Pests of onions and garlic during the growing season
"There is no beast worse than a fly"
It is known a lot dangerous peststhat not only destroy a significant part of harvest of onions and garlic during the growing season, but also greatly reduce its quality and safety. Some harmful objects harm the underground organs of these crops - onion fly, onion hoverfly, onion (root) mite, stem nematode, others - to leaves and inflorescences - onion lurker, onion leaf beetle, tobacco (onion) thrips.
Often, owners of household farms and garden plots, due to ignorance of these pests, do not carry out any protective measures, and as a result, they often lose a significant part of the harvest. It happens that he dies completely.
Onion fly (she has an ash-gray body with a greenish tinge on the back 6-8 mm long) takes off in the second half of May. The beginning of the summer of the pest in early and warm spring occurs during cherry blossoms and dandelion, massive years and laying by females of eggs - when lilac blooms.
The onion fly lays white oblong eggs (about 1 mm long) in groups of 5-20 on dry scales of bulbs and leaf bases or under lumps of soil next to plants. A week later, worm-like larvae hatch from the eggs, narrowed towards the front, which are drilled into the juicy tissue of the bulbs (usually from the bottom side) and feed inside the bulb. Most often, they concentrate in the lower part, making passages in the juicy scales, causing rotting of the bulb, especially quickly in wet weather. It is interesting that individuals hatching from the same clutch, as a rule, stick together, eating up a common cavity.
As a result of such damage, the leaves lose their turgor, wither, acquiring a yellowish-gray color, and later dry up. Bulbs damaged by an onion fly soften and rot, since the larvae of the pest are carriers of bacteria that cause wet rot. After being fed, the larvae go into the soil in 2-3 weeks, pupate, and after another 2-3 weeks flies of a new generation appear: the laying of a new series of eggs and the appearance of new larvae are repeated, which again harm the onion plantings. After pupation, these larvae hibernate in the soil at a depth of 12-20 cm.
If in the middle lane the onion fly gives two generations over the summer, then in the conditions of the North-West only one is usually noted, although, given the warm autumn (September and part of October), the second is also possible in our country. The most dangerous pest is with an early and friendly flight. The onion fly is most harmful on light sandy loam and loamy soils with permanent cultivation of crops, which often happens on personal plots. Suffers badly onion, sown with seeds, as well as sown at a later date due to the fact that the plants do not have time to grow and get stronger. Because of this, by the time the pest appears on the plantings, the plants are in the most vulnerable to damage phase of seedlings (2-3 leaves). As well as onions , the fly also actively damages the batun onion, sometimes - leek, shallot, chives and garlic.
Onion hoverfly - the fly is larger than the previous pest (6-9 mm long), bronze-green in color. After emergence in mid-June (sometimes the emergence coincides with the flowering of a dandelion), the females feed on nectar on flower crops for some time. The fly often flies in a vicious circle; for landing, it chooses well-lit open areas of landings. Onion hover eggs are laid directly on the bulb (behind the outer covering scales or in the neck) or next to it directly on the soil surface.
A stimulus for active laying of eggs (40-55 pieces) 1 mm in size can be the specific smell of mechanically damaged or diseased plants. The fly flies all day long. A week later, dirty yellow larvae emerge from the eggs. In one clutch, they hatch almost simultaneously and immediately try to penetrate into the bulb. A characteristic difference between the onion hoverfly larvae is the presence of a short process in the form of a brown tube on the back of the wrinkled body.
These larvae feed on the inside of the bulbs, turning the inside into a black rotting mass. It takes them up to a month to feed, this generation of larvae is very harmful to onions, by its actions it leads to the formation of 1-2 arrows. After that, the larvae pupate in the upper layers of the soil. A new generation of hoverflies appears in late July - early August, and it also harms onion plantings. The larvae overwinter inside the bulbs. In addition to onions and garlic, the pest also affects the bulbs. narcissus, tulip and gladiolus.
Have onion (root) mite - oval, thick, whitish-vitreous (0.7-1.1 mm in size), brown legs and mouth parts, which can only be seen with a magnifying glass. Its harmful effect is often the reason for the low yield of onions.
