Various

Syringa

Syringa


The Syringa

The syringa, very popular in its vulgaris type, or more commonly known as lilac, is a plant particularly suitable for the creation of natural hedges. It belongs to the Oleaceae family and its name derives from the Greek word “sirinx”, with the meaning of flute. Its wood, in fact, was often used, in the past, for the creation of this musical instrument. There syringa vulgaris it is originally from China, Korea, Iran, but also from Eastern Europe, precisely in the Balkan area. It looks like a shrub with deciduous leaves, longer than wide, and flowers of the typical lilac color with a very pleasant scent, which are the most distinctive feature of the plant and what makes it very popular as a garden crop. The flowering, which takes place in June, produces in fact an explosion of lilac-colored buds that give liveliness and joy to every space in which they are grown. It is not a large tree, reaching a maximum of 7 meters in height. Its wood is hard, light brown in color, often mottled with the same lilac shade as the flowers. It is a particularly important species in the floriculture sector, for this reason there are many varieties of this plant. The hybrids grown today boast a huge range of different colors and have both double and single flowers.


Leaves, flowers

The deciduous leaves are oval and pointed, cordiform at their base. They are a very pleasant pale green color, with a shape that resembles that of a pointed heart. The flowers are of the typical lilac color, very lively, bright and fragrant, forming compact and long panicles, with a simple or even double corolla. The flowering time is at the end of the spring season, with the peak almost always in June, but its duration is short: the splendor of the plant hardly lasts more than a month. The flowers, in fact simple or double, vary in color according to the species and the hybrids: thus passing from white to yellow, to pink, to lilac or carmine.


Multiplication

It occurs in different ways: by tufts, by cuttings, but also with grafting on roots, with buds on a graft stem of a common type or by offshoot. The period of operations is in the autumn or at the end of the winter season. The semi-woody cutting will be done in the summer.


Exposure

In full sun or partial shade. There syringa it tolerates frost very well and is particularly suitable for cultivation in an urban center due to its high tolerance towards atmospheric pollution.


Ground

Its privileged soil is fresh or normal garden, with a further preference for the clayey type and of medium compactness. An important fertilization in spring is highly recommended for its development, with diluted manure or soluble fertilizer and a rich mulch.


Watering

The advice is to water the plant frequently enough, so that the soil in which the syringe is growing is never dry: the frequency of watering should be two or three times every week.


Pruning

Syringa is a very rustic plant that does not require excessive care, therefore it should neither be pruned nor topped. However, it is advisable to eliminate the withered inflorescences to improve the development of the plant: it is better to remond after flowering in order to lift the withered stems bent by the weight of the bunches.


Uses

Syringa, especially in its vulgarys type, is used very frequently for the formation of thickets, to create a small hedge with a suggestive shade, but it is also cultivated as an isolated specimen by virtue of its remarkable ornamental value. Syringa plants also grown for cut flowers in potted apartments are used. In the garden, however, a tip is to grow syringa vulgaris to create a mixed border. Due to the charm of the contrast of colors, a small wild apple tree such as the malus purpurea, notable for its purple color, can be inserted for its spring shades and combined with a syringa vulgaris, even better if this will be of the white flower type: the result will be optimal for the combination of the green foliage of the apple tree and the white or lilac flowers of the syringa.


Other species

Other widespread species of syringa are: syringa reflexa and syringa villosa: with more open flower panicles than vulgaris, they have flowers with pinkish lilac, purple or even pink and white tones inside them. Syringa josikaea, or Hungarian lilac, is a vigorous shrub with large, mauve or deep purple leaves. Syringa persica, or Persian lilac, with flowers with a characteristic lavender scent. Or finally the syringa yunnanensis, or Chinese lilac, with pink flowers with a pleasant scent.




Iris (plant)

Iris is a genus of 260–300 [1] [2] species of flowering plants with showy flowers. It takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, which is also the name for the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris. Some authors state that the name refers to the wide variety of flower colors found among the many species. [3] As well as being the scientific name, iris is also widely used as a common name for all Iris species, as well as some belonging to other closely related genera. A common name for some species is 'flags', while the plants of the subgenus Scorpiris are widely known as 'junos', particularly in horticulture. It is a popular garden flower.

