Gooseberries - pests, diseases and ways to control them
In the history of gooseberry farming in Europe, there have been periods of success and loss. It is known that the fruits of the wild-growing shrub were eaten, but a real gooseberry boom developed in England, where the moisture-loving bush brought from the mainland took root and, with careful care and careful selection, yielded aromatic and tasty berries. The triumphant return of culture to Europe and spread to the American continent was overshadowed in the twentieth century by the defeat of powdery mildew. But not only she threatens the gooseberry bushes.
Gooseberry diseases: description and methods of treatment
When growing gooseberries, it is important to properly care for them - healthy bushes are less susceptible to diseases. If you do not pay enough attention to the prevention of gooseberry diseases, you can lose both the crop and the plants themselves.
As a result of the fatal defeat by American powdery mildew (spheroteka), many well-known old varieties of gooseberries have disappeared. The modern diversity was provided by hybrids of European varieties with American aboriginal varieties that were immune to the spherotec. However, the disease still affects gooseberry bushes, as well as related black and, less often, red currants.
With a spheroteca, a whitish bloom forms on the leaves of the gooseberry
Spheoteca is a fungal disease. The causative agent is a mealy fungus that affects the entire plant and covers it with a whitish coating. Young leaves, affected by spheroteka, curl, shoots are bent. The ovary falls off. Over time, the whitish shade changes to brown. Diseased berries do not develop and lose their presentation and taste.
Over time, the whitish shade of the spheroteque plaque changes to brown
Spheoteca can lead to plant death. The causative agent of the disease hibernates well and begins to spread spores with the onset of warm weather. Unfortunately, it is not possible to completely get rid of the fungus. The task of gardeners is reduced to early detection and prevention of the consequences of powdery mildew damage. Another way to prevent gooseberry disease is to purchase planting material in large proven nurseries and select disease-resistant varieties: Commander, Krasnodar Lights, Malachite, Northern Captain, Ural grapes. It so happened that the thornless gooseberry varieties are immune to the spheroteca.
Measures to combat the causative agent of powdery mildew:
- in early spring, a 1% solution of copper sulfate is used to treat bushes, you can repeat the treatments 2 or 3 times with an interval of one to two weeks, but so that they are completed 15 days before harvest;
- at the first signs of fungal infection, the bush is immediately treated with a solution of soda ash so that the spreading spores cannot damage the crop. Prepare the product by adding 50 g of soda ash and 50 g of grated laundry soap to 10 liters of water for better adhesion. Plants are abundantly irrigated with the resulting solution. It is advisable to carry out the treatment once before blooming flowers, then repeat spraying ten days after flowering;
- in the early stages of the disease, an infusion of tansy helps. 50 g of dry tansy is poured into 10 liters of water and left for a day. The resulting solution is simmered on a fire for two hours, cooled, decanted, the gooseberries and the soil around the bush are treated twice - in autumn and spring;
- effective in the early stages and infusion of wood ash. 1.5 kg of ash is poured into 10 liters of water, insisted in a dark room for seven days, stirring occasionally. The solution is decanted (the remaining ash can be dug up with the soil), 50 g of grated laundry soap is added to make it stick better, and the bushes are treated in early June 3-4 times with an interval of two days;
- for spraying, diluted slurry is also used - in fact, they irrigate the bush with nitrogen fertilizer in combination with bacteria. Dilute 1 liter of manure with three liters of water, insist for three days, decant the solution and, after adding another 3 liters of water, spray the bushes, after stirring the resulting liquid well. You can simply dilute 700 g of urea in 10 liters of water. The gooseberry bush and the trunk circle are sprayed with these solutions in early spring.
As a preventive measure:
- do not plant gooseberry bushes in low-lying areas and in places with surface occurrence of groundwater, avoid excessive watering;
- in early spring, before sap flow, gooseberry bushes are shed hot (95aboutWith water;
- tomatoes, potatoes are planted next to the gooseberry bushes, this prevents the development of the sphere;
- do not fertilize the plant with nitrogen fertilizers after the leaves bloom;
- do not allow the bush to thicken, remove weak shoots and do not leave fallen leaves under the plant in the fall;
- they dig up the soil under the bush and add 1-1.5 cups of dry ash under the root to enhance immunity.