This is sometimes a surprise to vegetable growers, who suddenly discover, when harvesting, a lot of soft, decaying bulbs, covered with brownish dust on the outside. The mite is harmful during the growing season and during storage, populating mainly bulbs that are diseased or damaged by other pests (onion flies and hoverflies, nematodes). This pest enters the site with infected planting material, from which it can move to neighboring unoccupied bulbs.
But sometimes it settles in soil with some previous culture. Then it penetrates from the soil into the bulbs, most often from the bottom, which becomes rotten and falls off. Through the bottom, the pests enter and feed on juicy fleshy scales, while the damaged bulbs rot (fungi and bacteria contribute to the decay process). Females lay eggs in bulbs (fertility is up to 800 pieces), of which after 1-2 weeks, depending on weather conditions, larvae hatch, which feed on plant sap. The full development cycle of this pest is a month.
The mite overwinters in bulbs, in the soil, in post-harvest residues, in greenhouses and storage facilities. It should be noted that mites are heat-loving and moisture-loving organisms, multiplying especially intensively at temperatures above 13 ° C and air humidity above 70%. And if the air humidity is 70% or more in the room, the mites begin to actively multiply, but when it decreases, the development of the pest stops. Deterioration of living conditions or lack of food leads to the emergence of a very persistent form of the pest, called "hypopus": in it, ticks can exist for a long time without eating.
Adults stem nematode are small (1-1.5 mm long) filamentous whitish worms that pierce the cells of leaves and bulbs, sucking the juice out of them. Females lay eggs in plant tissue, from which larvae hatch, feeding similarly to adults. Seedlings damaged by an adult nematode or its larvae swell, bend and, as a rule, die. Onion sets have leaves curved and thickened at the bottom. The juicy scales of the damaged bulb acquire a grayish and then brownish tint, loosely adjoining each other, which makes it seem soft to the touch.
The bottom of a bulb damaged by nematodes usually cracks. As a rule, nematodes either carry rot pathogens themselves, or contribute to the settlement of these microorganisms when they mechanically damage the tissue of the bulb, therefore, such bulbs usually rot during storage. Nematodes overwinter in bulbs and soil; in dry plant residues they are able to remain viable (in anabiotic state) for up to 4-5 years and are activated when exposed to a humid environment. In addition to onions and garlic, they also damage plants in a number of other families.
Onion Lurker is a small (2-3 mm long) black beetle with whitish scales on the body and a downward-bent proboscis - weevil. Emerging from its wintering grounds, it first feeds on sprouted old bulbs remaining in the soil, or on perennial types of onions - on a batun onion, chives, multi-tiered onions. This usually occurs at the end of April - beginning of May. The female gnaws through the leaves almost dotted holes of white light, where she lays eggs. After 1-2 weeks (depending on weather conditions), yellowish legless larvae hatch from the eggs, which begin to scrape the inner juicy pulp of the leaf without damaging the upper shell.
Such leaves, with well-distinguishable whitish longitudinal stripes, turn yellow quickly, starting from the top, and, as a rule, dry out. One leaf sometimes contains 8-10 larvae. Having finished feeding, after 2-3 weeks they go into the soil for pupation, so that at the beginning of July they appear in the form of young beetles, which begin to actively damage the leaves of plants, and are also able to gnaw the pedicels of the testes, thereby reducing the yield of seeds. Beetles hibernate on weeds, not far away from the plots, and it happens - right on its territory.
Onion leaf beetle - a beetle with an elongated oval (7-8 mm) body (it is reddish-orange above, black below) and red legs - appears in early May. Initially, females feed on wild and domestic lily crops. If the beetle is disturbed, it instantly falls to the ground. Then the females move on to onion plants, laying orange eggs in groups of 10-20 on the underside of the leaves. Having hatched, the larvae (of a dirty yellow color with a black head) eat holes in the onion leaves and penetrate them.
After 2-3 weeks, the larvae pupate in the soil, and at the beginning of July the beetles of the next generation begin to emerge, which then hibernate in the surface layer of the soil (often on weeds). In addition to onions, the onion beetle damages the leaves of garlic, onion and chives, as well as lily of the valley and many liliaceae. After hatching, the larvae can very quickly skeletonize leaves and petals. lily, which will completely lose their decorative effect.