Belamcanda
Hermodactylus
Iridodictyum
Juno
Junopsis
Pardanthopsis
×Pardancanda
Xiphion

The often-segregated, monotypic generates Belamcanda (blackberry lily, I. maid), Hermodactylus (snake's head iris, I. tuberose), and Pardanthopsis (vesper iris, I. dichotoma) are currently included in Iris.

Three Iris varieties are used in the Iris flower data set outlined by Ronald Fisher in his 1936 paper The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems as an example of linear discriminant analysis. [4]


Syringa - garden

Acanthopanax sieboldianus 'Variegatus'

Acer conspicuum 'Silver cardinal'

Acer conspicuum 'Silver vein'

Acer palmatum dissectum atropurpureum 'Red Star'

Acer palmatum dissectum 'Green globe'

Acer palmatum 'Inaba-shidare'

Acer palmatum 'Japanese sunrise'

Acer palmatum 'Kogane-nishiki'

Acer palmatum 'Shigitatsu sawa'

Acer palmatum 'Shojo Nomura'

Acer palmatum 'Sode Nishiki'

Acer pseudoplatanus 'Brillantissimum'

Acer tataricum subsp. gymnala

Aesculus x neglecta var. Georgian

Amelanchier canadensis 'Rainbow Pillar'

Andromeda polifolia compacta

Aralia elata 'Aureovariegata'

Aralia japonica 'Spider web' (aka: Fatsia japonica 'Spider web')

Arbutus unedo (aka: Corbezzolo)

Asimina triloba (Mountain Banana) EDULE FRUIT

Berberis kawakamii var. formosana

Berberis ottawensis 'Superba'

Berberis stenophylla 'Crawley gem'

Berberis thunbergii 'Rosetta'

Berberis stenophylla 'Crawley gem'

Betula nigra 'Shiloh splash'

Buddleja davidii 'African queen'

Buddleja davidii 'Blue Chip'

Buddleja davidii 'Empire Blue'

Buddleja davidii 'Flower Power'

Buddleja davidii 'Nanhoensis'

Buddleja weyeriana 'Honeycomb'

Buddleja weyeriana 'Sungold'

Buxus microphylla 'Faulkner'

Buxus sempervirens 'Variegata'

Callicarpa bodinieri 'Autumn glory'

Callicarpa bodinieri 'Profusion'

Callicarpa dichotoma 'Cardinal'

Callistemon viminalis 'Hot pink'

Calycanthus floridus 'Michael Lindsey'

Calycanthus floridus 'Purpureus'

Catalpa bignonioides 'Aurea'

Catalpa erubescens 'Purpurea'

Ceanothus thyrsiflorus 'El dorado'

Ceanothus thyrsiflorus 'Skylark'

Cercidiphyllum japonicum 'Pendulum'

Cercidiphyllum japonicum 'Rotfuchs'

Cercis canadensis 'Alley cat'

Cercis canadensis 'Pink pom poms'

Cercis canadensis 'Royal white'

Cercis canadensis 'The rising sun'

Cercis canadensis 'Vanilla twist'

Chaenomeles japonica 'Apple blossom'

Chaenomeles japonica 'Sargentii'

Superb chaenomeles 'Texas scarlet'

Chitalpa tashkentensis 'Summer Bells'

Clerodendrum trichotomum 'Fargesi'

Clethra alnifolia 'Ruby spice'

Clethra alnifolia 'September Beauty'

Strawberry Tree (aka: Arbutus unedo)

Cornus alba 'Argenteo marginata' (aka: Cornus alba 'Elegantissima')

Cornus alba 'Elegantissima' (aka: Cornus alba 'Argenteo marginata')

Cornus alba 'Siberian Pearls'

Cornus alternifolia 'Golden shadows'