Traditional methods of dealing with powdery mildew are not limited to the listed ones, but if the disease cannot be dealt with, the following drugs are used:
- Acrex is a non-systemic acaricide against spider mites and a fungicide against powdery mildew. The solution is prepared at the rate of 10 g per 10 liters of water, applied twice: before flowering and after harvest. Highly toxic to humans and bees, it is not recommended to use it when plants are in bloom and later than 3 weeks before harvest;
- Vectra is an antifungal drug. Dilute 3 mg in 10 liters of water, apply three times per season: after flowering, 2 weeks after the first treatment, immediately after harvest;
- Karatan 57 is a contact fungicide and acaricide, easy to wash off, low toxic to humans and animals. Apply a 0.8% or 1% solution before flowering or after harvesting, the frequency of application depends on the degree of damage to the bushes. The interval between treatments is 24 days;
- Cumulus is a colloidal sulfur fungicide that is effective as an acaricide. Non-toxic to plants, can be applied up to six times during the gooseberry growing season. To prepare the working solution, take 20-30 g of Cumulus per 10 liters of water;
- Quadris - works well with the initial manifestations of the spherotek, in advanced cases it is ineffective. May be addictive, do not apply more than twice. Safe for plants, insects and humans. Used in the form of a 0.2% solution in the early stages of infection, the deadline for application is no later than a week before harvest;
- Nitrafen No. 125 - 1-3% solution of Nitrafen is used against spheroteka and gooseberry anthracosis, also has insecticidal properties, and is moderately toxic to humans. Apply twice: before bud break and during the formation of the ovary, in compliance with the necessary protective measures;
- Topaz is a fungicide, considered safe and therefore recommended for use during the entire growing season. The working solution is obtained by dissolving 2 ml of Topaz in 10 l of water.
Topaz is the safest fungicide to fight powdery mildew
In the fight against fungal and bacterial diseases of plants, the systemic microbiological preparation Fitosporin is successfully used, which is active not only against spheroteka, but also simple powdery mildew, various types of rust, Alternaria and others. During the season, Fitosporin can be applied three times: before budding, after flowering and after foliage has fallen.
To achieve sustainable results in the treatment of gooseberries, it is recommended to combine various groups of drugs with alternative methods of protection. A combination of drugs is also necessary because addiction occurs more often with monotherapy, which means that the effectiveness of the action decreases.
This fungal disease first appears on the leaves in the form of small dots that merge into brown spots. In the future, the affected leaves are deformed, dry out and fall off, the berries lose their taste. The fungus infects all aerial parts of the plant. Not only gooseberries are susceptible to anthracosis, but also currants, therefore, all berry bushes of this genus must be treated at the same time.
Anthracosis is manifested by small brown spots.
Prevention of anthracosis is the observance of agricultural standards:
- when planting, maintain a distance between the bushes of at least 1.2-1.5 m;
- do not allow excessive soil moisture and excessive watering;
- in the fall, old and fertile shoots are cut off, avoiding thickening of the bush;
- monitor the condition of the plant, regularly remove the affected leaves and cut off diseased branches;
- weeds are systematically weeded, all plant residues around the bush are removed in the fall, since the fungus remains there.
For the prevention of anthracosis, in early spring, gooseberries are treated with a solution of copper sulfate in a ratio of 40 g per 10 liters of water. You can repeat spraying 2-4 times with an interval of 2 weeks if the plant is affected by fungus.
Treatment with Hom is also a prophylactic treatment, but it can also be used for treatment. 40 g of Homa is diluted in 10 liters of water and the bushes are treated in early spring at the rate of 2 liters of solution per 10 m2... Leaves must be shed both from the inside and from the outside. When signs of anthracosis appear, treatment is carried out once a month. From the beginning of flowering, the treatment of bushes with drugs is stopped in order to exclude poisoning. Repeat spraying after flowering and, if necessary, after harvesting.
In case of severe damage, the drugs Fundazol (fungicide and acaricide) are used, and Previkur, which has a fungicidal, protective and growth-stimulating effect.
Other gooseberry diseases
Other diseases of the gooseberry include alternaria, columnar (or goblet) rust, and septoria. They also affect young shoots and gooseberry leaves. Prevention and control measures for these diseases are similar to those for anthracosis. Conclusion: correct agricultural technology provides the best plant protection.
Photo gallery: other gooseberry diseases
Gooseberry pests and control
Young shoots with delicate leaves and delicious gooseberries are to the taste and pests. The greatest harm to the berry harvest is caused by:
- gooseberry fire
- gooseberry sawfly,
- gooseberry moth,
- currant gall midge,
- currant goldfish,
- currant glass jar,
- spider mite,
- shoot aphid.
Being engaged in the prevention of diseases and the prevention of gooseberry pests, one should not lose sight of the fact that the soil provides shelter for many pest larvae and pupae. Sometimes it is enough to dig up the soil under the bushes and treat it with protective equipment to get rid of significant problems.