Tobacco (onion) thrips - a very small insect (up to 0.8-0.9 mm in size) with a thin elongated body of light yellow or brown color. It has two pairs of wings (narrow with a fringe of hairs along the edges). Thrips usually appear in June, settle in the axils of onion leaves (on the testes - in the inflorescences), actively sucking the sap from the plants. At the first stage, damage from thrips looks like whitish spots, later the leaves bend, turn yellow and dry out.
Upon closer examination of such leaves, you can find small black dots on them, which are the excrement of these pests. Females lay eggs under the skin of the leaf. After a week, larvae appear from them, which feed in the same way as adults. The transformation into adult insects occurs after 3-4 weeks: they fly off and fall on other plant species. In addition to onions and garlic, the pest also damages tobacco, cabbage and cucumber... It hibernates on plant debris, in the upper soil layer, under dry scales of bulbs. If onions and garlic are stored in an apartment in winter, where the temperature is maintained at 18 ... 22? C, the pest continues to feed and reproduce.
Pest control of onions and garlic
In the fight against these pests, it is important to observe a set of agrotechnical techniques. With a crop rotation, onions and garlic are returned to their original place no earlier than after 3-4 years. All types of onions and garlic are not planted nearby to avoid the spread of harmful organisms. Cucumber and tomato... The landing site is chosen on an area with good ventilation.
Also recommended for pest control:
- early sowing and planting dates;
- timely (during the period of mass pupation of pest larvae) inter-row treatments;
- top dressing and moderate watering, providing amicable growth of green mass;
- collection and destruction of plant residues after harvesting;
- deep digging of the soil.
For example, the amount of onion beetle, which often hibernates in lily plantations, reduces soil digging, which is carried out carefully so as not to damage the flower bulbs. If these beetles are found on flowers, they are carefully collected and destroyed. With a high number of pests, planting lilies are sprayed with phytoverm.
Damage from pests (especially from onion flies) is seriously reduced if onion crops are sown early: by the time the pests fly out, the seedlings become strong.
A mandatory agricultural practice is to carry out 4-5 inter-row treatments during the growing season, which maintain the top layer of the soil in a loose state and prevent the growth of weeds. It is important to use the recommended fertilizer doses and not to chase the growth of green mass due to nitrogen or organic fertilizers. To scare off onion flies and onion hoverflies, some gardeners sprinkle the soil with repellent agents - wood ash, tobacco or tobacco dust with sand (1: 1), repeating this technique 2-3 times every week.
Effective also soil mulching near plants with peat. It is recommended to place beds of onions or garlic next to carrot plantings: it is believed that onion phytoncides scare off carrot flies, and carrot phytoncides - onion flies. During the growing season, they fight against pathogens that weaken plants. When growing turnip onions intended for long-term storage, watering is stopped a month before harvesting.
When using green onions on a feather, the use of a chemical method against these pests is undesirable. In addition, many of these pests during the growing season of plants lead a hidden lifestyle (inside the leaves), so the chemical effect on them is limited.
Onions and garlic are harvested in dry weather after the formation of bulbs, dried on the site until the leaves dry out and dry covering scales form. After drying, the leaves are cut off, the bulbs are heated at a temperature of 35 ... 37 ° C for 5-7 days and placed in storage. Sprinkle onion sets with dry chalk.
Before planting, the bulbs are sorted out, rejecting sick and damaged ones. Some practitioners use a rather laborious, but quite effective thermal method to disinfect the bulbs from stem nematodes and thrips by immersing them in water with a temperature of 45 ... 46 ° C for 10-15 minutes. If a higher water temperature is used, then the exposure time is reduced (6-8 minutes at 50 ... 52 ° C or 3-5 minutes at 55 ... 57 ° C), then cooled with cold water. Other gardeners practice healing onions and garlic from these pests by soaking the bulbs in water (at 16 ... 18 ° C) for three days.
Alexander Lazarev, candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, VIZR
Pests of onions and garlic during the growing season - garden and vegetable garden
MOON AND ZODIAC SIGNS
There are four phases of the moon, the strength of its energy in each of them is not the same. This is due to the different distances between the Moon and the Sun. The closer she is to the heavenly body, the more dependent on him. Since ancient times, the four phases of the moon have been associated with four elements: earth - new moon, water - first quarter, air - full moon, fire - last quarter. The beginning of the lunar cycle is the new moon. For the entire cycle, the moon passes through twelve signs of the zodiac.
