden and vegetable garden
Dog rose is a well-known shrub of the Rosaceae family. Widespread distribution makes the medicinal plant available.
Description and distinctive features
The shrub is of medium size. The stems are drooping. The shoots and leaves of the plant are covered with thorns. Leaves are pinnate, their base is decorated with stipules. The leaf consists of an odd number of elliptical leaves, often the number is 7, less often - 5. In the photo of dog rose, you can see the structure of the bush and ripe false fruits. You can distinguish this species from others due to the flourishes tightly adhering to the fruit.
Dog rose: ripe false fruits on a bush
Flowering is represented by flowers without scent. The color ranges from pink to red in light colors. The flowering process ends in early autumn through the development of fruits. Ripe berries turn orange-red. Inside, they are filled with seeds, which are represented by nuts with a hairy surface.
You can meet shrubs in such places:
- forest edges
- cluster of shrubs
- on the sunny slopes of the mountain.
At home, rose hips are easily cultivated due to their unpretentiousness. Hedges are made from it or used for grafting roses.
The use of bush fruits
For medicinal purposes, the fruits of the bush are used. They are harvested when ripe and dried artificially at a temperature of +40 ° C. Harvest the whole berry as a whole, if there is no need to extract the seeds.
The shrub is often confused with the May species. At the same time, people are wondering how to distinguish a dog rose from a more expensive subspecies. This can be done by the bracts on the fetus. In the dog type, they are pressed against the orange surface of the berry, and in the May type, they stick out.
Shrub fruits contain the following components that determine its properties:
- B vitamins
- essential oil
- malic acid
- citric acid.
Also, the chemical composition of the medicinal plant includes ascorbic acid, vitamins A, E and K, potassium, zinc.
Dried raw materials should be stored in sealed containers to avoid loss of useful properties. From the harvested fruits, syrups, extracts, infusions, decoctions and powder are made. With the help of these funds, vitamin deficiencies are treated, wounds heal, and kidney stones are healed. And also the metabolism improves, a protective function is developed against colds.
Dog rose hips are widespread due to the beneficial properties and structural features of the bush. Easy growing conditions allow you to cultivate the plant at home.
See also: growing carambola
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Benefits of cultivated rose hips
Healing properties of berries
In folk and official medicine, the medicinal properties of wild rose berries have long been known. They contain a whole storehouse of vitamins, trace elements and various useful substances that help in the restoration of the work of many organs and systems. Berries are actively used for the preparation of drinks, decoctions, juices and not only for medical purposes, but also in culinary production.
In contrast to the taste, the berries of the park rose hips are also endowed with unique external qualities. Throughout the year, in different seasons, this fruit shrub is a real decoration of the garden or personal plot.
Bright garden "beads", which in the autumn months transform the garden area, involuntarily attract the glances of passers-by and permanent residents. Thousands of scarlet berries dress up the plants in festive outfits and cheer up all observers of changes in nature. In the spring-summer period, the cultivated rosehip delights with the splendor of its fragrant crown, the beauty of gentle flowering in pastel shades. In the cold winter months, the numerous thorny branches look like delicate lace against the backdrop of sparkling white snow.
These cultures look elegant and have their own unique image against the background of other representatives of the flora. Blooming and fruiting rose hips are individuality and unrestrained temperament, it is a large attractive accent in a natural ensemble, it is the basis of a landscape natural composition.
Rosehip is a rare plant that requires little or no maintenance. With a minimum of attention, the shrub fully grows and develops, blooms and bears fruit, and also decorates the garden. It does not require mandatory standard procedures such as watering, fertilizing, loosening the soil, spraying and removing dried and wilted flowers. The only thing that the plant will need at a certain stage is formative or rejuvenating pruning.
Undemanding maintenance and simplified care is a convincing argument for choosing a cultivated rosehip as a decorative design for a garden area.
Powerful root system
Areas with various non-standard terrain (for example, ravines, slopes, slopes) or an area prone to erosion and crumbling of the soil, you can not only decorate and decorate with park rose hips, but also strengthen the soil on them. Thanks to the powerful root system of this crop, the soil in the garden area will no longer be subject to destruction due to heavy rainfall or strong gusts of wind. True, transplanting and planting shrubs for the purpose of reproduction or changing the place of cultivation, because of this feature, the plant will become a serious problem.