Cornus kousa 'Robert's Select'

Cornus rutgersensis 'Stellar Pink'

Cornus sanguinea 'Anny's winter orange'

Cornus sanguinea 'Green Light'

Cornus sanguinea 'Midwinter Fire'

Cornus sericea 'Hedgerows gold'

Cornus stolonifera 'Flaviramea'

Cornus stolonifera 'Kelseyi'

Corylopsis sinensis 'Veitchiana'

Corylus avellana 'Tonda gentile'

Cotinus coggygria 'Dusky maiden'

Cotinus coggygria 'Old Fashioned'

Cotinus coggygria 'Red Spirit'

Cotoneaster horizontalis Variegatus'

Daphne bholua 'Jacqueline Postil'

Caucasian Daphne 'Summer Ice'

Daphne x transatlantica 'Eternal Fragrance'

Transatlantic Daphne 'Pink Fragrance'

Davidia involucrata (Tissue tree)

Deutzia very elegant 'Rosealind'

Diervilla rivularis 'Honeybee'

Diervilla rivularis 'Troja Black'

Edgeworthia chrysantha 'Grandiflora'

Elaeagnus multifora var. edulis

Enkianthus campanulatus 'Albiflorus'

Enkianthus campanulatus 'Red Bells'

Enkianthus campanulatus 'Ruby Glow'

Enkianthus campanulatus 'Wallaby'

Escallonia laevis 'Gold brian'

Escallonia laevis 'Pink elle'

Eucryphia lucida 'Ballerina'

Euonymus fortunei 'Wolong Ghost'

Euonymus kiautschovicus 'Manhattan'

Euonymus macropterus 'Mount fuji'

Evodia daniellii (aka: Tetradium daniellii)

Exochorda racemosa 'Blushing Pearl'

Exochorda macrantha 'The Bride'

Exochorda racemosa 'Niagara'

Exochorda racemoda 'Snow mountain'

Fatsia japonica 'Spider web (aka: Aralia japonica' Spider web ')

Fatsia polycarpa 'Green fingers'

Forsythia intermedia 'Marée d'Or'

Forsythia viridissima var. korean 'Kumson'

Fothergilla intermedia 'Blue shadow'

Gardenia jasminoides 'Crown jewel'

Ginkgo biloba 'Barabits Fastigiate'

Hamamelis intermedia 'Orange Beauty'

Hamamelis intermedia 'Ruby glow'

Hamamelis vernalis 'Sandra'

Hibiscus moscheutos 'Royal gems'

Hibiscus moscheutos 'Southern Belle'

Hibiscus syriacus 'Eleonore'

Hibiscus syriacus 'Jeanne d'Arc'

Hibiscus syriacus 'Purple ruffles'

Hibiscus syriacus 'Red heart'

Hibiscus syriacus 'Russian violet'

Hibiscus syriacus 'Totus Albus'

Hibiscus syriacus 'Woodbridge'

Hoeria sexstylosa 'Stardust'

Hovenia dulcis (Raisin tree) EDULIUM FRUITS

Hydrangea arborescens 'Pink Pincushion'

Hydrangea aspera 'Strigosa'

Hydrangea macrophylla 'Izu no odoriko'

Hydrangea macrophylla 'Madame Emile Mouillère'

Hydrangea macrophylla 'Maréchal Foch'

Hydrangea macrophylla 'Souvenir de M.me Chautard'

Hydrangea macrophylla 'Zorro'

Hydrangea paniculata 'Bobo'

Hydrangea paniculata 'Dart's Little Dot'

Hydrangea paniculata 'Levana'

Hydrangea paniculata 'Mega Mindy'

Hydrangea paniculata 'Phantom'

Hydrangea quercifolia 'Applause'

Hydrangea quercifolia 'Flemygea'

Hydrangea quecifolia 'Harmony'

Hydrangea quercifolia 'Pee Wee'

Hydrangea serrata 'Hallasan'

Hydrangea serrata 'Prolifera'

Ilex aquifolium 'Bacciflava'