The change in the phases of the moon from new moon to full moon and again to new moon occurs in 29.5 days - the lunar month, which is shorter than the solar one and is called synodic. Lunar days, on the contrary, are longer than solar ones and are 24.5 hours.And, of course, the rising and setting of the moon do not coincide with solar time.
During the period of changing the phases of the moon, we experience four lunar seasons: spring - from new moon to first quarter, summer - from first quarter to full moon, autumn - from full moon to last quarter, and winter - from last quarter to new moon. The lunar month is a miniature solar year. If during a solar year the Earth makes a full revolution around the Sun, then for a lunar year - the Moon around the Earth. This occurs as a result of the influence of the Moon's gravitational belt, which causes changes in temperature, atmospheric pressure, the Earth's magnetic field, and the earth's biosphere. Not only living organisms as a whole or their individual parts are influenced, but also the soil.
It is well known that in spring, plants acquire foliage, they grow upward. Their vital energy is greatest in summer, on the full moon. Then there is a decline, the juices rush to the roots, etc. That is why greens, berries, fruits and vegetables growing above the ground acquire the highest taste closer to the full moon, and roots - to the new moon. In the first case, "tops", and in the second, "roots" are maximally saturated with vital juices, vitamins, mineral salts.
The Moon also affects humans, animals and all living beings, depending on its phase.
Many people, especially those who are weak, have symptoms of malaise, agitation, joint pain, headaches, etc. on the days when the phases of the moon change.
The change in the phases of the moon and plants are also perceived. Therefore, for example, the energetic roots of plants, damaged during the waning moon, are difficult to recover.
Carrying out certain work in the garden and vegetable garden, taking into account the movement of the moon, without additional effort and material costs, you can increase the yield by 20% and get products of higher quality. Plants planted in a favorable period acquire immunity, are less affected by diseases and pests.
You will be rewarded for your work, the golden rules of which were: sowing seeds, planting seedlings of plants growing above the ground (tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, strawberries, onions on a feather, leaf parsley, etc.) with the growing Moon of plants with fruits and the ground ( beets, carrots, potatoes, onions for a turnip, etc.) - with the waning moon.
A feature of growing plants is that on the new moon, on its peak three days - the day before the transition from one rhythm to another, the peak day and the day following it (if it is necessary to sow when the moon is growing, then two days) nothing should be planted and sow. 11e are the best for planting vegetables, berries, bushes, etc. and peak days of changing other phases of the moon.
Do not engage in any agrotechnical activities on Satanic days, the energy in which is unfavorable for humans and for all life on Earth, including plants. They do not sow even when the moon is visible in the sky, in the first hours of its rising and setting. Relax during this time. Sow, plant when the moon is over the horizon.
The growth and productivity of plants also depend on what sign of the zodiac the moon is in at the time of landing. Astrologers in the distant past came to the conclusion that the signs of the zodiac have different effects on the growth of plants, the safety of their fruits. They subdivided signs into productive and unproductive.
Productive signs of the zodiac - this is Taurus, Cancer, Libra, Scorpio, Capricorn, Pisces. Of these, the most productive is Cancer. But it has a bad effect on fruits intended for snoring. The fruits collected in this sign, as a result of the active development of microorganisms, have poor keeping quality, they quickly rot.
Unproductive signs - Aries, Gemini, Virgo, Leo, Aquarius, Sagittarius. Of these, they are sterile, which should not be planted at all - Aries, Leo, Sagittarius, Aquarius. True, there is also a small individual peculiarity here. With the Moon in the sign of Aries, you can plant lettuce, spinach in the sign of Virgo - ornamental plants in the sign of Leo - trees and shrubs. But it is better not to take risks, but to engage in planting in productive signs.
For planting various crops, the best signs of the zodiac are recognized: tomatoes and cucumbers - Cancer, Pisces, Carrot Scorpio - Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Libra, Goat and garlic, pepper and onion - Scorpio potatoes la - Cancer, Scorpio, Taurus, Libra, Capricorn cabbage - Ra k, Scorpio, Pisces, Taurus, Libra of courgettes, pumpkins and eggplants - Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Libra.
It is recommended to plant trees immediately after the full moon with the Moon in the signs of Capricorn and Leo.