Variety of varieties
Every gardener and florist can choose a suitable variety of park rose hips for their garden.In this variety, there are shrubs for every taste. Most of the cultivated species are short, unpretentious and undemanding to grow. They have numerous decorative qualities, look elegant and compact, can look great on their own and do not lose their individuality in group plantings.
Rosehip is a versatile flowering shrub whose versatility allows it to adapt to any conditions. With its help, you can realize the most unusual decorative fantasies in the garden and on your personal plot, as well as put into practice various ideas of landscape designers. Culture will always take its rightful place in natural composition and decorative ensemble.
Disadvantages of cultivated rosehip varieties:
- Strong root system makes plant transplantation difficult
- Inability to control the development and growth of shrubs
- Excessive number of thorns
- Limited options for a plant style for use in garden design.
About the fact that I plant a rosehip in the garden (I make jam, dry it and just beautifully)
Nobody plants a rose hip in the garden. Ornamental varieties can be found in the garden, where they perfectly complement moody roses.
At best, this shrub is sent off-site, used as a thorny fence. But in the garden? I am sure that there are very few eccentrics like me.
Someone will say to me now: "Author, we have long since blurred the concepts of" garden "and" vegetable garden ", what are you driving at?"
Indeed, I am ready to agree. It is already customary to plant everything in a mixed form. In the beds between the rows of carrots there are tulips. On an alpine hill there is a red currant bush or a decorative apple tree. By the way, my examples are from reality. And it's beautiful :))
Yes, I understand that the division is conditional. But I came up with such a very clear sign for myself: use not only for beauty. But also for nutrition, treatment ... And I will tell you about the rose hips, which I plant for jam.
I have a terry variety and also a very fragrant white one. But they don't bear fruit. Rather, they give, but they are small, inconspicuous and are only suitable for obtaining seeds.
In contrast to this, which all summer and shade blooms with simple, non-double large flowers:
Its growth principle is very similar to many berry bushes. I.e. Every year, you need to cut out all the old shoots that are more than two years old near the ground.
If you leave them, then they themselves will dry up and break off. In any case, a normal rosehip harvest can never be expected.
In other words, pruning old shoots is the main rule of growing rose hips for jam. Because the fruits need to be peeled, and it is easier to peel large ones.
By the way, if you start looking on the Internet for ways to quickly clean the rosehip, you will not find it. And for this reason, many refuse these berries altogether.
I will honestly say that I have no problems with cleaning. Because I divided this whole process into three stages.
The first: First, I cut the entire rosehip with a knife on a cutting board (unwashed) lengthwise into halves.
Second: I sit in an armchair, put a bowl for seeds on my knees. Nearby on a stool is a bucket with halves of rose hips and a bowl for clean rose hips. And then it's a matter of technology :)) Whoever is fond of knitting will understand me well now. I listen to TV, and I myself use a small spoon to clean the halves of the rose hips.
Third: My halves before making the jam.
It's easy for me :)) And to those who say that it is long and dreary, I answer: “Of course, sitting on the couch in front of the TV is much easier :)). So, I cook the jam first. And I also dry it, then add it to compote or tea:
In conclusion, I will also say that the most beautiful is the white rose hip. But you can't get berries from it :))
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I wish you all goodness and health!
Types and varieties of rose hips
Today, the classification of rose hips is used, which divides the genus into 4 subgenera: 3 subgenera are small, they include 1 or 2 species that are knocked out of the general system, while the fourth is the subgenus Rose, which contains 10 sections and 135 species. The varieties and species that are most popular with gardeners will be described in detail below.
Alpine rosehip (Rosa alpina), or drooping rosehip (Rosa pendulina)
In natural conditions, it is found in the mountains of central Europe. The height of this shrub is no more than 100 cm, it does not have thorns. Large flowers of a rich color, located on long pedicels. After the petals fly around, the flowers droop immediately. Long, spindle-shaped fruits of dark red color hang from the bush like earrings. On the surface of fruits and pedicels there is a long glandular bristle, due to which the dog rose looks very original and effective.