The fact that the plant is affected by the fire becomes clear as soon as the supposedly ripe berries entangled in cobwebs appear on the gooseberry bush ahead of time. This is the result of the work of the larva, which eats the ovary, and then leaves the plant to pupate in the soil and develop into an adult butterfly.
Experienced gardeners recommend covering the soil under the bushes with dense material at this time and thereby preventing the larvae from burrowing.
On the same principle, another method of dealing with the departure of a fire is based. In this case, in early spring, the gooseberry bushes are huddled to a height of 10–15 cm, and after the beginning of flowering, when the danger has passed, the soil is removed. Butterflies cannot overcome such a thick layer of soil and die.
A good result, according to gardeners, is given by traps for butterflies: windows are cut in plastic bottles, fermented juice, kvass or beer are poured into one-third, and suspended. By the way, if bowls of beer are left on the ground, slugs will also gather there. Hand picking of the affected berries, spraying the bushes on the fifth day of flowering with an infusion of ash (the preparation method is the same as in the case of a spheroteka) and chamomile (100 g of dry chamomile flowers are poured in 10 liters of boiling water, cooled and processed) helps. In extreme cases, they resort to Actellik, Karbofos or Iskra M.
Gooseberry fire affects gooseberries and currants
In fact, under the name sawfly, at least two pests, yellow and pale-footed, are combined, although there are several thousand varieties of them. The larvae of these insects are very voracious, infecting the leaves of gooseberries and red currants. Sawflies hibernate as pupae, and in spring the butterfly lays a new clutch on the leaves. The larvae that appear devour the leaves and leave the plant practically naked, with coarse veins sticking out. The sawfly goes through up to three development cycles per season.
Left without leaves, the bushes die, as the assimilation processes are disrupted; in the absence of a green leaf, photosynthesis does not occur.
For prophylaxis, gooseberry bushes in the spring are treated with odorous solutions containing tar or coniferous extracts, mulching of the root neck with pine needles is used. Plants are sprayed with insecticides before flowering. When pests are detected, biological protection measures are used: natural enemies of insects, nematodes are used. Antonem F and Nemabact concentrates are produced, which, in addition to nematodes, also contain bacteria that parasitize garden pests.
Gooseberry sawfly eats plant leaves
The larvae and caterpillars of the gooseberry moth feed on the leaves of the plant, eating them up to the veins. Before pupation, the caterpillar twists around the leaf and falls with it to the ground. Mechanical collection of affected and suspicious leaves, weeding and mulching of the trunk circle can save the plant from pests. With significant pest damage, the bushes are sprayed with insecticides. For this, the most suitable time is before flowering, immediately after bud break and after harvest. The produced insecticides such as Actellik and Iskra M have a wide range of effects, therefore, as a rule, they get rid of several types of pests.
The gooseberry moth caterpillar eats up the leaf to the veins
Currant gall midge
Despite the telling name, currant gall midge, with success for its offspring, also encroaches on gooseberry bushes. Gall midge is a small insect; its larvae are the main danger for gooseberries. There are several varieties of gall midge: shoot, leaf, and flower. They differ in taste preferences and the location of the clutches.
Flowers, leaves and shoots infect different types of gall midges.
It is easier to prevent damage to a pest than to deal with it. For prevention, the same agrotechnical methods are used as in other cases. Mulch the near-stem circle with the tops of tomatoes or spray the bush with infusion of the tops. One of the ways to prepare the infusion: chop 2 kg of fresh tomato tops, pour a bucket of boiling water and leave for 4 hours. Fragrant flowers are planted nearby - the gall midge especially does not like mint. Carrying out the autumn pruning, the affected branches are cut at the root, without leaving hemp. When working, they try not to injure the shoots.
Shoots affected by gall midge differ in shape from healthy ones.
Currant goldfish affects the shoots of currants and gooseberries, eating the core from top to bottom. Its larvae hibernate inside the shoots, and at the beginning of summer, adults fly out to lay new clutches on the leaves and bark of the twigs. The larvae that appear gnaw through the passages in the shoots, and the cycle repeats. Affected bushes do not grow and do not yield crops. To combat the pest, the affected branches are cut at the root and destroyed. As a preventive measure, only bushes purchased from reliable manufacturers are planted. When planting, agrotechnical recommendations are taken into account, weeds, fallen leaves are removed and broken branches are removed in time.