When choosing zodiac signs for planting, please do not forget about the phases of the moon. But what about when the landing time has come, and the Moon and the sign of the zodiac do not coincide, that is, either the sign is unproductive, or the Moon is in the wrong phase? In these cases, give preference to the zodiac sign.
The best period for watering crops is the time when the Moon is in the signs of Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Libra.
Plants are fed with fertilizers on a full moon or with a waning moon.
Trees should be pruned in productive signs and with a waning moon, and if it is necessary to increase the growth of shoots - with a growing moon.
Grafting and re-grafting trees in the first and second quarters with the Moon in Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Capricorn.
Cuttings are prepared for grafting trees during the growth of the moon.
They fight against pests and diseases of plants in barren signs - Gemini, Virgo, Aquarius - with the growing moon. At the same time, they are engaged in weeding the beds and destroying weeds. Weeding can also be carried out during the waning moon, but you need to be careful not to injure the root system of plants. And yet the best period for the destruction of weeds, pests, cutting of dried and diseased branches, shoots is the peak period of the new moon (three days).
An important point of work in the garden and vegetable garden is not only planting and growing plants, but also the period of fruit picking, berry picking, vegetable harvesting, which gardeners and gardeners often neglect. And on this depends the safety of the crop, its usefulness, taste, saturation with vitamins, microelements, etc.
Vegetables and fruits intended for storage in fresh and processed form are harvested during the waning moon for consumption immediately after picking - with the growing moon, closer to the full moon, when they are most saturated with juices. The best signs of the zodiac for harvesting fruits during the waning moon are Aries, Leo, Sagittarius. Unsuitable for harvesting is the period when the Moon is in the signs of Virgo, Cancer, Pisces. The fruits collected at this time quickly deteriorate, they are watery, of low taste.
Since microbes in barren signs are on the decline of biorhythms and during this period they have little activity, it is better to harvest roots in the signs of Aries, Gemini, Leo, Sagittarius, Aquarius. As for potatoes, remember: harvested under the Moon in Scorpio, it is not only poorly stored, but also loses its taste. Don't dig it up in Cancer and Pisces.
Take care of preserving the fruits during the waning moon, closer to the new moon, in the signs of Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces. Fruit should not be preserved in the sign of Virgo, as the resulting products are prone to mold.
And most importantly, remember that like humans and animals, seeds and sprouts are sensitive to your state of mind. Therefore, under stress, irritability, one should not engage in sowing seeds, planting seedlings, planting trees, bushes and berry bushes. You can ruin the case. Relax, calm down and only then communicate with all living things.
Aries is a moderately productive, if not sterile, sign. The ruler is Mars. When the moon passes through it, plant and sow only fast-growing and immediately consumed vegetables: sorrel, lettuce. You can plant onions, garlic, peppers, gooseberries. It is good to carry out weeding, spraying, cultivation at this time. You can pick fruits and root vegetables.
Taurus is an earthy, productive sign. The ruler is Venus. Moon in Taurus has a good effect on cabbage, carrots, beets, radishes, onions, potatoes, garlic, green crops, trees. It is good to plant something that will winter. Plants gain more endurance.
Gemini is an airy, barren sign. The ruler is Mercury. You can plant climbing plants, harvest medicinal herbs, cut trees, bushes, cultivate the soil.
Cancer is a watery, productive sign. The ruler is the Moon. It has an especially good effect on crops saturated with juices: cucumbers, pumpkin, zucchini. It is more expedient to use the grown products fresh. You can sow and transplant vegetables that are not intended for long-term storage, harvest herbs. Good for watering, grafting. It is best not to plant potatoes and vegetables growing in height.
Leo is a fiery, moderately productive sign. The ruler is the Sun. The sign requires special attention to the care of plants. You can weed, control pests, prune and cut trees. Only trees and shrubs can be planted with abundant watering.
Virgo is an earthly, unproductive sign. The ruler is Mercury. You can plant medicinal herbs and flowers, do weeding, cultivation.
Libra is an airy, unproductive sign. The ruler is Venus. Different plants can be planted, they will be resistant to diseases and unfavorable climatic conditions, but their productivity will be inferior to those planted in fertile signs. There he gives beauty and aroma. Especially favorable for planting plants during the waning moon.