Rosehip May (Rosa cinnamomea), or Cinnamon Rosehip (Rosa majalis)
This species is widespread in the European part of Russia and in Ukraine. The flowering of such a shrub is observed in May-June, at this time many large rich pink or pinkish flowers open on it. This species is quite variable, for example, its height can reach 250-300 cm or only 100 cm, while such a dog rose forms thin thickets that occupy quite large areas. A distinctive feature of this plant is thin paired thorns located on flower-bearing stems, and also their stem bases are densely covered with needle-like small thorns. For group plantings, it is recommended to use a terry winter-hardy form of this species, the flowers of which are painted in pink-purple color.
Rose hip (Rosa acicularis)
This plant is found naturally in the northern regions of Europe, America and Asia, while it can grow in groups or singly. The height of such a shrub can vary from 100 to 200 centimeters. The stems are densely covered with many thin spines and arcuate setae. Large flowers can be single or collected in 2 or 3 pieces, they have a dark pink or pink color. The red fruits are oblong. This species is winter-hardy and has a comparative shade-loving nature; it perfectly adapts to the conditions of the city. It is recommended for the creation of hedges and is also used as a stock for cultivars.
Rosehip wrinkled (Rosa rugosa), or rosehip rugosa
In nature, this species is found in North China, Korea and the Far East, it prefers to grow in thickets of coastal meadows and sea coasts. The height of this shrub is about 250 centimeters. The leaf plates are highly wrinkled, sometimes shiny. The leaves include from 5 to 9 leaflets, on the seamy surface of which there is a greenish-gray pubescence. The inflorescences consist of 3–8 fragrant flowers, which can also be solitary. The flowers reach 6-12 centimeters in diameter. Depending on the variety, they can be simple or double, the number of petals per flower can reach 5–150, while their color is pink and white. Flowering lasts the entire summer period, therefore, flowers, buds and fruits may be present on the shrub at the same time. The following varieties are most popular with gardeners:
- Pink Grootendorst... The height of the shrub is about 150 centimeters. The shape of the crown is spreading pyramidal. Wrinkled glossy leaf plates are greenish in color. Densely double flowers of light pink color, in diameter they can reach 30-40 mm. The edges of the petals are carved. Inflorescences are outwardly similar to carnation bunches.
- Grootendorst Suprem... The color of the double flowers is dark crimson.
- Konrad Ferdinand Meyer... Such a plant blooms 2 times per season. Densely double fragrant flowers have a rich pink-silver color.
- Hanza... Terry fragrant flowers reach 8-10 centimeters in diameter. Their color is purple-red.
- Agnes... Fragrant double flowers have a diameter of 7 to 8 centimeters, they are painted in a creamy yellow color, while their center is darker in color.
- Georges Ken... Very fragrant semi-double large flowers are cupped and dark red in color.
Rosa spinosissima or Rosa pimpinellifolia
In nature, this species can be found in the Caucasus, in Western and Eastern Siberia, in the European part of Russia, in the Crimea, Western Europe and Central Asia. This rose hip prefers to grow in hollows, forests, forest glades and forest edges, and on lime deposits. This shrub is not very large, but incredibly thorny, thin thorns are located on the stems and on the petioles of the leaf plates. The leaves are small, but very graceful, in summer they are green, and in autumn their color changes to purple. The diameter of single flowers is about 50 mm, they can be colored pale yellow or white. The black fruits are spherical in shape and reach about 15 mm in diameter. The species is winter-hardy, does not differ in high demands on the soil, perfectly adapts to urban conditions and has a large number of cultural variations and forms. Popular varieties:
- Golden Wings... The height of the shrub varies from 150 to 180 cm. Semi-double or simple flowers have a diameter of 50-60 mm and a yellowish color.
- Frühlingsdaft... The height of the shrub is about 200 cm. Fragrant peach-colored flowers are single or collected in inflorescences. Stems are brownish-red prickly.
- Frülingsmorgen... Simple yellowish flowers are very fragrant. The petals have a pink edging.
- Karl Foerster... Large double white flowers have a high center and a faint odor.
- Prairie Yurs... Semi-double large flowers have a pinkish color.
- Schlos Seutlitz... Semi-double creamy yellow flowers reach 70–80 mm in diameter and have a subtle scent.