Goldfish eats leaves and takes root in the shoot
An adult glass moth is a butterfly measuring up to 25 mm in wingspan. It affects bushes of currants, gooseberries, raspberries. The larvae emerge from the laid eggs, which penetrate inside through cracks and lesions on the bark and gnaw through the passages. Affected shoots look drooping, then die. Back doors are visible on the cross section of the branch. Some larvae pupate in May and after two weeks form into a butterfly and fly out, some of the larvae hibernate inside the shoots.
Currant glassware affects currants, gooseberries, raspberries
As a preventive measure against the glass in the aisles of the bushes, odorous plants are planted: nasturtiums, calendula, marigolds, onions, garlic.
Experienced summer residents noticed that bird cherry attracts glass, so they do not recommend growing it in gardens.
When processing plants, trauma to branches and bark is avoided. Shoots are periodically examined. In the fall, after harvesting, the gooseberry twigs are slightly bent - healthy ones bend, and the shoots affected by the glass bottle break. They are cut to the ground and burned.
Refers to sucking parasites. It is located on the underside of the leaf, entangling it with cobwebs, and feeds on its juices. Affected leaves turn yellow and die. In hot and dry weather, the reproduction of spider mites is especially intensive, during the summer season they can give up to 8 generations. As a rule, it is impossible to notice ticks or their eggs with the naked eye.
For the prevention and control of spider mites:
- weeds are regularly weeded and the soil around the bush is loosened;
- odorous plants (marigolds, calendula or nightshade) are planted next to gooseberry bushes;
- harvested by hand and destroyed the affected leaves;
- plants are sprayed with infusions of odorous herbs (tansy, tobacco, garlic).
Spider mites are invisible to the naked eye
In the absence of the effect of traditional methods of treatment, they resort to more serious means of chemical protection, for example, Fitoverma or Vermithek, using these drugs either before flowering or after harvesting berries. Actellic is more effective as an anti-mite drug, but also more toxic. The choice of means of protection depends on the degree and mass of damage to plants by pests.
Aphids are perhaps the most common pest in our gardens. On rose bushes or zucchini leaves, its hordes indiscriminately devour leaves, buds, ovaries. She does not spare the gooseberry bushes either.
The shoot aphid is able to capture the bush, killing the plant
Of the popularly recognized means of combating aphids, it is worth mentioning mustard infusion. Pour four tablespoons of mustard powder with a liter of warm water and leave in a warm place for two days, then decant and bring the solution to ten liters. All plants are sprayed, not just gooseberries. One spray is often enough. Garlic-tobacco solution is also used. And for those gardeners who are desperate to achieve success in unequal pest control, they release the drug Biotlin, which destroys not only aphids, but also a number of other pests.
Video: spring work for a productive gooseberry
Pesticide Handling Rules
To ensure your own health, the safety of loved ones and the effectiveness of the measures taken, it is worth remembering nine rules that are followed when working with pesticides:
- Observe the terms and frequency of processing.
- Do not exceed dosage.
- Mix drugs correctly when working with combined products.
- Choose the right time: early in the morning or in the evening, after sunset, in calm weather, in the absence of rain.
- Use protective equipment.
- Observe the rules of personal hygiene.
- Dispose of drug residues correctly.
- To withstand waiting times - from the last processing to harvesting should take 20-30 days.
- Do not buy drugs by hand, as storage conditions may be violated, and do not stock up on pesticides for future use.
When purchasing a plot and planning the planting of gooseberries, it is rare for a summer resident to really represent the entire amount of work to be done in the future. And how many diseases and pests lie in wait on each bush! I am glad that there are even more protective measures and means of struggle, and the number of connoisseurs of fresh berries is not decreasing.
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Gooseberry: diseases and pests and their control
Author: Natalya Category: Fruit and berry plants Published: February 26, 2019 Last revised: November 02, 2020
- Listen to the article
- Botanical description
- Gooseberry diseases and their treatment
- White bloom
- Gooseberry plaque
- Powdery mildew
- Gooseberry spheothek
- Gooseberry stains
- Gooseberry berry disease
- Gooseberry scab
- Gooseberries turn yellow
- Gooseberry mold
- Gooseberries fall
- Gooseberry pests and control
- Aphids on gooseberries
- Currant glass
- Currant gall midges
- Currant kidney mites on gooseberries
- How to process gooseberries, prevention
- Spring processing
- Disease treatment
- Pest control of gooseberries
- Processing in autumn
- Top dressing of gooseberries
- How to feed
- Comments (1)
Common gooseberry (Latin Ribes uva-crispa), or rejected, or European Is a plant species of the Gooseberry family, first described by Jean Ruel in 1536. The gooseberry is native to North Africa and Western Europe, but it has now spread all over the world. In the wild, the common gooseberry grows on mountain slopes and in forests, being the ancestor of many cultivars grown in gardens.