Scorpio is a watery, productive sign. The ruler is P luton, but to a greater extent depends on the energy of Mars. Suitable for planting most crops. This sign gives good growth and strength to the stems. Plants will be disease resistant. With this sign, it is necessary to exclude the treatment of plants with pesticides. Inadmissible injury to plants. It is not recommended to harvest ai, cut and dig in trees.
Sagittarius is a fiery, unproductive sign. The ruler is Jupiter. You can sow only fast-growing vegetables, as well as vegetables with a spicy taste: onions, garlic, peppers. You can harvest fruits and roots, weed plants, cultivate the soil, but avoid using sharp tools.
Capricorn is an earthly, productive sign. Similar to Taurus, but drier. The ruler is Saturn. Plants with a well-developed root system are planted: onions, beets, carrots, potatoes, cabbage, gooseberries, currants. Plants acquire endurance, resistance to diseases and adverse conditions. Trees will be hardy and bear fruit for a long time. Grown products are well preserved in the off-season. The bulbs are planted with the waning moon.
Aquarius is an airy, sterile, sterile sign. The ruler is Uranus. During this period, it is good to deal with weeds and pests, to collect fruits and roots.
Pisces is an aquatic, productive sign. The ruler is Neptune. All plants are planted, but they require careful maintenance, the crop is poorly stored. The sign is similar to Cancer, Taurus, but is associated with a secret, therefore crops, planting should be done alone, unnoticed from "black" eyes.
Very similar to a common fly. Larvae pose a danger to onions.
The onion fly comes out of hibernation around mid-May, and lays eggs in early June. The larvae hatch on the fifth or tenth day, penetrate into young bulbs and eat them from the inside.
The feathers of the affected plants turn yellow and dry out, starting from the tips, the bulb itself rots. One larva per month of growth can damage an entire garden bed. After a month, the larva pupates, and soon a new generation of flies appears.
The fight against this pest begins with prevention. After harvesting the onion, you need to carefully sort it out and remove all damaged bulbs. Dry the remaining onion. In the spring, before planting, sort the bulbs again and select the damaged ones again.
It is strongly not recommended to plant onions in the same area for two years in a row. In fact, the correct crop rotation of onions involves the return of planting to the same place no earlier than in the fourth or fifth year, it is good to sow onions and garlic in the place where cabbage, nightshade or pumpkin crops were last year. The onion fly hibernates at a depth of up to 20 centimeters, so in the fall, the beds need to be dug deeply and all plant debris must be removed.
The onion fly does not like the smell of carrots, so it is advisable to plant onions and carrots (or garlic and carrots) in the same bed, alternating rows. Before planting, the onion sets must be disinfected in hot water. To do this, hold it in water at a temperature of 45-46 degrees, for ten to a maximum of fifteen minutes.
The onion fly is afraid of salt. You can process the beds two or three times per season. The first treatment is carried out when the seedlings are about 5 cm. For each subsequent treatment, the amount of salt must be increased. The first ratio is 300 grams per 10 liters, then 400 grams and, if the treatment is carried out for the third time, 600 grams of salt.
The beds (the plants themselves) need to be watered with saline, and after four to five rinse with plenty of clean water. The interval between treatments is about two weeks. Within a week after the flight of an onion fly, you can process the aisles of onion plantings with a mixture of tobacco dust and sunflower ash. Lime or ammonium carbonate is also allowed.
Stem onion nematode (Ditylenchus allii Beij., Ditylenchus dipsacea) is found not only on onions and garlic, but also on other vegetable crops, for example, parsley, parsnips, tomatoes, radishes, cucumbers. The stem nematode is very small, only 1–1.5 mm in size, filiform white worm.
Nematode control measures
For recovery from nematodes before sowing the chives, the onion sets must be immersed in hot water: if the water temperature is + 45 + 48 ° C, then the immersion will be 10-15 minutes if the water temperature is + 50 + 52 ° C - 5-10 minutes if the water temperature is + 55 + 57 ° C processing will take 3-5 minutes. Small onion sets are processed for 3-5 minutes.
With a weak nematode damage to chives or onion sets, they are soaked for 2 hours in water at a temperature of + 40 ° C, at a water temperature of + 16 + 18 ° C, the planting material is kept in water for about three days.
Nigella (onion seeds) are pre-soaked for 4 hours in cold water before sowing, then immersed for 10 minutes in hot water heated to + 48 + 51 ° C, the hot water is drained, and the seeds are again poured with cold water.