Dog rose (Rosa canina), or common wild rose
In nature, this species is found in Western Asia, Central and Southern Europe and North Africa. He prefers to grow in small groups or singly along ravines, on forest edges, in thickets of bushes and on river banks. The height of the shrub is about 300 cm. The arched, spreading branches have strong curved thorns. The composition of not very large leaf plates includes from 5 to 7 serrate along the edge of the leaves of a pale gray or light green color. Multi-flowered inflorescences consist of pinkish flowers five centimeters in diameter. Saturated red smooth fruits have a round or elongated-oval shape and two centimeters in diameter. Possesses average frost resistance. This type is considered the best for rootstocks for varietal roses.
Rusty rosehip (Rosa rubiginosa), or rusty red rosehip
The homeland of this species is Western Europe. Such a plant prefers to grow on forest edges, in thickets of bushes, in ravines and on rocky slopes. This multi-stemmed densely branched shrub reaches a height of about 50 cm. Its crown is compact, and its prickly thorns have a hook-like shape. The composition of pinnate leaf plates includes from 5 to 7 leaves, their front surface is slightly pubescent, and the back is a glandular rusty color. Pink or red flowers three centimeters in diameter can be semi-double or simple, single, or be part of lush corymbose inflorescences. The hemispherical fruits are red in color.
French rosehip (Rosa gallica)
In height, such an upright shrub reaches 50 centimeters. The length of the leaf plates is about 12.5 centimeters, they consist of 3-5 large leathery leaves of a dark green color, their seamy surface is painted in a lighter color, and it is also covered with glandular pubescence. Large flowers can be double or simple, they are 2-3 pieces in the inflorescence or are single. Flowers can be painted in various shades from deep red to dark pink. The diameter of the globular fruits is about 15 mm. This species is quite frost-hardy, but when cultivated in mid-latitudes, it can suffer from severe frost. Garden forms:
- Medicinal... The bush is very similar to the main species, but its flowers are double.
- Thornless... Terry flowers. This plant has no thorns at all.
- Volatile... On one flower, the color of the petals changes from deep purple in the middle to dark pink-red on the outer petals.
- Dwarf... A miniature bush is decorated with simple red flowers.
- Shiny... Simple or semi-double flowers are painted in carmine color.
- Pubescent... The color of the flowers is red-purple. The surface of pedicels, sepals, rounded leaves and stems is densely covered with bristles.
- Agatha... The purple double flowers are smaller than those of the main species.
The most popular are the following varieties of this type:
- Compliant... Flowers, simple with a faint smell, are painted in a deep pink color and have a white center. Their diameter is about 10 centimeters.
- Versicolor... The pinkish semi-double flowers have a very faint aroma, their diameter varies from 8 to 10 centimeters. On the surface of the flowers, there are specks and strokes of a more saturated shade than the main color. Matte leaf plates are greenish.
Gray rosehip (Rosa glauca), or red-leaved rosehip
This park bush is very spectacular. In nature, it can be found in the mountains of Asia Minor, Southeast and Central Europe. The height of the bush varies from 200 to 300 cm. Thin thorns can be straight or slightly curved. The composition of the leaf plates includes from 7 to 9 elliptical leaves. Stems, leaves and stipules are covered with a light blue bloom with a purple-red tint. Deep pink flowers reach 35 mm in diameter, they can be single or collected in inflorescences of three. Rounded cherry-colored fruits reach 15 mm in diameter. The species is resistant to drought and frost, it adapts perfectly to the conditions of the city, and it can also be grown on limestone soil. In the form of flora captivity, double flowers are painted in a lighter color shade, which look spectacular against the background of foliage.
In addition to these species, gardeners grow such as: white rose, Bourbon, smelly, or yellow, Damascus, Daurian, Chinese, Kokand, Maksimovich, multiflorous, mossy, musky, Portland, columnar, apple, or hairy, Elena, etc.
Rosehip grows as a shrub with erect shoots reaching 1.5 to 2 meters in height. The branches are flexible, densely covered with thin thorns. Medium-sized dark green leaves are oblong-oval in shape. The flowers of the shrub are most often white or pink in color, have a well-pronounced doubleness. On the bush, they are located, as a rule, singly or in small inflorescences.
The main value for humans is rose hips. They appear in place of the buds at the end of the active flowering phase. Full maturation occurs closer to the end of summer or early autumn. Juicy, round or oval-oblong berries of bright red color appear on the shoots. In section, the fruits have a creamy brown flesh with many seeds. Rosehip berries can remain on the bush until late autumn and the onset of the first frosts. During this time, they completely dry out.