Iex meserveae 'Magical little rascal'

Ilex verticillata 'Golden Verboom' YELLOW-ORANGE BERRY

Ilex verticillata 'Maryland Beauty' RED BERRY

Ilex verticillata 'Southern Gentleman'

Indigofera himalayensis 'Silk Road'

Iris pseudacorus 'Variegata'

Jasminum officinale 'Fiona Sunrise'

Jasminum primulinum (aka: Jasminum mesnyi)

Kerria japonica 'Pleniflora'

Koelreuteria paniculata 'Helene d'Andlau'

Kolkwitzia amabilis 'Pink Cloud'

Laburnum alpinum 'Pendulum'

Laburnum anagyroides 'Alschingeri'

Laburnum anagyroides 'Quercifolium'

Lagerstroemia indicates creeping

Lagerstroemia indicates 'Bianco Grassi'

Lagerstroemia indicates 'Crimson red'

Lagerstroemia means 'Dynamite'

Lagerstroemia means 'Mystic magenta'

Lagerstroemia indicates 'Petite Red'

Lagerstroemia indica 'Pure white'

Lagerstroemia indicates 'Purely purple'

Lagerstroemia means 'Tuscarora'

Lagerstroemia means 'Violet'

Lagerstroemia indicates x fauriei 'Acoma'

Lespedeza bicolor 'Yakushima'

Leucothoe axillaris 'Curly Red'

Leucothoe fontanesiana 'Rainbow'

Leycesteria formosa 'Golden Lanterns'

Leycesteria formosa 'Purple Rain'

Ligustrum ovalifolium 'Aureum'

Ligustrum undulatum 'Lemon and lime clippers'

Liquidambar styraciflua 'Pendula'

Lonicera brownii 'Dropmore Scarlet'

Lonicera gracilipes 'Grandis'

Lonicera henry 'Copper Beauty'

Lonicera involucrata 'Ledebourii'

Lonicera japonica 'Hall's prolific'

Lonicera japonica 'Mint Crisp'

Lonicera japonica 'Red world'

Lonicera nitida 'Golden Glow'

Lonicera standishii 'Budapest'

Lonicera tatarica 'Arnold Red'

Lonicera tatarica 'Hack's Red'

Lonicera tatarica 'Zabelii'

Loropetalum chinense (WHITE)

Loropetalum chinense 'Ever red'

Loropetalum chinense 'Ruby runner'

Loropetalum chinense 'Ruby snow

Magnolia brooklynensis 'Black beauty'

Magnolia denudata (aka: Magnolia yulan)

Magnolia grandiflora 'Little gem'

Magnolia laevifolia 'Gails's favorite'

Magnolia liliiflora 'Nigra'

Magnolia macrophylla 'Ashei'

Magnolia soulangeana 'Alba Superba'

Magnolia stellata 'Chrysanthemiflora'

Star magnolia 'Royal Star'

Magnolia virginiana 'Porcelain Dove'

Magnolia yulan (aka: Magnolia denudata)

Malus baccata var. mandshurica

Malus 'Courtabri' (aka: M. 'Pom'zai')

Malus pom'zai (aka: M. 'Courtabri')

Metasequoia glyptostroboides 'Blue-ish'

Metasequoia glyptostroboides 'Miss Grace'

Morus rotundiloba 'Mojo berry'

Nandina domestica 'Fire power'

Nandina domestica 'Obsessed'

Nandina domestica 'Leucocarpa'

Nandina domestica 'Sunset boulevard'

Nandina domestica 'Twilight'

Japanese medlar (aka: Eriobotrya japonica)

Nyssa sylvatica 'Autumn Cascades'

Nyssa sylvatica 'Wisley Bonfire'

Osmanthus heterophyllus 'Aureomarginatus'

Osmanthus heterophyllus 'Goshiki tricolor'

Osmanthus heterophyllus 'Variegatus'

Parrotia persica 'Pe ndula'

Parrotia persica 'Persian spire'

Philadelphus 'Belle Etoile'

