Vanda orchid: home care, transplant, reproduction, photo
Wild vanda requires the scale of a thousand-year-old tropics: in its native environment, it is a giant orchid with roots up to 2 meters and a stem up to 3 meters! The plant is clearly not for the windowsill, is it?
Everything changed 60 years ago when restless breeders, fascinated by the tropical vanda, set themselves the goal of domesticating a wild beauty. As a result, the first wanda varieties and hybrids appeared, adapted to indoor keeping.
But even after that, the vanda home orchid remained a real luxury for many years, which could only be acquired by serious collectors.
And today, thanks to the efforts of individual flower companies, vanda can be bought at any garden center.
A giant orchid from the tropics has appeared in many apartments, albeit in its smaller version.
- How to preserve the tropical splendor of a domesticated beauty?
- How are the immunity of this plant and sunlight related?
- At what time of the day is it strictly forbidden to spray a vanda?
- Why does Vanda need vitamin C and how to provide them with an orchid?
Planting and caring for a wanda
- Bloom: at home - at any time.
- Lighting: bright sunlight with shade in the afternoon. Daylight hours are not shorter than 12 hours.
- Temperature: approximately 25 ˚C, but not lower than 20 ˚C.
- Watering: in the warm season, the plant is placed every morning for twenty minutes together with the pot in water, which should be 4-6 ˚C warmer than the air in the room.
- Air humidity: increased - 70-90%. Continuous morning spraying with warm water is recommended.
- Airing: regular. It is recommended to install a fan in the room with the plant.
- Top dressing: solution of complex mineral fertilizer for orchids once a week.
- Rest period: not pronounced.
- Transfer: not required.
- Reproduction: lateral processes.
- Pests: aphids, false spider mites, scale insects, thrips, felt insects, mealybugs.
- Diseases: fusarium, root rot.
Read more about growing wanda below.
The first mention of this flower in his diaries was made in 1795 by a certain William Jones, who studied Asia. Wanda (lat.Vanda) - this was the local name for one of the most beautiful orchids, which sounds like the whisper of the wind in the giant ferns of the virgin forest, like the rustle of the wings of a small motley bird, like the name of a beautiful girl. It is an epiphytic plant of the Orchid family, which grows naturally in the tropics of the Philippines, Indonesia, South China, India and Northern Australia and has more than twenty thousand species. A distinctive feature of wanda, in addition to exotic beauty, is its roots: powerful, gray-green, they are covered with velamen, which is a thick layer of dead cells of a porous structure that can absorb moisture even from the atmosphere, which protects the roots from dehydration and sunburn ...
The stem of the orchid reaches a meter or more in height, so Vanda is happily grown as a cut plant. Her leaves are belt-like, leathery, green or slightly bluish, arranged alternately. On drooping or erect peduncles growing from the axils of the leaves, from two to fifteen flowers bloom, and the peduncles themselves can be from one to four.
Large fragrant wanda flowers of all kinds of colors (orange, yellow, white, red and even blue), collected in carpal inflorescences, are distinguished by the fact that when they bloom, they become larger and brighter every day. Orchids bloom for about a month and a half, but with proper care they bloom several times a year.
This type of orchid is exotic for our latitudes, so caring for a vanda and growing it in a climate unusual for a plant will require considerable effort from you. Let's get acquainted with a number of important features of the wanda orchid:
- evergreen orchid does not have a pronounced dormant period;
- a guest from the tropics is very demanding on the conditions of detention, and without knowledge of how to care for a Wanda, you will not achieve success;
- Wanda, even next to other orchids, is outlandish and exotic due to its long, tangled, drooping roots, and you will have to place it in a place where it will be comfortable and you can regulate the microclimate.
Caring for a wanda at home
Raising a wanda is not an easy task, so be careful with our recommendations. In addition, caring for a wanda orchid is very different from caring for other plants, and you will have to discover this America for yourself.