Pests of onion crops can be fought with folk methods and with the help of various chemicals. Gentle, environmentally friendly methods that are harmless to humans are preferred. But in extreme cases, for example, with a strong degree of damage, the use of fungicides is justified.
Folk recipes include the preparation of various infusions and decoctions based on herbs that have a deterrent effect. Experienced growers use the following plants:
- Tansy. In a bucket of water, boil 3 kg of fresh inflorescences (0.3 kg of dried ones), cool, then filter. Garlic is sprayed with broth. The remedy is especially effective against aphids.
- Yarrow. Pre-harvested, dried and chopped young shoots (0.8 kg) are poured with 3 liters of boiling water. Insist for 30-40 minutes, dilute the infusion with 7 liters of water and leave for another 2 days. After filtering and processing the planting.
- Nettle. Fresh (1 kg) or dried (100-200 g) shoots are poured with 10 liters of warm water, left to ferment for 4-5 days. Then the infusion is filtered, diluted with water in a ratio of 1:50 and the plants are sprayed.
It is best to treat garlic from pests with safe folk remedies.
You can prepare herbal teas based on chamomile, dandelion, dope, potato tops. They also have a detrimental effect on pests.
Treatments with makhorka infusion are very effective. They are carried out at intervals of 5-7 days during May, and then repeated in July. Pollination of plantings with a mixture of wood ash, red pepper and tobacco has a similar effect.
Many gardeners practice treatment with ammonia, which is an excellent nitrogenous fertilizer and excellently repels insect pests. Use it as follows:
- To combat the lurker, a solution is prepared from 25 ml of ammonia and 10 liters of water. Processing is carried out once a week.
- To destroy aphids, the solution is prepared a little differently. 50 ml of ammonia and 50 g of crushed laundry soap are dissolved in 10 liters of water.
- If it is necessary to drive off an onion fly during a mass flight, then the ground around the garlic is watered with water with the addition of ammonia (20 ml per 10 liters).
- To prevent damage by the wireworm, a little weak solution is poured into the hole during planting.
Ammonia is a nitrogenous fertilizer and pest control agent
Chemicals are used in cases where most of the plantings are affected (more than 10%). Adult pests and caterpillars are fought with Karbofos (60 g per bucket of water). You can also use the drug Pirimor (according to the instructions), it is effective in the fight against aphids.
Almost any insecticidal preparation is suitable for pest control on bulbous crops. However, they should be used with extreme caution, as they accumulate in the greenery of plants and directly in the bulbs.
Along with organic fertilizing, onions and garlic need mineral fertilizers that stimulate normal development and a bountiful harvest. They contain an optimal amount of such important elements as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. For each top dressing, a certain type of fertilizer is suitable. One of the most popular early dressings for onions and garlic is urea, or "Carbomide".
The main function of urea is to provide the culture with nitrogen during the period of active growth of greenery. The concentration of the element in urea is 45%. It is easily assimilated by plant roots and is not very susceptible to leaching from the soil. It is necessary to apply fertilizer for the care of onions and garlic at the very beginning of the growing season.
To apply fertilizer under the root of the plantings, a urea solution is used. Before use, it is necessary to dissolve 1 tbsp in 10 liters of warm water. l substance. The resulting amount of liquid is sufficient to fertilize 2-3 m 2 of beds. You can also carry out foliar feeding of garlic and green onions using urea. To do this, the concentration of the solution is halved and the plantings are sprayed in cloudy weather.
Pests of onions and garlic
A mandatory measure is dusting before sowing planting material with 65% c. p. fentiuram or 65% c. p. fentiuram-molybdate.
The consumption rate of the above preparations for seeds is 3 kg per 1 ton, for onion sets 4 kg per 1 ton. Against the larvae, it is effective to introduce 7% gr into the soil in rows. chlorophos or 5% gr. basudin (diazinon) at the rate of 50 kg per 1 ha. At the same time, it is forbidden to use green onion leaves for food.
Onion miner fly (onion miner) is common in the central regions of the RSFSR and in some areas of the BSSR, as well as in Georgia. Damages onion leaves.