Philadelphus 'Minnesota Snowflake'

Physocarpus opulifolius 'All black'

Physocarpus opulifolius 'Dart's Gold'

Physocarpus opulifolius 'Diable d'or'

Physocarpus opulifolius 'Diabolo'

Physocarpus opulifolius 'Little Joker'

Poncirus trifoliata (Citrus)

Potentilla fruticosa 'Bella sol'

Potentilla fruticosa 'Abbotswood'

Potentilla fruticosa 'Lovely pink'

Potentilla fruticosa 'Red joker'

Potentilla fruticosa 'Red robin'

Potentilla fruticosa 'Tangerine'

Prunus serrulata 'Fugenzo' (aka: Prunus serrulata 'Shirofugen')

Prunus serrulata 'Royal burgundy'

Prunus serrulata 'Shirofugen' (aka: Prunus serrulata 'Fugenzo')

Prunus serrulata 'Shogetsu'

Prunus subhirtella 'Autumnalis'

Prunus subhirtella 'Autumnalis Rosea'

Prunus subhirtella 'Pendula'

Rhodotypos scandes (R. kerrioides)

Jonkheer red currant 'Van tets'

Robinia margaretta 'Casque Rouge' (aka: R. x m. 'Pink Cascade')

Robinia margaretta 'Pink Cascade' (aka: R. x m. 'Casque Rouge')

Robinia pseudoacacia 'Twisty Baby'

Rosa botticelli var. Meisylpho

Rubus henryi var. bambusarum

Rubus rosifolius 'Coronarius'

Rubus spectabilis 'Olympic Double'

Rubus ulmifolius var. 'Bellidiflorus'

Salix gracilistyla 'Mt. Aso '

Salix integrates 'Hakuro Nishiki'

Sambucus canadensis 'Maxima'

Sambucus nigra 'Black Tower'

Sambucus nigra 'Pulverulenta'

Schizophragma faurei 'Angel wings'

Confused Skimmia 'Kew green'

Skimmia japonica 'Kew white'

Spiraea arguta 'Grefsheim' (aka: Spiraea cinerea 'Grefsheim)

Spiraea cinerea 'Grefsheim' (aka: Spiraea arguta 'Grefsheim')

Spiraea japonica 'Goldmound'

Spiraea japonica 'Little princess'

Spiraea nipponica 'Snowmound'

Spiraea nipponica 'White Carpet'

Spiraea thunbergii 'Fujino Pink'

Spiraea vanhouttei 'Gold Fountain'

Spiraea vanhouttei 'Pink Ice

Stachyurus chinensis 'Goldbeater'

Stachyurus chinensis 'Joy Forever'

Stachyurus chinensis 'Wonderful Image'

Staphylea holocarpa 'Innocence'

Stephanandra engraved 'Crispa'

Stewartia pseudocamelia 'Variegata'

Styrax japonicus 'Pink Chimes'

Syringa vulgaris 'Andenken an Ludwig Spath'

Syringa vulgaris 'Michel Buchner'

Syringa vulgaris' Mrs. Edward Harding '

Tetradium daniellii (aka: Evodia daniellii)

Tetrapanax papyrifera 'Rex'

Tilia cordata 'Winter Orange'

Tilia platyphyllos 'Tortuosa'

Toxicodendron Paintifluum (aka: Rhus Paintiflua)

Tradescantia andersoniana 'White'

Tradescantia andersoniana 'Carmine Red'

Ulex europaeus 'Flore pleno'

Ulmus hollandica 'Jacqueline Hillier'

Viburnum bodnantense 'Charles Lamont'

Viburnum bodnantense 'Deben'

Viburnum burkwoodii 'Annica'

Viburnum burkwoodii 'Fulbrook'

Viburnum burkwoodii 'Mohawk'

V iburnum carlesii 'Aurora'

Viburnum carlesii 'Bitchiuense'

Viburnum dilatatum 'Asian Beauty'

Viburnum dilatatum 'Iroquois'