So the temperature is: Vandas are thermophilic, the optimum temperature is 25 ºC all year round. If the temperature drops below 20 ºC, the wanda's immune system drops sharply, and it becomes an easy prey for various pathogens. Higher temperatures do not harm the orchid. Lighting is required bright, with light shading from 11 am to 3 pm, a lack of light can prevent the plant from blooming and, again, reduce its immunity. The orchid's daylight hours should last 12 hours, keep this in mind and arrange for it to be supplemented with fluorescent lamps in the dark.
Concerning humidity, then a constant level of 70-90% is required, which conventional spraying cannot provide. And the differences between more humid air and less humid are even more harmful than just a constant lack of humidity. If you decide to refresh your orchid by spraying, then in no case do this in the evening, because the vandas breathe in the evening. The water temperature for spraying wanda should be 3-4 degrees higher than the room temperature.
The same can be said about water for glaze: the water temperature should be 4-6 degrees higher than the air temperature. According to botanists, the best place to grow wanda orchids is a specially equipped greenhouse. In an ordinary apartment, experienced florists grow wandas without a substrate, with bare roots, attaching them to the wall or placing them in lace or lattice baskets made of plastic or wood.
Daily morning watering allows the wanda to dry out in the evening and look forward to the next morning watering. In the summer, the Wandans take a twenty-minute daily morning bath very well. The task of this procedure is to saturate the roots of the plant with moisture, so they are kept in water for 20 minutes until the roots turn green - this is a kind of indicator that informs that the plant is drunk.
From September to November, in the darkest time of the year, the plant is watered only when the sun is shining, if there is no sun, then in a day or two. Once every three months, lemon juice is added to the bath water (a teaspoon per liter of water) to neutralize carbonates and nourish the orchid with vitamin C.
In Holland, they came up with such a way of keeping vandas: they are grown in large and wide glass vases, and in order to provide the plant with moisture, they pour warm water into these vases, directly into the roots of the plant, and wait until the air bubbles stop rising to the surface. This means that the roots have already been saturated with moisture. Then the remaining water is poured out.
In addition to all the above requirements, the wanda has one more thing: air circulation is very important for her, so you will have to install an almost constantly operating fan near your tropical beauty: it will not let the roots of plants overheat in the sun and scare off pests. However, if the humidity or air temperature is lower than necessary, a running fan can cause a cold burn.
The vanda orchid is not grown in a pot, so it does not need any kind of substrate. It, as described earlier, is contained either on the wall, or in a basket, or in a vase, so you don’t have to puzzle over how to transplant a vanda: it does not need a transplant.
If this way of growing a vanda is too unusual for you, then place it in a wide and shallow plastic bowl with holes in the walls, through which you pass a stick, carefully passing it between the roots of the orchid to give the plant stability in the bowl. Then sprinkle the roots of the plant with a substrate consisting of large and thick pieces of pine bark and sphagnum in a 2: 1 ratio, you can add pieces of charcoal to the mixture.
It is not scary if the container is not transparent: light is not as important for vanda roots as air, and with this method of keeping it will be enough to aerate the roots. When it comes time to change the substrate or move the orchid to a larger container, do not be afraid to damage the roots of the orchid, they are strong enough, just water them beforehand so that they become more elastic, at the same time the old substrate will more easily move away from the roots.
Feeding wanda is another story. Wanda is an extremely voracious plant that needs a weekly feeding with complex fertilizer for orchids (1 g per 1 l of water), and during the budding period, 1 g of potassium monophosphate is added to the fertilizer. To find out if your plant has enough nutrients, look where the new leaf meets the old leaves.
If this light strip of young tissue is not narrower and not wider than 1 cm, then your system of feeding the wanda is balanced, if the strip is already a centimeter, then you need to either increase the dose of fertilizer or increase the frequency of feeding. If the strip is wider than a centimeter, then this means that you are overfeeding the plant.