The gooseberry, along with berry crops such as currants and raspberries, is one of the most common berry bushes in our gardens. Today there are about one and a half thousand varieties of gooseberries. Its fruits contain acids, sugars and vitamins useful for the human body, therefore it is consumed both raw and used to make jelly, jam, marmalade and wine. Gooseberries are also in demand in medicine.
Gooseberry is not a very large shrub, the height of which does not exceed 1.2 m. The peeling bark is colored brownish gray. The plant has leaf spines. On the surface of young shoots of a cylindrical shape, there are thin needles - these are thorns. The petiolate dull leaf plates are short pubescent, they have a cordate-ovoid or rounded shape and a length of about 60 mm. The leaves are three-five-lobed, with obtuse teeth along the edge. Axillary pale red or light green flowers open in May. The fruits are spherical or oval-shaped berries, reaching 1.2 cm in length (in some varieties, the berry length is about 4 cm), their surface may be bare or there are coarse bristles on it, there is a well-distinguishable venation. They can be colored white, green, yellow or red and ripen from June to August. The fruits of such a shrub are very tasty and healthy, they contain metal salts, vitamins, organic acids and tannins. This plant is an early honey plant, it helps to attract a large number of pollinating insects to the garden plot. The gooseberry is self-fertile, therefore, if desired, you can plant only 1 bush in the garden, and it will yield a crop.
This disease appears on gooseberries quite often. It usually manifests itself on leaf blades, as well as on flowers and ovaries. Initially, these are either small orange-colored swellings - goblet rust, or small yellow spots that appear only on the upper part of the leaf blades - columnar rust.
Fungicides (this is a fungal disease) or treatment with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid are also effective against rust - if there is little time left before harvesting.
The next year, after rust appears on the gooseberries, the plants must be re-treated. The first treatment should be done as soon as the leaf blades bloom, the second - at the time of bud formation, the third - after the end of flowering. If the plants are severely damaged by rust, a fourth treatment can be carried out.
Gooseberry treatment for prevention
Gooseberry preventive treatments are of four types: spring, autumn, regular and pre-planting. Together, they allow you to maximally protect the shrub from various types of diseases.
Choose a place for planting gooseberries where neither gooseberries nor currants have grown before: they have too many common diseases and pests. It should be open, but not low. Bushes need to be placed freely.
Plan a tomato planting nearby or create a flower garden, depending on the purpose of your site. The flower garden leaves room for creativity combined with benefit: many ornamental plants scare away pests.
Avoid thickening of the crown: regular pruning will not only protect the plant from pests, but also increase the yield. Be sure to treat the cuts with garden pitch, this will protect the plants from many pests and diseases.
Regular mulching and loosening of the soil will get rid of the pupae of the pest butterflies. The mulch is replaced once a month, at the same time the soil is loosened.
In summer, it is good to treat the bushes with soapy water (250 g of soap per bucket of water). Soap is also added to most mixtures, infusions and decoctions from "folk" gardening: in these formulations, soap is responsible for fixing the active substances on the sheet, as if gluing them, but only until the first rain.
Spring is a great time to prevent gooseberry diseases. While the snow has not yet melted, and the buds are barely beginning to awaken, scald the bushes with boiling water, this is an excellent prevention of the appearance of ticks and fungi.
A little later, treat the bushes with Bordeaux liquid at a concentration of 3%, this will protect against fungal infections. Repeat the treatment when the bushes have faded, but copper sulfate and lime are diluted at a concentration of 1%.
In early spring, while there is still snow, it is best to re-check for deciduous dust anywhere. Choose a time between the thaw and the next spring frost and loosen the soil again. At least disturb her. This will increase the likelihood of completely getting rid of the larvae of unwanted insects on the site: most pupae do not tolerate frost well.
After harvesting, spray the bushes again with 1% Bordeaux mixture. In late autumn, remove all fallen leaves and other plant debris from under the bushes and burn it, and loosen the soil and mulch with humus. If you think that a kidney mite could start on the bushes, pour boiling water over them again.
Autumn is a great time to prune gooseberries. Do not feel sorry for old branches, because it is on them that the bark often cracks, and wood is more attractive to parasites.
In the spring, unawakened branches are removed, in the summer those that interfere. Autumn is the time of "general cleaning" of bushes. Pruning "under the stump" is a radical measure, but justified. A completely renewed, revitalized bush will thank the gardener with a good harvest.
It is imperative to monitor the condition of the gooseberry bush. If you identify pests or various diseases on it in time, it will be much easier to cope with them.