Viburnum dilatatum 'Michael Dodge'

Viburnum farreri (Fragrans)

Viburnum macrocephalum Keteleeri

Viburnum oliganthus 'Kyo kanzashi'

Viburnum opulus 'Anny's Magic Gold'

Viburnum opulus Roseum (Viburnum or Snowball)

Viburnum plicatum 'Kilimanjaro'

Viburnum plicatum 'Mariesii'

Viburnum plicatum 'Molly Schroeder'

Viburnum plicatum 'Pink Beauty'

Viburnum plicatum 'Pink sensation' (aka: Viburnum plicatum 'Rosace)

Viburnum plicatum 'Popcorn'

Viburnum plicatum 'Rosace' (aka: Viburnum plicatum 'Pink sensation')


BARE ROOT PLANT (ROOTS FEAR FREEZE) SO KEEP THEM IN A FRESH BUT REPAIRED ENVIRONMENT OR TEMPORARILY COVER THE ROOTS WITH EARTH OR KEEP THEM IN BAGS IF YOU CANNOT PLANT THEM IMMEDIATELY

Bare-rooted plants are easier to plant than plants with earthen bread but they need some precautions https://www.wikihow.it/Piantare-un-Albero-a-Radice.

Small tree (maximum 5/6 meters) highly used in gardens and parks due to its flowering

Small tree often cultivated as a shrub or deciduous bush native to Asia, widely used in the garden, thanks to the particular fragrant flowering and ease of cultivation. The leaves are heart-shaped, light green, thin and delicate. In spring the plant develops long inflorescences, consisting of large panicles of small tubular flowers, which at the upper end traditionally open as a star of lilac color, but today there are hybrids and cultivars of different colors. It is vigorous and rustic, it does not fear the cold, it loves fairly sunny or half-shaded positions, it bears some short periods of drought. At the end of winter it is advisable to fertilize, in order to provide nutrition during the summer. It fears water stagnation

Planting area: URBAN ENVIRONMENT (regional provisions allow planting only in gardens and urban parks, therefore no countryside or woods as they are NOT autochthonous varieties)

It is advisable to plant (link on how to plant: https://docs.google.com/document/d/149ENIeepNWhChB.) The plant using suitable soil, expanded clay for very clayey soils, suitable fertilizer, and, in the case of planting in areas open to wild animals, we recommend a coconut fiber disc, a shelter (protector) and a bamboo or plastic stake. The most common fertilizers or manure and mycorrhiza (helps the plant to root) can be purchased at the bottom of this page together with the other complementary items listed above.

To order the plants it is necessary to order them online AND send or hand us the following form duly completed at the time of collection or delivery: https: //drive.google.com/file/d/1mmXnq18XGvMhG626d.

Plant included in the Emilia Romagna Regional Call (read here https://sassigarden.com/ALBERI-EMILIA-ROMAGNA-DIST.). Height of the reforestation plant from 30 cm up to over 150 cm depending on availability and variety.

The plants can be picked up from our garden or you can take advantage of home delivery (only pr-re), with costs over € 25 (with a contribution of € 7) and free delivery if you spend more than € 50


Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 Botany
    • 2.1 Evolution
    • 2.2 Species
  • 3 Uses
    • 3.1 Ornamental plants
    • 3.2 Cut flowers
    • 3.3 Perfume
    • 3.4 Food and drink
    • 3.5 Medicine
    • 3.6 Art and symbolism
  • 4 Pests and diseases
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

The name rose comes from Latin rose, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhódon (Aeolic βρόδον wródon), itself borrowed from Old Persian wrd- (wurdi), related to Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr. [2] [3]

The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimeters (2.0 to 5.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a few (particularly from Southeast Asia) are evergreen or nearly so.

The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Silky pink, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Silky pink, four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries that develop into achenes. [4] Roses are insect-pollinated in nature.

The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the dog rose (Rosehip) and rugosa rose (Wrinkled rose), are very rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds.