Leaving during flowering
The wanda does not have a pronounced dormant period, and it can bloom all year round, especially in the spring-summer period, since at this time there is a long daylight hours. On average, flowering lasts 6-8 weeks, but sometimes it can last up to three months. The vanda flower is an amazing creation of nature, and if you saw it once, you will want to see it again. Observing all agrotechnical requirements for caring for a flower, you have the right to count on the fact that the vanda will bloom annually and even more than once.
If you are worried that the vanda is not blooming, perhaps it lacks light or the difference between day and night temperatures is less than eight degrees, or you may have overfed your orchid with nitrogen.
Wanda after flowering
When the vanda orchid has bloomed, cut the stems and keep the roots in a less damp state by soaking the roots in a container of warm water once a week. Spraying for a while also needs to be stopped. If you have the opportunity, take the vanda out into the garden, hang it on a tree or place it on the balcony, on the terrace, where conditions are suitable for it, and care for it as before flowering. Fresh air will definitely do her good.
At home, the vanda orchid reproduces only by lateral processes - by children. They rarely appear, even if all the requirements for caring for the plant are met. When the baby's roots reach five centimeters in length, it can be separated from the mother orchid and grown as a plant in its own right. The inevitable in this case, the places of the cuts must be sprinkled with crushed coal or cinnamon.
At first, the baby must be placed in a greenhouse, in which the air humidity will be at least 85%, which is achieved by a humidifier. The pot for the baby should be small and narrow so that the roots and the lower part of the plant do not rot. The substrate is suitable for this composition: 75% coniferous bark and 25% sphagnum moss. When the plant reaches a height of 20 cm, it can be transplanted into a permanent container. Reproduction of wanda in other ways at home is not done.
Now let's take a closer look at the most popular representatives of the vanda orchid:
Vanda blue (Vanda coerulea)
Epiphyte with an erect stem reaching a meter in height. The roots are numerous and well developed. Leaves are belt-shaped, dense, arranged in two rows. The length of the peduncle with a multi-flowered raceme is about half a meter, on one peduncle there are from six to twelve flowers. The flowers are fragrant, large - up to 10 cm in diameter, bluish-blue with a reticular pattern of a darker color. The lip is smaller than the other parts of the flower and is more intense in color. Gradually, the color of the flower becomes lighter.
In the photo: Vanda blue (Vanda coerulea)
Large and tall epiphyte, the stem of which reaches a height of more than one and a half meters. Belt-like leathery leaves from 25 cm to 40 cm long are arranged in two rows. In the inflorescence from 7 to 10 fragrant star-shaped flowers up to 7 cm in diameter. Petals and sepals with a wide marigold, wavy, oval, pure white or white with a cream shade, strewn with dark red spots. The lip is the same length as the petals, three-lobed, the large middle lobe has the shape of a guitar and is painted in pink-ink color.
In the photo: Vanda tricolor
It is also a large type of epiphyte with belt-like leaves up to 40 cm long. Direct apical inflorescences contain up to 10 flowers - pink with a white border and with a yellow-red lip up to 15 cm in diameter.
In the photo: Vanda Sandera (Vanda sanderiana)
Vanda Rothschild (Vanda rothschildiana)
The variety obtained from crossing Wanda blue and Wanda Sander. Her leaves are belt-like, flowers, collected in a multi-flowered inflorescence, are light blue in color, 4-5 cm in diameter.
In the photo: Vanda Rothschild (Vanda rothschildiana)
Differs in a highly branched stem up to 2.5 m in height. The stem is drooping or climbing, equipped with many aerial roots. On the peduncle there are from three to six whitish-pink or reddish flowers, sometimes reaching 10 cm in diameter. The petals and sepals are diamond-shaped or oval, almost round and wavy along the edge. The middle lobe of the lip is purple, bipartite and broadly wedge-shaped; the lateral lobes are yellow at the base, dotted with red specks.