Control measures. Cultivation of onions in crop rotation is of great importance for preventing onion damage by the onion fly. In addition, a significant part of the fly pupae die during fall plowing. To combat the fly, it is effective to sprinkle seed plants and crops that are not used on a green feather with 40% efficiency. phosphamide.
Adult insects hibernate (butterflies) or pupae in plant debris and in various secluded places.
Caterpillars are yellowish-green, 10-11 mm long, covered with brown warts. Caterpillars live up to 15 days, then come to the surface of the leaves and pupate here.
Pupae are placed in a grayish loose spider cocoon. Pupa development takes 10-12 days, butterflies of the second generation appear in July, and caterpillars of the second generation appear at the end of July - August.
Control measures... Agrotechnical measures are of great importance in the destruction of onion moths, which ensure fast and friendly shoots and enhanced plant growth. Crop rotations, weed control and the destruction of post-harvest residues are mandatory.
In waste of onions and garlic nematode it can persist in an inactive, anabiotic state for more than two years, but once it gets into moist soil, it returns to active life.
Control measures are in strict adherence to crop rotation.
To prevent nematode infestation, all post-harvest residues should be removed from the field, and damaged bulbs should be buried in pits, having previously treated them with bleach. The onion storage facility must be disinfected with sulfur dioxide before planting new crop bulbs in them.
To heal the nigella onion, the seeds are immersed in cold water for 4 hours, then placed in heated water for 10 minutes, after which the seeds are washed in cold water. Sowing of perennial grasses and liming contributes to the reduction of soil contamination by nematodes.
Various preparations (nematicides) are used to disinfect the soil from nematodes. These drugs include: dazomet, at an application rate of 1000 kg / ha, carbation, 40% c. R. (2000 l / ha), tiazone, 85% p. (1000 kg / ha).
The larvae have three pairs of legs. With the onset of unfavorable conditions (excessive dryness, lack of food), a special condition of the tick appears - the hypopus. The hypopus is elliptical, convex from above, dark brown in color. With the termination of unfavorable conditions, the tick leaves the hypopus state and continues to develop normally. Tick reproduction is influenced by temperature and humidity.
Garlic mite white, the body is elongated in shape and consists of transverse rings. The body length is about 0.2 mm, so he saw only under a microscope, there are two pairs of legs at the front end of the body.
The mites lay their testicles on the fleshy scales of the bulbs. Onions and garlic are damaged by the mite most of all during the period of heat (18-19 ° C) storage, then a large accumulation of mites can be found on the fleshy scales of onion sets. As a result of damage, the juicy scales of the onion sets wrinkle, and the bulbs dry out, therefore, when storing the onion sets, large waste is obtained. There are few ticks on the leaves during the growing season.
Control measures. One of the main measures to combat the garlic mite is to fumigate onion sets in the storage facility with sulfur dioxide (sulfur bombs are burned at the rate of 70 g of bricks per 1 m3). Sulfur dioxide has a detrimental effect on larvae and adult mites, but it is harmless to eggs. In the spring, before planting, the infected onion sets are effectively soaked in a 0.2% phosphamide solution for 30 minutes. After that, onion leaves (feathers) should not be eaten.
Onion sharpener damages onions and garlic, distributed mainly in the Krasnodar Territory, Rostov Region and the Ukrainian SSR.
The butterfly has a wingspan of 23-26 mm, the front wings are light brown with a brown pattern, the hind wings have a variegated fringe, the body is covered with hairs. Butterflies fly out in spring, females lay reddish, barrel-shaped eggs on the leaves at the base of the bulb. Caterpillars emerging from eggs, up to 24 mm long, reddish above, yellowish below, flat, with a yellow head, are drilled into the bulbs of garlic and onions and gnaw out large cavities inside.
Control measures. Agrotechnical measures are of great importance in the fight against onion sharpening: autumn plowing, crop rotations, harvesting all post-harvest residues from the field. During the flight of butterflies, the seed crops are effectively sprayed with 40% EC. phosphamide at the rate of 0.5-1 l per 1 ha. Against the larvae, it is effective to add granular 5% basudin (diazinon) to the soil in rows at a rate of 50 kg / ha. On individual sites, it is recommended to select the affected bulbs, and during the flight of butterflies, use deterrent agents: tobacco dust, ash, peat, naphthalene, which are sprinkled on the ground. It is better to mix naphthalene with sand in a 1: 1 ratio.