The sharp growths along a rose stem, though commonly called "thorns", are technically prickles, outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem), unlike true thorns, which are modified stems. Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as Wrinkled rose and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight prickles, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points.

Evolution

About 50 million years ago, the first rose in the Americas were found in modern-day Colorado. [5] Today's garden roses come from 18th-century China. [6] Among the old Chinese garden roses, the Old Blush group is the most primitive, while newer groups are the most diverse. [7]

Species

The genus Rose is subdivided into four subgenera:

  • Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning "with single leaves") containing two species from southwest Asia, Persian rose and Rosa berberifolia, which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules.
  • Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for "western rose") contains Rosa minutifolia and Starry rose, from North America.
  • Platyrhodon (from the Greek for "flaky rose", referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii (also known as the chestnut rose).
  • Rose (the type subgenus, sometimes incorrectly called Eurosa) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
    • Banksianae - white and yellow flowered roses from China.
    • Bracteatae - three species, two from China and one from India.
    • Caninae - pink and white flowered species from Asia, Europe and North Africa.
    • Carolinae - white, pink, and bright pink flowered species all from North America.
    • Chinensis - white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-color roses from China and Burma.
    • Gallicanae - pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe.
    • Gymnocarpae - one species in western North America (Rosa gymnocarpa), others in east Asia.
    • Laevigatae - a single white flowered species from China.
    • Pimpinellifoliae - white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe.
    • Rose (syn.sect. Cinnamomeae) - white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa.
    • Synstylae - white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all areas.

Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization.

Ornamental plants

The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Ruby pink), ornamental thorns (such as Silky pink) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).

Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia, and China. [8] It is estimated that 30 to 35 thousand rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants. [9] Most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having morphed into additional petals.

In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.

Cut flowers

Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.

In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in greenhouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world. [10]

Some kind of roses are artificially colored using dyed water, like rainbow roses.

Perfume

Rose perfumes are made from rose oil (also called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia [11] and then spread through Arabia and India, and more recently into eastern Europe. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rose × damascena 'Trigintipetala') are used. In other parts of the world Rose × centifolia is commonly used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-gray in color. 'Rose Absolute' is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in color. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil.

The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and L-citronellol and rose camphor, an odorless solid composed of alkanes, which separates from rose oil. [12] β-Damascenone is also a significant contributor to the scent.

Food and drink

Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, marmalade, and soup or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products. [13]

Rose water has a very distinctive flavor and is used in Middle Eastern, Persian, and South Asian cuisine — especially in sweets such as Turkish delight, [14] barfi, baklava, halva, gulab jamun, kanafeh, and nougat. Rose petals or flower buds are sometimes used to flavor ordinary tea, or combined with other herbs to make herbal teas. A sweet preserve of rose petals called Gulkand is common in the Indian Subcontinent.

In France, there is much use of rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the Indian subcontinent, Rooh Afza, a concentrated squash made with roses, is popular, as are rose-flavored frozen desserts such as ice cream and kulfi. [15] [16]

Rose flowers are used as food, also usually as flavoring or to add their scent to food. [17] Other minor uses include candied rose petals. [18]

Rose creams (rose-flavored fondant covered in chocolate, often topped with a crystallized rose petal) are a traditional English confectionery widely available from numerous producers in the UK.

Under the American Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, [19] there are only certain Rose species, varieties, and parts are listed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

  • Rose absolute: Rosa alba L., Rosa centifolia L., Damask rose Mill., Gallic rose L., and vars. of these spp.
  • Rose (otto of roses, attar of roses): Ditto
  • Rosebuds
  • Rose flowers
  • Rose fruit (hips)
  • Rose leaves: Rosespp.[20]

Medicines

The rose hip, usually from R. canina, is used as a minor source of vitamin C. The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement. Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine. This and other species have been used for stomach problems, and are being investigated for controlling cancer growth. [21] In pre-modern medicine, diarrhodon (Gr διάρροδον, "compound of roses", from ῥόδων, "of roses" [22]) is a name given to various compounds in which red roses are an ingredient.