In the photo: Vanda teres
Recently, orchids have become very popular in floral design. They are included in the composition of bouquets, with their help decorators create a mysterious and exciting atmosphere of a tropical forest in the room. The hour is not far off when breeders will create new, more adapted to our latitudes, varieties of vandas, which will become much easier to grow in our homes. In the meantime ... No matter how capricious this orchid is, a beautiful flower that has blossomed as a result of your many days of efforts will reward you for your work with its beauty and fragrance, and you, freezing with delight, will say with relief: "It was worth it."
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Orchid family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Houseplants Epiphytes Beautiful flowering Orchid Orchids Plants on B Plants on O
Brief description of cultivation
- Bloom... Can bloom at any time, flowering duration 2-6 months.
- Illumination... Needs diffused bright light (east, west and north-east windows are suitable) or a little partial shade.
- Temperature... The maximum allowable temperature is about 42 degrees, and the minimum is 12 degrees. And the flower is comfortable at a temperature of 15 to 25 degrees.
- Watering... This procedure is carried out after the substrate in the pot is completely dry.
- Air humidity... From 30 to 40 percent, while the room should be well ventilated.
- Fertilizer... 1 time per week with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer.
- Dormant period... Not very pronounced.
- Transfer... When the soil mixture turns sour and cakes, as a rule, once every 2–4 years.
- Reproduction... Vegetatively (side shoots).
- Harmful insects... Mealybugs, spider mites, thrips, scale insects, slugs.
- Diseases... Fusarium, rust, anthracnose, blotchiness, black, brown, gray and root rot.
- Preparing the pot. The clay pot must be soaked for several hours. Pour drainage on the bottom to almost a quarter of the depth. A little substrate is poured onto the drainage.
- Carefully remove the plant from the original pot. Trim rotten, dry, or empty roots. Aerial roots do not touch. When transplanting, you can remove old wrinkled pseudobulbs.
- Place the orchid on the poured substrate layer. The bottom of the rhizome should be below the edge of the pot. A support can be installed.
- Cover the substrate, being careful not to move the plant.
- Attach the orchid to the support if necessary.
- After transplanting, it is better to attach a label with the name of the species to the pot, do not place the plant in direct sunlight, water moderately and spray the orchid daily for the first 15-20 days. Then the plant can be put in its original place and watered as before.
How to transplant an orchid: video
This operation seriously injures the dendrobium, therefore it is recommended to transplant the plants no more than once every two to three years. In principle, it is worth carrying out this operation only if there is an urgent need for it. Examples of such situations may be when the container in which the dendrobium grows no longer has enough space, the plant has ceased to gain weight, the forming pseudobulbs hang over the edges of the pot, there are signs of soil salinity.
- the best time for reproduction is spring, after flowering or at the beginning of active growth. The roots of the transplanted plant must be cleaned of old soil. To do this, the pot with the plant must be thoroughly moistened, then later it will be possible to remove the existing substrate without any problems
- before planting, it is necessary to inspect the roots: if rotten or damaged areas are found, then they must be removed, and the sections must be treated with charcoal. It is forbidden to use brilliant green or other preparations containing alcohol for this purpose. After that, you need to let the roots dry for several hours.
- the orchid thrives best in tight containers. For this, pots are selected so that the thickness of the substrate between the roots and walls is no more than 2 cm.
- in the process of growth, the aerial part of the orchid becomes large, therefore it is recommended to plant it in stable containers. The best option is heavy clay pots.
- having selected a suitable container for breeding, drainage is placed in it by ¼ of the volume. Next, it is filled with a substrate to form a slide. After that, an orchid is prepared for transplantation: its roots must be straightened, and then the plant is placed in the center. Care must be taken to ensure that the pseudobulbs remain on the surface. In some cases, supports may be required to provide good stability
- after planting for the purpose of reproduction, containers with an orchid should be kept in a dark place, the temperature should be about 20 degrees Celsius. After 2-4 days, you can start watering.